(Objective) The clinical usefulness of multimodality detection for prostate cancer by digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and serum PSA determination (PSA) was evaluated in this retrospective study. (Patients and methods) A total of 1344 symptomatic male patients who underwent DRE, TRUS and PSA in our outpatient clinic were studied. Prostate biopsies were performed when at least one diagnostic test was positive. (Results) Of 1344 patients, 436 (32.4%) had positive test results. Among 403 patients who underwent biopsy, 121 patients (30.0%) were found to have prostate cancer. The overall cancer detection rate was 9.0%. Among the 121 cancer patients, if examination had been carried out using only one or two tests, cancer would have not been detected in 22 patients (18.2%) by DRE alone, 27 patients (22.3%) by TRUS alone, 18 patients (14.9%) by PSA alone, 12 patients (9.9%) by a combination of DRE and TRUS, and 6 patients (5.0%) by a combination of DRE and PSA. Among the 121 patients with cancer, 22 (18.2%) had impalpable cancer. Impalpable cancer was more likely to be localized (77.3%) than palpable cancer (28.3%, p<0.001) and more likely to be well or moderately differentiated (72.7%) than palpable cancer (41.4%, p=0.008). (Conclusion) This study confirmed the need for multimodality detection using DRE, TRUS and PSA as complementary methods in order to minimize decrease in cancer detection. In particular, impalbable cancers not detectable by DRE were detected and were revealed to be more likely to be localized and amenable to curative therapy. These results therefore underscore the importance of multimodality detection for early diagnosis of prostate cancer in urological practice.
(Purpose) The purpose of this study is to evaluate prognostic factors of renal cell carcinoma using univariate statistics. Materials and methods: Materials are 182 patients treated from 1976 to 1992. Kaplan-Meier method and generalized wilcoxon test were used for statistical analysis. (Results) Seventy cases were found incidentally without any symptoms. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates by Kaplan-Meier method were 73.8% and 66.2%. respectively. In the univariate analysis, sex, chief complaints, tumor sizes, T-Stages, venous invasions and grades were statistically significant prognostic factors. The prognosis of males more than 60 years of age was significantly poor. The prognosis of patients with incidentalomas was far better than that of symptomatic patients. (Conclusion) Sex and chief complaints were pointed out as significant prognostic factors for renal cell carcinoma.
(Background) The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical usefulness of the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) in potential male infertility patients. (Patients and Methods) Analysis of serum samples for the presence of antibodies against C. trachomatis by enzyme immunoassay was performed in 83 male infertility patients. (Results) Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG)-antibodies against C. trachomatis were found in 16 and 10 of 83 serum samples (19.3 and 12.0%) respectively. IgA and/or IgG-antibodies against C. trachomatis were found in 20 of 83 serum samples (24.1%). Serum IgA, IgG, or IgA and/or IgG positive patients showed increased semen and urine leukocytes numbers and reduced semen volume and sperm numbers, compared with negative patients, respectively, although these effects are not statistically significant. By Spearman's correlation analysis, however, significant positive correlations with serum IgA or IgG antibody index were found in semen and urine leukocytes numbers. Significant negative correlations with serum IgA antibody index was found in semen volume. In serum IgA positive patients, only 1 of 8 first-voided urine samples was positive for C. trachomatis-DNA by PCR. Moreover, the positive rates of surum IgA antibody and cervical antigen in the 8 female partners of IgA positive patients were only 25% (2 of 8 serum samples) and 12.5% (1 of 8 cervical specimens) respectively. (Conclusion) There was a high prevalence (24.1%) of serum IgA and/or IgG-antibodies against C. trachomatis from infertility patients. The existance of antibodies against C. trachomatis in serum samples possibly influence semen quality, suggesting that C. trachomatis infection may play an important role in male infertility.
(Purpose) We have reviewed clinical characteristics of bladder cancer in adolescent patients. (Materials and Methods) Between 1978 and 1997, we have experienced eight bladder cancer patients of 7 men and 1 woman under 30 years old. Two patients were less than 20 years old and six patient were more than 20 years old. We have reviewed initial symptoms, diagnostic methods, cystoscopic findings, methods of treatment, pathological findings, and prognosis of these patients. (Results) The most common chief complaint was asymptomatic macroscopic hematuria. Cystoscopically, all tumors were papillary and solitary except in one case. All of tumors were superficial transitional cell carcinomas and treated with transurethral resection (TUR). Although the tumors in patients of less than 20 years old were pathologically grade 1 and 2, two cases of grade 3 tumors were found in patients more than 20 years old. The prognosis of these patients were good, for none of them was dead and the recurrence rate after TUR was 12.5% (1/8). (Conclusions) We considered that characteristics of bladder cancer in adolescent patients were low stage, low grade, and good prognosis. But it was found that high grade tumors were contained in patients more than 20 years old.
(Objective) Bladder neck hypermobility causes cystocele in middle to old elderly women. We developed an easy and useful surgical technique for cystocele. (Methods) Thirteen patients with cystocele (grade 2-4) were operated by fornix of the vagina suspension. Patients were placed on lithotomy position under general or spinal anesthesia. Lower midline or lower abdominal transverse incision was made to open the peritoneum and denuded vesicouterine pouch. Several nylon sutures were placed on the lateral side of exposed fornix of the vagina. These sutures were suspended to anterior layer of the rectus sheath. Fornix of the vagina was fixed to the rectus muscle, so the prolapsed bladder wall was pulled up in normal position. (Results) Operating time ranged from 15-110 minutes (average 73 minutes). Ten patients of thirteen were successful up to 2-43 months postoperatively. Cystocele recurred in three patients of thirteen. Two patients was re-operated by the same method, but one of them recurred. Two of three recurrent patients had grade 4 cystocele. (Conclusion) Fornix of the vagina suspension for cystocele seems useful and promising because of easy procedure without serious morbidity, especially in elderly high-risk patients.
