(Objectives) We retrospectively evaluated characteristics of T1 high-grade bladder cancer in patients in our hospitals. (Patients and methods) Data was reviewed from 134 patients who were diagnosed with T1 high-grade bladder cancer and who underwent transurethral resection (TUR) in our hospitals between January 2006 and December 2012. The clinical course for each patient, the recurrence and progression rates, and the risk factors for recurrence and progression were evaluated. (Results) The median follow-up was 31.5months. A second TUR was performed in 55 patients (41.0%), and showed 32 cases of residual tumor (58.2%) and 4 cases of upstaging (7.3%). The recurrence rate was 41.5%. The risk factors for recurrence were (1) no muscle obtained in initial TUR, (2) no BCG, and (3) no second TUR. The progression rate was 10.5%; no significant risk factors were identified for progression. Within the T1 high-grade bladder cancer cohort, a total of 31 patients underwent radical cystectomy (RC). When we graphed cancer-specific survival (CSS) curves stratified by pathological T stage at the time of RC, and then compared findings from the upstage group (greater than pT2) and the non-upstage group (less than pT2), the CSS rate was significantly higher in the non-upstage group (p=0.0027). (Conclusion) No muscle in initial TUR, no BCG, and no second TUR are factors associated with recurrence of T1 high-grade bladder cancer. Further investigation is needed for preventing recurrence and progression and for improving survival following radical cystectomy in T1 high-grade bladder cancer.
(Objectives) We report on the treatment trends and outcomes for prostate cancer in our clinic retrospectively, and compared our data with the domestic clinical mass study for prostate cancer. We then validated the legitimacy of our selected therapy for prostate cancer. (Patients and methods) Eight hundred and eighteen patients at our clinic had histologically confirmed adenocarcinomas of the prostate between January, 2000 and January, 2013. (Results) The age distribution was from 47 to 100 years-old, with a median age of 72 years-old at diagnosis. Clinical TNM staging indicated that 301 cases (36.8%) were stage I, 303 cases (37.0%) were stage II, 101 cases (12.3%) were stage III and 113 cases (13.8%) were stage IV. Three hundred and fifty two cases (43.0%) received some form of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Retropubic prostatectomy (RPX) or radiation therapy (RT), including external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy, was performed in 242 (29.6%) and 136 (16.6%) cases, respectively. The median overall survival was 56.3 months and the respective cause specific 5 year and 10 year survival rates of the 818 cases were 92.0% and 77.8%. Respectively, they were 100% and 100% for T1, 98.7% and 97.4% for T2, 90.7% and 38.5% for T3, and 60.8% and 38.9% for T4. JUA (Japanese Urological Association) Cancer Registration Statistics includes 11,385 eligible cases of prostate cancer, and had the same distribution and the same therapy trends as our data base. NUORG (Nara Uro-oncological Research Group), the data base of 2,303 prostate cancer patients, and our clinical study had the same distribution of D'Amico risk groups. Finally we validated JCAP (Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer) recommended J-CAPRA scores in our prostate cancer patients who received primary androgen deprivation therapies. Progression free survival and cause specific survival were related to J-CAPRA scores. (Discussion/Conclusion) The Japanese prostate cancer patients have higher prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, higher Gleason score and higher clinical stage than the US patients. The higher rate of primary androgen deprivation therapy is characteristic for the Japanese patients.
(Objective) Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is generally performed by either a transperitoneal approach (TA) or a retroperitoneal approach (RA). However, the optimal selection criteria for each approach are unclear. We investigated the factors affecting the safety of laparoscopic adrenalectomy to evaluate the optimal criteria for each approach. (Patients and methods) In total, 149 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy from February 1994 to July 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed TA for 75 tumors in 73 patients and RA for 78 tumors in 76 patients. Patient characteristics and operative outcomes were compared between the two groups. Furthermore, operative outcomes in patients with some surgical risks were specifically compared between the two approaches. (Results) Patient characteristics were similar between the two groups, although the patients in the RA group were significantly older than those in the TA group. Four patients with a large pheochromocytoma in the TA group had excessive blood loss and one of them was given blood transfusion. However, there was no difference in intraoperative blood loss (p=0.091). The other serious adverse events were not observed. (Conclusions) The present findings suggest that both RA and TA can be effective surgical strategies, with close attention to large pheochromocytoma to avoid excessive hemorrhage.
