Backgrounds: Evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of the health instruction for students' affective domain is limited because the research about health instruction, especially examination students' affective domain is a few.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors for teaching better affective domain from the teaching methods and the students' attitude.
Methods: In 2015, we conducted an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey of 187 primary school children, 405 junior high school students, and 305 high school students. Survey items consisted of students' affective domain related to health instruction (16 items), teaching methods (13 items), and students' attitude (9 items). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to clarify the factor structure of each variable, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to confirm the fitness of the model. Additionally, multilevel analysis was performed to clarify the relationship of each variable.
Results: As a result of exploratory factor analysis, affective domain is three factors, teaching method is two factors, students' attitude is two factors. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the fitness of each model is enough (CFI=0.930～963). The results of multilevel analysis showed that devising the teaching method was associated with a better affective domain for the students (b=0.01～0.17). Furthermore, we examined the interaction between the teaching methods and the students' attitude. As a result, the interaction between good attitude and presentation method was significantly related to cognitive aspect, and the interaction between good attitude and presentation method, and between good attitude and audit and practice method was significantly related to behavioral aspect. Presentation methods may reduce the difference in cognitive aspect score and behavioral aspect score between good students and high students whose scores are not high. On the other hand, audit and practice methods may expand the behavioral aspect score gap between high students with high attitude scores and students without high attitude scores.
Conclusions: The student's better affective domain in health instruction and the device of teaching method were positively related.
Background: If high school students become pregnant, Yogo teachers are in a position to provide the students not only physical and mental support, but also support for continuation of study and career development. There are almost no studies, however, either on the physical and mental support or the educational support for pregnant high school students by Yogo teachers.
Objective: The purposes of this study were to elucidate the support for pregnant high school students by Yogo teachers and to examine what the support for such students should be.
Methods: Semi-structured interviews were given to seven Yogo teachers at full-time high schools in Prefecture A. During the interviews, the teachers were asked to describe a case in which they supported a pregnant high school student. The qualitative-descriptive analyses were conducted on the cases.
Results: The support for pregnant high school students by the Yogo teachers was based on their “daily nursing activities through which they can gain students' trust." During the first consultation, the teachers attempted to “pave the way for connecting students to their important persons promptly" and “assisted students in deciding for their own" by providing information on pregnancy, childbirth, childcare, and continuation of their studies. Furthermore, along with students' changes in the physical and mental conditions associated with pregnancy, abortion, and childbirth, the teachers provided the constant support that promoted “the acceptance of the physical and mental conditions associated with pregnancy." While the teachers collected information on the support capabilities of the students' partner and the family and “established collaborative systems with students' home and relevant out-of-school organizations," they “established support systems that minimized information sharing within schools" from the perspective of mother and child protection.
Conclusion: Regarding the support for pregnant high school students by Yogo teachers, it is important to promptly connect students to their important persons such as their mothers and partners, provide students all types of information on not only pregnancy but also the possibility of continuation of their studies, and provide both physical and mental support so that the students can decide for themselves while consulting with their important persons.