(Purpose) A survey of stage I testicular tumors in the Chugoku-Shikoku district was taken in order to explore the clinical characteristics. (Patients and Methods) Three hundred and forty eight cases of stage I testicular tumor treated at 46 facilities in the Chugoku-Shikoku district between 1984 and 1992 were collected. Subjects' background factors, treatment methods and prognosis were studied. (Results) Tissue types were 249 (71.6%) seminoma and 99 (28.4%) non-seminoma. Adjuvant therapy for seminoma cases included 138 post-operative radiotherapy (4 recurrences, 3 cancer deaths), 57 chemotherapy (no recurrences, 2 contralateral testis tumor cases) and 48 were under surveillance (no recurrence). Adjuvant therapy for non-seminoma cases included 47 chemotherapy (1 recurrence) and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed on 6 cases. Forty cases were under surveillance (1 recurrence). Of 8 (2.3%) cases with recurrence, 6 showed onset within two years and 2 after two years. Four of the 8 cases with recurrence were seminoma (1.1% of seminoma cases) and the other 4 were non-seminoma (4.0% of non-seminoma cases). All 3 (0.9% of all cases) of the cancer death cases were seminoma that received post-operative radiotherapy, while there were no cancer deaths in non-seminoma cases. (Conclusion) Prognosis of stage I testicular tumor is good. Although the recurrence rate was higher in non-seminoma cases, cancer deaths were only observed in seminoma cases.
(Objective) Retrospective analysis was carried out to evaluate the prognostic value of urothelial dysplasia with superficial bladder cancer. (Patients and Methods) 62 patients with bladder cancer of pTa or pT1 who had been treated by transurethral resection (TUR-Bt), underwent random mucosal biopsies in the urinary bladder. The results of random biopsies were classified into 3 groups: negative group, dysplasia group and CIS group. The recurrence rate, progression rate and type of recurrences (true recurrence/new occurence) were compared among the 3 groups. (Results) The results of random biopsies were as follows; negative group was found in 42 (68%), dysplasia group in 17 (27%) and CIS group in 3 (5%). There were no significant difference in the characteristics of the patients among the 3 groups. The recurrence rates at 1, 2 and 5 years after TUR-Bt were 3%, 12% and 21%, respectively, for negative group, and 37%, 51% and 67%, respectively, for dysplasia group (p<0.01). For CIS group, 2 of 3 cases (67%) recurrenced within 1 year after TUR-Bt Non of negative group progressed to muscle invasion, whereas 57% of dysplasia group invaded bladder muscle after 6 years post operatively (p<0.001). No significant relationship was observed between the absence or presence of concomitant dysplasia and the rate of true recrurrence. Dysplasia group revealed a higher rate (47.1%) of new ocurrence than negative group (2.4%) (p=0.0001). (Conclusion) The presence or absence of concomitant dysplasia of superficial bladder cancer seems to be an important prognostic factor for future new ocurrence and progression after TUR-Bt.
A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a solid tumor originating from the neural crest. This tumor is known to occur in the central nervous system and soft tissue, but recently determined to also invade the kidney. Although primary renal PNET is very rare, we encountered a case of primary renal PNET with multiple lung metastasis. This case was a 35-year-old man with a chief complaint of macroscopic hematuria, which he noticed in January 1996. He was hospitalized because of right renal tumor detected with ultrasonography. On CT scan, a low-density solid tumor with a maximum diameter of 8cm was visualized in the right kidney. Low-signal and high-signal tumorous lesions were demonstrated in the same region on T 1-weighted and T 2-weighted MR images, respectively. Then right radical nephrectomy was performed on Feb. 5, 1996. On histopathological observation, the tumor was composed of small tumor cells with solid growth. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor was positive for CD 99. Thus our final diagnosis was primary right renal PNET. Although 2 metastatic lesions with a diameter of about 1cm were observed in the right lower lung before the time of surgery, pulmonary metastatic lesions markedly increased in number 3 months after surgery. Thus we initiated CAP chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and CDDP. After 3 cycles, pulmonary metastatic lesions disappeared at CT scan, indicating complete remission. However, a tumor with a maximum diameter of about 10cm recurred in the retroperitoneum 7 months after complete remission. Although 2 cycles of CAV/PE therapy with cyclophos-phamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, CDDP, and VP-16 were performed following resection of the retroperitoneal tumor, he showed no response and deceased 24 months after surgery.
A 31 year-old man with a biopsy-proved retroperitoneal yolk sac tumor was referred to our clinic. Physical examination revealed a thum- tip sized left supra-clavicular mass, a huge right abdominal mass and a tiny hard mass of the right testis. On CT scan, the abdominal tumor, 13cm in diameter, encircled the inferior vena cava. Serum levels of LDH, AFP and hCG-β were 2, 585U/l, 19, 922ng/ml and 6.6ng/ml, respectively. No visceral metastasis was found. Following the right high orchiectomy, 4 cycles of VIP chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, etoposide and cisplatin were given, which resulted in partial response of the retroperitoneal mass and complete regression of the supraculavicular node with normalization of all tumor markers. Thus, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was carried out. Because of the marked adhesion to the tumor, the inferior vena cava was segmentally resected together with the tumor, which was followed by reconstruction of the vena cava using a 16cm long polytetrafluoroethylene graft, since no collateral venous route was found on the pretreatment venacavography. Histologically, the tumor was nearly necrotic with mature teratoma in small part. Postoperative clinical course was uneventful except feeling of numbness at the right tip toe, and the inferior vena cava has been patent 18 months after the operation with no evidence of recurrence.