(Purpose) The guidelines on adrenal hemorrhage has not established in Japan. In this article, we discuss the management of adrenal hemorrhage. (Objects and methods) We experienced 6 patients from November 2004 to September 2013 in The University of Tokyo Hospital and The Fraternity Memorial Hospital, and we searched 57 cases already reported in Japan by using Japan Medical Abstracts Society (http://search.jamas.or.jp/). So we analyzed total 63 adrenal hemorrhage cases in japan. (Results) In 63 cases, 5 cases were performed TAE, 3 cases were performed emergent surgeries, 13 cases were managed conservatively and elective surgeries were performed in the other cases. 5 cases were fulfilled criteria for Hb <10g/dl and the maximum diameter of the hematoma >10cm. Of 5 cases, 4 cases were performed emergent hemostasis. (Conclusions) Adrenal hemorrhages caused by metastatic tumor tend to be serious anemia. In addition, the most patients with adrenal hemorrhages, who had Hb <10 g/dl and the maximum diameter of the hematoma >10cm, required immediate medical treatment, e.g. TAE or surgical hemostasis.
Undifferentiated carcinoma of ureter is rare neoplastic lesion, and the natural history of undifferentiated carcinoma of ureter has not been known well yet. We hereby presented an autopsy case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the ureter with rapid progression from the initial stage. A 62-year-old male visited the local urologist complaining of asymptomatic gross hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed the outflow of hematuria from the right ureteral orifice. Abdominal CT showed the right hydronephrosis with atrophic change of the renal parenchyma and the stenosis of upper ureter. He was referred to our hospital on suspicion of a right ureteral tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging and retrograde ureterography did not reveal a tumor in the right ureter. He complained of low back pain 4 months after the initial hematuria, and CT revealed the diffuse enlargement of the right kidney, swelling of the abdominal lymph nodes, and lung nodules. Renal biopsy was done, and only undifferentiated cells were revealed histopathologically without any specific findings to diagnose the primary organ. The tumor increased progressively, and he died about 6 months after the initial gross hematuria. Autopsy was performed, and urothelial carcinoma was found in the right ureter as the primary lesion. The ureteral tumor infiltrated to the right kidney, right adrenal gland, liver, duodenum, and pancreas with undifferentiation. Undifferentiated tumor cells were also found in distant metastatic lesion including the abdominal lymph nodes, left adrenal gland, liver, lung, pleura, and peritoneum.
We report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the ureter in a 82-year-old woman. She was admitted to our hospital with right hydronephrosis. A computed tomography (CT) and retrograde pyelography (RP) showed a solid tumor at right ureter with right hydronephrosis and 3cm solid tumor on the right abdominal wall. She underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and excision of abdominal subcutaneous tumor. Pathological diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma with sarcomatoid variant, pT3, grade3 and abdominal wall metastasis. Other metastasis occured in left kidney and ileum about 1 month after the operation, and then she underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and ileocecal resection. The histopathological diagnosis was sarcomatoid carcinoma with positive staining for granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The paient died of multiple metastases 5 months after first operation. As far as we know, this is the first report of G-CSF producing infiltrating sarcomatoid carcinoma of the ureter in Japanese paper.
Disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow with urothelial carcinoma in a 75-year-old man: A case study. A 75-year-old-man had first medical examination due to gross hematuria. The imaging study and cystoscopy revealed left ureteral and bladder tumor. The patient was referred for a laparoscopic assisted left nephroureterectomy and transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR-Bt). Pathological findings included urothelial carcinoma, high grade, both a pT3 ureteral tumor and a pTa bladder tumor. The patient received 2 courses of gemcitabine and cisplatin and 1 course of methotrexate, epirubicin and nedaplatin as adjuvant chemotherapy. TUR-Bt was performed twice due to recurrence in the bladder and similar pathological findings. The patient received intravesical instillation of pirarubicin (THP 30 mg in 30 mL of saline) to prevent recurrence in the bladder, but discontinued in the 3rd time because of gross hematuria. The patient was then admitted to our hospital due to gross hematuria, general fatigue, and abnormal findings in the blood analysis. On admission, pancytopenia was detected and the serum ALP level had increased to 30,266 IU/L. A biopsy and bone marrow aspiration were performed because a super bone scan image was obtained using a bone scintigram. Diffuse bone marrow metastasis of the urothelial carcinoma was observed in the pathological evaluations. Therefore, our diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma with disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow. Although treatment with zoledronic acid and blood transfusion were performed, the patient died 20 days after the admission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow with urothelial carcinoma.
