Two patients with late recurrence of renal cell carcinoma were observed long term without treatment. Case 1 is an 83-year-old woman who underwent right nephrectomy at 57 years of age following a renal tumor diagnosis. Histopathological results revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma, G2, pT1aN0M0. Pancreatic metastasis developed at age 71, and pancreatic tail excision was performed. A metastatic lesion appeared again at the head of the pancreas at age 74. The patient has been followed by observation only for 9 years without any new lesions. Tumor doubling time calculated from abdominal ultrasonography was 13.3 months.
Case 2 is a 91-year-old male. At 78 years of age, right nephrectomy and inferior vena cava tumor embolectomy were performed for renal tumor. Histopathological results revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma, G2, pT3bN0M0. Left adrenal metastasis appeared at age 84, and the patient has been followed for 7 years without new lesions. Tumor doubling time calculated from abdominal computed tomography (CT) images was 14.1 months.
In both patients, no symptoms due to tumor recurrence ever appeared, and their activities of daily living (ADL) were maintained fairly well. In the case of solitary late recurrence in elderly renal cancer patients, observation may be a treatment option that avoids adverse effects and complications caused by treatment. In addition, it appears possible to predict the need for subsequent treatment by calculating the doubling time using several sequential CT images obtained after recurrence. If a new recurrent metastatic lesion appears or if the doubling time during a 2-to 3-year follow-up period is relatively short, however, new treatment should be considered without delay.
A 9-month-old boy, having a history of cardiac surgery in neonatal period, was referred to our department for evaluation of genital anomalies. The antenatal course was uneventful, except for unknown gender. His family history was unremarkable. He was delivered at full term, and his birth weight was 3,510 g. Physical examination revealed proximal hypospadias and a non-palpable testis on the left side. Chromosome studies showed a normal male karyotype with positive SRY. At the age of 14 months, he underwent hypospadias repair. Three months later, left testicular exploration was performed along with orchidopexy of an ascending testis on the contralateral side. As nothing was found through an inguinal incision on the left side, laparoscopy was indicated. Laparoscopic observation revealed a small dark reddish mass cranially connected to the left hypoplastic testis that was located high in the left iliac fossa. The epididymis and vas deference looked abnormal, and detachment to the testis was apparent. Testicular vessels were undifferentiated from the mass. Therefore, the left testis was excised with the mass. Histopathological examination confirmed the testis and spleen tissue, and the diagnosis of splenogonadal fusion was made postoperatively.
A 66-year-old man with buttock pain and intermittent claudication visited a nearby doctor. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor of 8 cm in diameter in his sacrum. He was referred to our hospital. Abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography revealed a small mass of 2.5 cm in diameter on his left kidney and he was diagnosed with metastatic bone disease after needle tumor biopsy. However, needle biopsy of the renal tumor demonstrated no evidence of malignancy. As he rejected further examination, we started treatment using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. However, it had little effect on his sacral metastasis and he developed massive bowel bleeding twice. Extensive invasion from the sacral metastasis to the back side of the rectum was found on colonoscopy. The patient died 2 months after the introduction of sunitinib. The final diagnosis based on pathological autopsy was renal cell carcinoma with sacral metastasis.
Left polyorchidism was found in a 2-month-old boy with a left scrotal mass. As he was asymptomatic and all testes were in the scrotum, he was conservatively followed up. At 17 years of age, he presented with left acute scrotum due to testicular torsion of the left supernumerary testis. Counterclockwise 720-degree rotation of the left supernumerary testis was noted during emergency surgery, and orchidopexy of the 3 testes (2 left testes and 1 right testis) was performed. Biopsy of the left supernumerary testis demonstrated spermatogenesis and no malignancy. One and a half years after surgery, all testes were viable without atrophy.
Polyorchidism is a rare condition and there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic cases detected early in life. The position of the supernumerary testis (intrascrotal or extrascrotal) is important when deciding the management strategy because of the risk of malignancy. If conservative management is selected initially, elective surgery, such as prophylactic orchiectomy or orchidopexy, may be needed because of the risk of malignancy and torsion.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the bladder is rare. We report two cases that occurred metachronously during pazopanib treatment for other metastases. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate bladder metastasis from RCC during molecular targeted therapy with pazopanib.
(Case 1) A woman in her 60s was referred to our department for evaluation of an incidental right renal tumor. Dynamic CT showed a 6 cm renal cell carcinoma. In February 201X she underwent laparoscopic right radical nephrectomy, revealing clear cell carcinoma (grade 1>2), stage pT3aN0M0. In February 201X+1 she complained of left pelvic pain. She was found to have metastasis to two iliac bones and an occipital bone. She received pazopanib, in addition to a bone modifying agent and radiotherapy for the iliac bones. After 8 months, she complained of asymptomatic gross hematuria in spite of having stable disease for bone metastasis. Cystoscopy showed a 1 cm solitary sessile nonpapillary tumor on the posterior wall. She underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). Histological examination showed metastatic RCC. Thereafter she received sequential therapies (axitinib, sunitinib, nivolumab). She remains alive without recurrence in the bladder 51 months after TUR-BT.
(Case 2) A woman in her 60s presented to our department with a complaint of painless gross hematuria. A dynamic CT showed an 8.5 cm renal cell carcinoma and multiple lung metastases. In March 201Y she underwent right radical nephrectomy, revealing clear cell carcinoma (grade 2>3), stage pT2aN0M1. In June 201Y she started pazopanib. After 9 months CT showed a bladder tumor in addition to progression of lung metastases. Cystoscopy showed a 1 cm solitary sessile nonpapillary tumor at dome. She underwent TUR-BT. Histological examination showed metastatic RCC. She had no recurrence in the bladder during follow-up although she died of RCC.