The ripe berries of Cayratia japonica get a dark purple color in late autumn. It was shown paper-chromatographically that their pericarp contains a single anthocyanin, which was obtained in an amorphous state. The pigment was an acylated anthocyanin which was degraded into three components, delphinidin, glucose and p-coumaric acid, by complete acid hydrolysis. The deacylated anthocyanin was different from each of the known delphinidin glucosides such as 3-monoglucoside, delphin (3, 5-diglucoside) and eichhornin (3-diglucoside). This new anthocyanin, cayratinin, has proved to be delphinidin 3-p-coumaroylsophorosid-5-monoglucoside by the analytical procedures of oxidative degradation with hydrogen peroxide, partial hydrolysis with dilute acid, and u. v. absorption spectrophotometry. Besides, eichhornin which was previously described as delphinidin 3-diglucoside was shown to be 3-gentiobioside in the present experiment.
Ten species of the Cyperaceae from Ceylon were taxonomically discussed as a part of preliminary revision of the family toward a new Flora of Ceylon. The genera included in this treatment are: Cyperus, Carex, Fimbristylis and Hypolytrum. The two new species proposed are: Carex lankana and Fimbristylis zeylanica, Taxonomic discussions were made with a special emphasis in referring to the specimens housed in the Peradeniya Herbarium (PDA). In spite of richness in type and other important historical collections the specimens in Peradeniya have never been critically examined since Trimen's Handbook (1893-1900).
Fronds of a calcareous red alga Serraticardia maxima were cultured in the sea water containing H14CO3- or both H14CO3- and 45Ca++ in the ight and in the dark, and radioactivities incorporated into calcium carbonate deposited were determined. It was found that the rate of calcium carbonate deposition was accelerated in the light to an extent of 2-4times as that in the dark. On the basis of the data from pyruvate-U-14C infiltration experiment and from measurement of the respiration rate of algal fronds, carbon dioxide originated from the respiration was found to contribute rather slightly to calcium carbonate deposition. Most of the carbon of calcium carbonate was derived from carbonic ions in sea water. An exchange reaction between the calcium carbonate deposited and the calcium and carbonic ion in sea water was observed in both intact and boiled fronds. It was found that the exchange reaction is much higher in the latter than in the former.