From the wood of Prunus tomentosa, d-catechin and a coumarin glycoside have been isolated. The structure of the latter compound has been found to be 5-hydroxy 6, 7-dimenthoxycoumarin 5-O-glucoside. Coumarin synthesizing ability could not be detected in the wood of other species belonging to the subgenus Cerasus.
When a calcareous red alga, Serraticardia maxima (Ohoshikoro) was illuminated in sea water containing H14CO-3, floridoside, floridean starch and trehalose that are major soluble carbohydrates in this alga were rapidly labelled in this order. During the dark culture following the illumination in sea water free of radiocarbon, the radioactivities and the absolute quantities of floridoside and trehalose remained almost unchanged while those of floridean starch were markedly decreased. On the other hand, feeding experiments with 14C-floridoside and 14C-trehalose on chopped algal fronds revealed that these carbohydrates were rapidly interconvertible in the intact cells. Moreover, the analysis of Ca14CO3 deposited in cell wall during the feeding of the fronds with 14C-floridoside and 14C-trehalose indicated that these carbohydrates were rapidly consumed by respiration of the cells. From these results, it was concluded that these carbohydrates are storage products and in particular, floridoside and floridean starch seem to play similar physiological roles to sucrose and starch in higher plants, respectively. A small amount of laminitol was foundin this red alga, but the cyclitol appears to be an inert product.
Viola kitamiana Nakai (1928) is hitherto known to be endemic to the Shiretoko Peninsula, northeast Hokkaido, Japan. Nakai classified this species in the sect. Nomimium-subsect. Campylostylae, based on the shape of its stigma. He also noticed of its general habit being so much alike to Viola crassa Makino of the sect. Dischidium. Later V. kitamiana was regarded to belong to the sect. Dischidium and by some authors as a variety of V. crassa of the same section. From our investigation, we found that there are some marked differences between V. kitamiana and V. crassa. The similarity of the habit of these species can be ascribed to their similar habitats. Though they are so much alike to each other in the character of rhizomes and especially of leaves in their texture, anatomical structure, colour, and serrations etc., the shape of leaves and the stipules, the shape and size of stomata are different. On the whole the leaves of V. kitamiana are triangular and shallowly cordate at the base, but in V. crassa they are almost depressed orbicular and more deeply cordate (Figs. 1, 2, 13-14, 3; Table 2). The stipules of V. kitamiana are smaller and crenate-dentate on margin, but in V. crassa the stipules are larger and almost entire. In the former, the stomata are often grouped in a pair or a trio measuring in average 35.7×20.6μ; those in the latter are larger and scattered, measuring 42.8×25.7μ (Table 3). V. kitamiana has always a single scaly leaf at the base of stem, while in V. crassa it is rarely found (Figs. 1a; 2A 18-19). The size of pollen grains and seeds show also certain quantitative differences. In the former pollen grains are mostly 24-27×23-24μ in size, but in the latter they are 36-37×32-33μ (Figs. 2A, B, 7-8). Seeds are on an average 2.2×1.5mm in the former: 2.5×1.9mm in the latter (Figs. 2A, B, 11-12). It is especially noteworthy that the shape of stigma of V. kitamiana differs entirely from that of V. crassa (Figs. 2A, B, 9). On this basis we can not regard this species to belong to the sect. Dischidium. As to the true systematic position of Viola kitamiana we would like to report in our forthcoming paper.
Karyological studies were made on Japanese ferns of 4 taxa belonging to the Polypodiaceae. These chromosome numbers are as follows; Lemmaphyllum microphyllum var. microphyllum 2n=72, L. microphyllum var. obovata 2n=72, Pyrrosialinearifolia 2n=72, P. lingua 2n=72. Karyotype analysis were made on 3 taxa. Each of the chromosome complement can be divided morphologically into 6 (A-F) types, and each type can be further divided into 2 groups. Therefore, the basic number (b) in this study can be considered to be 12. Relation between b=12 and b=11 in ferns is discussed. As found in 2 genera (Hymenophyllum and Mecodium) of Hymenophyllaceae (Tatuno and Takei10) b=11 may have derived from b=12, as found in the genus Lemmaphyllum and Pyrrosia of Polypodiaceae.