Nine major flavonoids were detected in scarlet petals of a dahlia cultivar, “Alice”. Among these flavonoids, the two pigments were crystallized from ethanolic extracts, and identified as pelargonin and butein.
Microscopical observations showed that two types of bluing exist in the petals of red rose, the one being due to the presence of bluish spherule in epidermal cells, and the other to the cell sap of bluish tinge. The present paper deals with some cytochemical tests for the bluing of the former type. The color of the spherule changed from blue into red upon treatment with hydrochloric acid, showing that the anthocyanin is its pigment component. In epidermal cells decolorized by 1% methanolic hydrochloric acid or Kaiser's solution, the spherule was stained brown with chromic acid, greenish blue with ferric chloride, blue with methylen blue or toluidine blue. These color reactions are indicative of a tannin-like ground substance in the spherule. This colorless substance may be stained red with cyanin, and blue with a mixture of cyanin and ferric salt. As a consequence, it becomes quite plausible that the blueness of the spherule may be brought about by synergistic effect of at least three components, cyanin, tannin-like substance and iron.
Hedychium, a scitaminaceous genus of Ginger lilies known for its sweet smelling ornamental flowers, is distributed and primarily cultivated in East Asia. The lack of cold hardiness has been one of the important factors for its restricted cultivation outside its native habitat. The present study on 7 species together with other published information indicate that the basic number of genus is x=17 and polyploidy and aneuploidy are common both at inter- and intraspecific levels. Based on the level of ploidy, the species and garden cultivars can be classified into three groups, namely 2x, 3x and 4x.
In Erigeron sumatrensis, Impatiens balsamina and Brassica campestris ssp. nipposinica, the percentage of the cathodic prophyll, calculated from a lot of lateral branches of the same genetic number, is more than seventy at the main part of the shoot, and it fluctuates weakly with the successive genetic number of the branch. It was proved by correlogram analysis that the percentage fluctuations of the cathodic prophyll on the successive branches are not a real random fluctuation, but are of a periodic nature in most cases. These facts suggest us that the prophyll position is determined by two kinds of factors, one of which, of course, induces the prophyll to occur mostly on the cathodic side and the other giving the periodic effect to the determination of the prophyll position. In an erect shoot of Eurya japonica, which shows a spiral phyllotaxy, the variations of prophyll position are also periodic, when branches are traced in the genetic sequence. In this case the prophyll position seems to be determined by the periodic factor alone for the reason that both types of prophyll, the anodic and the cathodic, are found in the equal frequency on one shoot, contrary to the cases of the species mentioned above. The period in successive variations of prophyll position was revealed by the correlogram as 2.62 nodes in the case of Erigeron. This value of the period corresponds just to one rotation of the phyllotactic spiral, then a definite phase of each period comes always on one lateral side of the shoot. This fact suggests that some environmental factors (e. g., sun-light effect) may induce the periodic variation of prophyll position. In the cases of Impatiens and Brassica, however, the period corresponds to more than one rotation of the phyllotactic spiral, so that the phase differences of the period occur on one lateral side of the shoot. In this case, it is not easy to look for any environmental factor which induces the periodic variations of prophyll position.