By pre-treatment of spinach chloroplasts with a high concentration of Tris buffer, 0.8M, pH 8. 0, oxygen evolution coupled with DPIP or ferricyanide photoreduction was inactivated only when the chloroplasts were incubated in the light, but not in the dark. This inactivation of the chloroplast reaction was not due to chemical decomposition of Tris, but was probably due to the photoinhibition as reported by others. The photoinhibition was protected by the addition of DPIP in either oxidized or reduced form.
Six different anthocyanins are contained in the flower of a morning glory cultivar (Ipomea Nil Roth.=Pharbitis Nil Chois. Scarlet O'Hara). It is surprising that all of them are pelargonidin glycosides and four of them are acylated. They were separated from one another by repeated masspaperchromatographic process, and obtained in purified pigment, respectively. Each pigment was subjected to total and partial hydrolysis, saponification, visible and UV spectroscopy, for characterization. Through these experiments, it was found that S2-anthocyanin is pelargonidin 3-diglucosido-5-glucoside (raphanusin), S3 and S4 are caffeoylraphanusin, S5 and S6 are p-coumaroyl-caffeoyl-raphanusin. Further investigation is necessary of S1-anthocyanin, which was, however, postulated to be tetraglucoside of pelargonidin (pelargonidin 3-diglucosido-5-diglucoside or pelargonidin 3-triglucosido-5-glucoside).
Structure and development of the ovule and seed of Euphorbia helioscopia have been investigated. The ovules are bitegminal, crassinucellar and anatropous. At the time of fertilisation the micropyle is filled with the elongated and richly cytoplasmic cells of the obturator. A well developed hypostase is present below the developing endosperm. The compressed hypostase persists in the fully mature seed. The endosperm development is of the Nuclear type. Enucleate cytoplasmic vesicles are frequently formed in the developing endosperm. Both the integuments contribute towards the formation of the seed coat. The outer tangential wall of the outer epidermal cells of the outer integument is arch-shaped provided with simple pits. The middle layer and the inner epidermal layer of this integument also persist. The sclereid zone of the seed coat is derived from the outer epidermis of the inner integument. The cells of the other layers of this integument degenerate. The mature seed is endospermic and carunculate. The embryo is of the Spatulate type.
Flavonoid glycosides in Adiantum capillus-veneris and A. cuneatum were investigated to see if any relation exists among the flavonoid patterns in the genus Adiantum. Identified flavonoids in A. capillus-veneris fronds were astragalin (kaempferol 3-glucoside), isoquercitrin (quercetin 3-glucoside), kaempferol 3-glucuronide, querciturone (quercetin 3-glucuronide), nicotiflorin (kaempferol 3-rhamnoglucoside) and rutin (quercetin 3-rhamno glucoside), but a flavanone and two flavonols were not identified. Astragalin, kaempferol 3-glucuronide and querciturone were found in A. cuneatum. Therefore these two species have three common flavonoid glycosides.
This paper deals with six strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, viz., two laboratory stock strains (S1, At2) and four strains (I, M, S2 and S3) which were isolated recently by the present author from crown galls on Sedum and Rosa. On these six strains, studies were made on their biochemical, tumor inducing and serological characteristics. Four strains (S1, At2, I and M) were not fermentative on simple sugars, while the remainning two (S2, S3) were markedly fermentative. When inoculated on Sedum alboroseum, three (S1, At2, I) of the non-fermentative strains showed an excellent ability of gall formation. These three strains were found to share most of their antigens in immune diffusion agar, so that they were considered to be antigenically homogeneous. The fermentative strains (S2, S3) and one (M) of the non-fermentative ones showed only a limited degree of gall formation and serological behaviors distinguishable from the former, tumor-inducing group. According to Bergey, the key to the classification of plant pathogens belonging to the genus Agrobacterium lies in nitrate reduction and indole reaction. In all of the six strains, the reaction for nitrate reduction was positive, but the indole reaction was shown to be negative altogether. In this respect, all the strains isolated must be assigned, according to Bergey, to the species gypsophilae rather than tumefaciens in the genus Agrobcaterium. However, some contradiction has been encountered between the Bergey's criterion of gypsophilae and the observation of the present pathogens in question. For the present, it seems that there is much to be improved in the classification of individual species in Agrobacterium. As one of the reliable characteristics, the immunochemical properties may be supplemented for this purpose because of a closer connection with the infectivity of these pathogenic microbes. The experiments were made with caution along this line, and the availability of the results was discussed.