(Objective) In this study, we assessed the significance of complete dissection of the dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve during radical prostatectomy. (Patients and methods) Fifty-six patients undergoing open radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection for treatment of prostate cancer were included in this study. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and radiation therapy were not performed in any of the patients. First, pelvic lymph node dissection was performed between the external iliac vein and obturator nerve and classified as "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve". Then, the tissue located in the area between the obturator nerve and the surface of the obturator internus muscle was removed and classified as "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve". Both lymph nodes were meticulously examined by identical pathologist. Lymph node yields, lymph node positive rate, and the factors associated with lymph node metastasis were studied. (Results) Eight of the 56 patients had pelvic lymph node metastases (6 were high risk and 2 were intermediate risk according to the D'Amico's criteria). In the 8 node-positive patients, only 1 patient had positive lymph node in "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve" exclusively. Four patients had positive lymph node exclusively in "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve" and 3 patients had in both "ventral and dorsal lymph nodes of the obturator nerve". The total lymph node yields from "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve" and "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve" were 459 (8.2 per patient) and 117 (2.1 per patient), respectively. The total numbers of positive lymph nodes from "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve" and "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve" were 6 and 12, respectively. Lymph node positive rate was significantly higher in "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve" (10%) than "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve" (1.3%) (P<0.0001). The level of prostate-specific antigen (≥20 ng/ml), Gleason score sum at prostate biopsy (≥9), and lymph node yield (≥16) were associated with lymph node status on univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, only lymph node yield was associated with lymph node status. (Conclusions) Dorsal lymph nodes of the obturator nerve should be dissected completely during radical prostatectomy.
(Purpose) Since distigmine can cause the serious side effect of cholinergic crisis, its dosage regimen has been reduced to 5 mg/day for patients with difficulty in urination due to detrusor underactivity. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of add-on therapy with distigmine at 5 mg daily were examined in patients with persistent urination problems due to detrusor underactivity despite administration of α1-blockers. (Patients and methods) The subjects were 39 patients with underactive bladder (18 men and 21 women with an average age of 75 years) who showed no improvement of difficulty in urination or had a residual urine volume≥50 ml despite the administration of α1-blockers for more than 4 weeks. They received treatment with distigmine (5 mg daily after breakfast) in addition to their α1-blockers for 8 weeks. The international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality-of-life (QOL) score, residual urine volume, blood pressure, and biochemistry tests were investigated before and after addition of distigmine. (Results) After four and eight weeks of distigmine administration, all items of the IPSS and QOL score, as well as the residual urine volume, showed a significant decrease. In contrast, the pressure and pulse rate were unchanged. Serum creatinine showed a slight but significant decreased. As adverse events, frequent defecation, fecal incontinence, diarrhea, frequent urination and poor physical condition were recognized in 4 patients, but there was no serious event. (Conclusion) For difficulty in urination due to detrusor underactivity, the combination of an α1-blocker with distigmine at 5 mg daily showed early efficacy and good safety.
(Case 1) A 28-year-old woman visited a local medical doctor, complaining of abdominal pain, urinary frequency and a sense of residual urine. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lower abdominal extraperitoneal tumor, approximately 5 cm in diameter, adjacent to the bladder dome. It was thought to be a urachal tumor, and she was referred to our hospital. A hard hen's egg-sized mass was palpable in the lower abdomen. Urinary analysis was normal. Cytological examination was also negative. Cystoscopy revealed redness in the bladder dome mucosa. Although the preoperative diagnosis was a urachal cancer, the pathological diagnosis on surgery was desmoids, and tumor excision was performed. No recurrence has been seen for 7 years postoperatively. (Case 2) A 71-year-old man complaining of swelling of the lower abdomen was referred to our department because he was suspected to have a urachal tumor, of about 15 cm in diameter, on computed tomography. A hard infant head-sized mass was palpable in the lower abdomen. Urinary analysis was normal. Cystoscopical examination showed a markedly compressed bladder dome, however, no abnormal findings were seen in the mucosa. Although the preoperative diagnosis was a urachal tumor, the intraoperative pathological diagnosis revealed no malignancy. The mass was connected to the bladder dome, and partial cystectomy was conducted. The final pathological diagnosis was a solitary fibrous tumor. No recurrence has been seen for 5 years postoperatively. Because a urachal tumor is highly malignant, radical cystectomy and urinary diversion might be planned preoperatively. However, care should be taken not to be too invasive, considering the possibility of a benign tumor.
A 76-year-old diabetic woman was referred to our hospital with an episode of high fever and sub-abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis revealed gas accumulation within the lumen and wall of the bladder and CT of the abdomen demonstrated bubbles in the inferior vena cava. She recovered by urinary drainage and antibiotic therapy. Urinary culture revealed Escherichia coli. CT after the therapy didn't demonstrate gas accumulation of the bladder and bubbles in the inferior vena cava. Emphysematous urinary tract infections (UTIs) have the high fatality rate, it seems to be a possibility that venous bubbles with emphysematous UTIs contribute to the high fatality rate such as air embolisms. It was suspected that bacterial injury of the bladder wall and high vesical pressure caused by urinary outlet obstruction such as neurogenic bladder lead gas translocation into the venous system. Six previous cases of emphysematous UTIs (three emphysematous cystitis cases and three emphysematous pyelonephritis cases) with venous bubbles have been reported to this day. Our case is seems to be the fourth case report that venous bubbles with emphysematous cystitis was demonstrated.
A 29-year-old man with gender identify disorder presented to our hospital complaining of scrotal pain. Two hours before the consultation, he tried to do self-castration by himself, but he stopped due to bleeding and scrotal pain. His testes were not removed, and his scrotal wound was closed at the emergency operation under spinal anesthesia. After the operation, he never repeated the same act.