The ripe berries of Cayratia japonica get a dark purple color in late autumn. It was shown paper-chromatographically that their pericarp contains a single anthocyanin, which was obtained in an amorphous state. The pigment was an acylated anthocyanin which was degraded into three components, delphinidin, glucose and p-coumaric acid, by complete acid hydrolysis. The deacylated anthocyanin was different from each of the known delphinidin glucosides such as 3-monoglucoside, delphin (3, 5-diglucoside) and eichhornin (3-diglucoside). This new anthocyanin, cayratinin, has proved to be delphinidin 3-p-coumaroylsophorosid-5-monoglucoside by the analytical procedures of oxidative degradation with hydrogen peroxide, partial hydrolysis with dilute acid, and u. v. absorption spectrophotometry. Besides, eichhornin which was previously described as delphinidin 3-diglucoside was shown to be 3-gentiobioside in the present experiment.
Ten species of the Cyperaceae from Ceylon were taxonomically discussed as a part of preliminary revision of the family toward a new Flora of Ceylon. The genera included in this treatment are: Cyperus, Carex, Fimbristylis and Hypolytrum. The two new species proposed are: Carex lankana and Fimbristylis zeylanica, Taxonomic discussions were made with a special emphasis in referring to the specimens housed in the Peradeniya Herbarium (PDA). In spite of richness in type and other important historical collections the specimens in Peradeniya have never been critically examined since Trimen's Handbook (1893-1900).
Fronds of a calcareous red alga Serraticardia maxima were cultured in the sea water containing H14CO3- or both H14CO3- and 45Ca++ in the ight and in the dark, and radioactivities incorporated into calcium carbonate deposited were determined. It was found that the rate of calcium carbonate deposition was accelerated in the light to an extent of 2-4times as that in the dark. On the basis of the data from pyruvate-U-14C infiltration experiment and from measurement of the respiration rate of algal fronds, carbon dioxide originated from the respiration was found to contribute rather slightly to calcium carbonate deposition. Most of the carbon of calcium carbonate was derived from carbonic ions in sea water. An exchange reaction between the calcium carbonate deposited and the calcium and carbonic ion in sea water was observed in both intact and boiled fronds. It was found that the exchange reaction is much higher in the latter than in the former.
Karyological studies were made on seven species of Aspidiaceae. The somatic chromosome numbers of these species were found to be as follows: Matteucciaorientalis 2n=80, Athyrium niponicum 2n=80, Woodsia polystichoides 2n=82, Diplaziumesculentum 2n=82, D. wichurae 2n=82, D. dilatatum 2n=82, 123, Diplaziopsiscavaleriana 2n=164. The chromosome number of Diplaziopsis cavaleriana was determined for the first time, and for Diplazium dilatatum intraspecific polyploidy was observed. Karyotype analysis were made on two species of Diplazium (D. esculentum, D. wichurae) and one species of Matteuccia (M. orientalis). Each of the chromosome complements of these three species can be divided morphologically into six (A-F) types and furthermore, each type can be divided into two groups except for F type. Each group of the types B-F consists of eight chromosomes. From these observations, the primary basic number for these three species can be considered to be b=11, and these may originate from octaploid. Therefore, the genus Diplazium can be considered to possess chromosomes of 2n=82, eliminating three pairs of A type, and the genus Matteuccia, to possess 2n=80, eliminating four pairs of A type.