A 39-year-old man was referred to our clinic for a 7 cm tumor in the right kidney, found by simple CT scan. It was suspected as renal cell carcinoma accompanying tumor emboli in the inferior vena cava by enhanced CT scan. For further evaluation of the tumor emboli, color Doppler ultrasound and enhanced MRI was performed. They showed a large cystic lesion with high velocity turbulent flow and flow voids in T2-weighted imaging, it seemed as giant venous aneurysm of the right renal vein. Subsequently, angiography revealed aneurysmal type renal arteriovenous fistula (AVF), transarterial embolization (TAE) of the arterial feeder with coils was performed on the same day. After 6 months from embolization, there was no recurrences or reinterventions. Color Doppler ultrasound and MRI are beneficial in distinguishing vascular disease from neoplastic disease which may sometimes mimick in other diagnostic imaging studies. In addition TAE seems to be an effective treatment for the AVF.
We report a case of a 64-year-old male with right pyonephrosis due to ureteral stones in association with chronic renal failure. The patient had been treated with hemodialysis for fourteen years. He was admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of Kurobe City Hospital with chief complaints of fever and lumbago in January 2013. CT demonstrated a right pyonephrosis accompanied by right ureteral stones positioned in the middle and lower ureter. The stones could not be detected by KUB. He was consequently referred to the Department of Urology. Firstly, percutaneous nephrostomy for the right kidney was performed, and 200 ml of pyuria was discharged at that time. Urine culture demonstrated Escherichia coli. Secondly, rigid transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) for the right ureteral stones was performed using Lithoclast, and a ureteral stent was indwelled on day 15 after nephrostomy construction. The nephrostomy catheter and ureteral stent were removed 10 and 21 days after the operation, respectively. The constituents of the stone were CaOx (26%) and CaP (74%). Right hydronephrosis improved and the patient showed no pyelonephritis for 1 year postoperatively.
A 87-year-old man received radical nephroureterectomy for right renal pelvic cancer in 2009 and left cutaneous ureterostomy after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in 2013. He visited the hospital for exchanging a 7 or 8 Fr single-J catheter every 2 to 4 weeks. Eleven months after the 2nd operation, massive bleeding from the stoma occurred when ureteral catheter was exchanged. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed that left inferior epigastric artery was located close to left ureter. Angiography of the left inferior epigastric artery didn't show an obvious fistula, but revealed the stoma was surrounded by ramified new blood vessels from left inferior epigastric artery. We suspected a rupture of the vessels and performed embolization for the branch of inferior epigastric artery to left ureter. This embolization made it possible for the bleeding to be controlled. Massive bleeding from the branch of inferior epigastric artery is very rare, and we report the case and review the literature.
A 71-year-old man was referred to our department due to inflammation in the right scrotum. A tumor in the right spermatic cord was suspected on palpation, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a 4-cm mass in the tail of the pancreas and a low-density lesion in the liver segment 6. In addition, the patient's serum level of CA19-9 was high, at 135.7 U/ml. We referred the patient to our institution's Department of Gastroenterology, where he was diagnosed as having a liver metastasis from pancreatic cancer. Despite three courses of gemcitabine and erlotinib combination therapy for pancreatic cancer, his serum level of CA19-9 increased to 744.0 U/ml, indicating no response to chemotherapy. Because uncontrollable pain developed in the right scrotum and right inguinal area during the course of treatment, inguinal orchiectomy was performed for pain management and pathological diagnosis. Careful examination revealed a hard, whitish tumor occupying the right spermatic cord and extending from the epididymis to the internal inguinal ring. Because a palpable mass in the peritoneum near the internal inguinal ring was detected, part of the peritoneum was resected concurrently. Pathological findings were remarkable with spermatic cord metastasis and peritoneal dissemination from pancreatic cancer. Pain subsided postoperatively and no analgesics were needed. Pancreatic cancer accompanied by spermatic cord metastasis and peritoneal dissemination is extremely rare. Surgical resection in the present case provided effective treatment of the intractable pain due to spermatic cord metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the 14th case reported in Japan of spermatic cord metastasis from pancreatic cancer as a primary cancer.