Flavonoid glycosides in the fronds of Dennstaedtia wilfordii were isolated to study the flavonoid pattern of the genus Dennstaedtia. The fronds contained pinocembrin 7-rhamnoglucoside (III), pinocembrin 7-glucoside (II), isoquercitrin (VII) and astragalin (V). Among them pinocembrin 7-rhamnoglucoside (III) was obtained as crystal and the sugar component was confirmed as neohesperidose (VIII) by NMR, enzymic hydrolysis and chromatographic behaviors. Other flavonoids were identified by paper and thin layer chromatography. The flavonoid pattern of D. wilfordii was different from that of the four species belonging to the genus Adiantum, which had been already reported.
The sexual and asexual reproduction, development and cytology of a marine alga, Anadyomene wrightii have been studied by culture experiments. The plants produced and liberated swarmers at 23°, 2500lux, 14hr light, 10hr dark condition. There are three types of plants; one is sporophyte, producing quadriflagellate zoospores and the other two are male and female gametophytes, forming biflagellate isogametes. These three plants are superficially similar and can not be distinguished from one another. The gametes from the same thallus do not fuse, but the copulation takes place between those from thalli of different sex. The mode of the germination of zoospores is similar to those of the zygotes. It is of the so-called “Typus filamentosus immediatus”. showing bipolar nature. The method of septation of the germlings is not of the segregation, but of the centripetal formation. The somatic chromosome number of germlings derived from the zoospores is 12- 15, and those derived from the zygotes is 25-30. The shape of zoospore and gamete, the mode of germination, the type of the alternation of generations and the manner of septum formation, all support the circumscription that the Anadyomenaceae is a taxon belonging to the Cladophorales.
Effects of temperature and growth regulating substances on flowering of Pharbitis nil (strain Violet) were studied under long day conditions of 16 hours light. 1. Plants grown at 22° and treated with N-3-chlorophenyl-N'-phenylurea (CP) and N-3-nitrophenyl-N'-phenylurea (NP) ** in 1mg/l developed flower buds on the main stem in 33.3 and 46.6% plants respectively, while control plants produced a few flower buds only on axillary stems. 2. Plants grown at 27° and 5° for 15 and 9 hours respectively under 16 hours light produced flower buds on the main stem in all the plants. Exposure to low temperature (5°) was given during the first part of the light period. Treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3) in 100mg/l produced flower buds at lower nodes than the control plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) and Indoleacetic acid (IAA) showed similar but less effect. 3. When grown at a temperature of 27° (15 hours) and 17° (9 hours) under 16 hours light, treatment with CP, NP, GA3, IAA, ABA and kinetin (K) did not produce flower bud on the main stem but produced some flower buds on axillary stems. Maximum percentage of plants setting flower buds were recorded by treatment with CP in 10mg/l.
No alcohol was detected in new and old seeds of Nelumbo, while old seeds contained small amounts of alcohol in three other species. Seeds of Nelumbo, rice and wheat were incubated at 35° in syringes filled with boiled distilled water, and the amounts of alcohol and CO2 produced were measured. Nelumbo seed showed more active metabolism than the other two. The total amount of CO2 produced was more than the theoretical amount to be expected from the usual alcoholic fermentation. These facts may be mainly due to the previous observation that some redox substances participate in the anaerobic respiration.
The effect of temporary wind mixing of water on the primary productivity was examined in Lake Harutoriko, a coastal meromictic lake in Hokkaido, just before and after the typhoon. The water in a column above the chemocline was evenly mixed by the typhoon and the primary production was significantly stimulated. Nutrient rich water in the upper anoxic zone was shifted up into oxic zone by stirring, and it accerelated the primary production of this lake.