In commemorating the 40th anniversary of Japanese Society of Biorheology, studies on food texture, oral processing, and the relation between microstructure and macroscopic properties of biomacromolecules are overviewed. To contribute some problems in the aged society where the number of persons with the difficulty in mastication and deglutition is increasing, preparation of test solutions to judge the risk of aspiration, evaluation of rheological properties of gels by artificial tongue and related problems are discussed. The studies on the relation between the structure and rheological properties are also reviewed taking an example of the rheological modification by alginate short chains, lactobacillus microencapsulation by alginate, structural rearrangement in gels of gellan, pectin and milk proteins. Relation between structure and properties of β-lactoglobulin, hyaluronan, schizophyllan, dietary fibre, and microrheology of mucin, gellan, agarose, methylcelullose and xanthan have been described. Research agendas which should be studied further, the relation between the instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation, collaboration among different disciplines are proposed.