Several carbohydrates of low molecular weight were isolated from the fronds of Serraticardia maxima, a calcareous red alga, using mainly carbon-Celite column and cellulose column chromatography. They were crystallized and identified by various physical and chemical methods as floridoside, α, α-trehalose, and laminitol; their contents being 0.9%, 0.4% and 0.1% on a dry weight basis, respectively. Furthermore, maltose, isofloridoside, mannitol and other several unknown substances were detected by paper chromatography in the ethanolic extracts from this alga. On the contrary, sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose, which are widely distributed in green algae as well as in higher plants, could not be found.
The mesocotyls of 71 grass species of 56 genera have been examined anatomically. The mesocotyl can be separated into two types, the Avena and Zea types, the main difference of which is related to the vascular bundle system. These two types are directly connected with the structure of the vascular system in the embryo and apparently very significant for the systematics of grasses.
1. A water soluble chlorophyllase was obtained from tea sprouts by extraction with water or phosphate buffer. 2. Homogenates of fresh leaves were fractionated by successive centrifugations at 10, 000×g, 40, 000×g and 100, 000×g, chlorophyllase was mainly recovered, in the case of young leaves, in the supernatant of 100, 000×g centrifugation, while in old leaves in the precipitate of 10, 000×g centrifugation. 3. The chlorophyll content and chlorophyllase activity of tea leaves were determined monthly from sprouting stage (May) through a year. The chlorophyll content increased gradually from May to September, while the chlorophyllase activity was highest in May and thereafter decreased rapidly.
As a result of our morphological study on Pseudogloiophloea okamurai, the following characteristics are described: 1) Thallus structure is of the so-called fountaintype. 2) The outermost layer of the thallus consists of large non-colored vesicular cells and small colored cells. 3) The plant is unisexual. 4) The male reproductive organ (spermatangium) is borne terminally on a cortical filament arising from a medullary filament. 5) Spermatangia are scattered in groups over the surface of the thallus, resulting in a patched appearance. 6) The female reproductive organ (carpogonium) is borne terminally on a cell of a cortical filament near the surface, close to the growing point. The initial of a carpogonial branch is generally formed between the bases of forked branches. 7) The carpogonial branch is three- celled prior to fertilization. 8) Prior to fertilization, the first cell of a carpogonial branch cuts off sterile cells which, after fertilization, give rise to branched filaments forming a pericarp. 9) The second cell of a carpogonial branch (the cell below the carpogonium) undergoes vertical cell divisions prior to fertilization and gives rise to four hypogynous cells. 10) After fertilization, the carpogonium becomes reduced in size and content, resulting in a faded appendage on one of the hypogynous cells. On the other hand, the four hypogynous cells increase both in size and content, resulting in much enlarged bodies, which are probably involved in nutrition of the zygote nucleus. 11) The gonimoblast initial is produced from the faded carpogonium. The portion from which the initial is cut off is closest to the hypogynous cell connected with the carpogonium. 12) The gonimoblasts produce carposporangia terminally, which are in chain of 2-4 cells. 13) Carpospores are spherical, measuring 8-10μ in diameter, and undergo germination of the “indirect filamentous type”.
Karyological studies were made on 2 species belonging to the genus Salvinia, of which the chromosome numbers are as follows; S. natans 2n=18, S. cucullata 2n=45. The somatic chromosome complements of S. natans can be morphologically divided into 9pairs, and those of S. cucullata can be divided into 9 groups which correspond to the 9pairs in S. natans. Meiosis is regular in S. natans, but irregular in S. cucullata, because of the chromosomes being univalents to tetravalents at metaphase I, and many lagging chromosomes at anaphase II. Therefore, the basic number of the genus Salvinia can be considered to be x=9, and S. cucullata can be considered to be an allopentaploid plant.