(Background) We investigated the clinical usefulness of free to total serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) ratio (F/T ratio) in order to improve the specificity of total PSA measurement for detecting prostate cancer. (Method) In this study 129 patients with total PSA level 4-20ng/ml underwent transrectal ultrasound guided sextant biopsy. Serum samples were assessed for total PSA, free PSA and the F/T ratio calculated. All patients were pathologically diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer. (Results) Of 129 patients 21 had prostate carcinoma (PCa) and 108 had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from the results of prostate biopsies. The mean of total PSA were not significantly different between men with PCa and with BPH. The mean of free PSA for PCa was significantly lower than that for BPH (p=0.043). Furthermore, the mean of F/T ratio was significantly different between PCa and BPH group (p=0.0014). The F/T ratio had a higher specificity than total PSA at all levels of sensitivity in detecting prostate cancers. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for cancer detection at a cut off 0.12 was 90.4%, 51.8% and 58.1%, respectively. Also, free PSA was as useful as F/T ratio for cancer detection when analyzed in receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. When determined the cut off number of free PSA at 0.78ng/ml, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for cancer detection were 61.9%, 66.7% and 65.9%, respectively. (Conclusion) This study indicated that the F/T ratio and free PSA could improve the specificity without impairing the sensitivity for detecting PCa in patients with 4-20ng/ml of total PSA.
(Introduction and Objective) The tumor biology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains poorly understood and the prognosis of which is unpredictable. To define an optimal follow-up protocol in nonmetastatic RCC, tumor recurrences and the clinical course were assessed in the patients who had undergone nephrectomy. (Patients and methods) Between March 1972 to July 1999, 265 patients with PT1-3N0 (Nx) M0 RCC underwent radical or partial nephrectomy. Clinicopathological variables were compares with the time of the first recurrence, site of metastasis and reason for diagnosis. (Results) In July 1999, the median (range) follow-up for the surviving patients was 50 (1-244) months. Metastases were diagnosed in 45 of the 265 patients (17%). Sixty percent of the patients had their metastases diagnosed within 3 years and 87% by 6 years. The incidence and the mean time to first diagnosis of recurrence were 9.0% and 43.6months for pT1, 32.4% and 39.6 months for pT2, and 32.7% and 25.0 months for pT3. Metastatic sites and the mean time of diagnosis were 40.6 months in lung (46.7%), 26.1 months in bone (17.8%), 18.6 months in retroperitoneal organs (11.1%), 38.0 months in liver (6.7%), 51.0 months in thyroid gland (4.4%) and 31.0 months in brain (2.2%). Most recurrence in lung, retroperitoneal organs and liver were incidentally diagnosed, whereas recurrences in bone, thyroid gland and brain had some symptoms associated with metastases. Incidence of lung metastasis in pT1 (9 patients, 56%) and pT2 (6, 55%) was grater than that in PT3 (6, 33%). In contrast, incidence of abdominal metastasis (retroperitoneal organs and the liver) in pT3 (4 patients, 33%) was grater than pT1 (2, 12%) and PT2 (1, 16%). (Conclusions) The results indicate that the risk of tumor progression and site of metastasis seemed to depend on original TNM stage. Therefore stage specific postoperative follow-up protocol should be considered. The yearly follow-up may suffice for pT1a patients after surgery. For pT1b and pT2 patients, the follow-up should be intense during the first 3 years by a routine chest X-ray. For pT3 patients, the follow-up during the first 2 years may be important. Particularly, considering the high incidence of abdominal metastasis in these patients, examination by CT scan is recommended every 6 months in the first 2 years. No need for bone scintigraphy and brain CT was indicated for asymptomatic patients.
(Background) Erection is an hemodynamic event and accordingly, erectile dysfunction is closely related with ischemic heart diseases. Sufficient study has yet to be made of this relation. (Method) Fifty-eight patients with erectile dysfunction participated in the present study. Intracavernous injection tests and color Doppler examination were conducted for assessment of erectile function. For patients with history of ischemic heart disease, we referred to their doctor for data from their examinations. For patients otherwise, chest X-rays and electrocardiograms in the resting position were obtained and also electrocardiograms following exercise. Echocardiograms, treadmill test results, thallium exercise scintigrams, and coronary angiograms were obtained as requires for diagnosis. (Results) Eighteen patients (31.0%) were diagnosed as ischemic heart disease or at high risk. Although 6 of them had been already diagnosed with ischemic heart disease, 12 were newly diagnosed by the exercise tests. Among these 18 patients 16 had one or more significant risk factors for ischemic heart disease such as age, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. 3.7% of patients whose peak systolic velocity in the cavernous artery was equal to or exceeded 35cm/sec had ischemic heart disease or were at high risk. 54.8% of patients with peak systolic velocity of less than 35cm/ sec had ischemic heart disease or were at high risk. (Conclusions) In erectile dysfunctional patients, incidence of complications with symptomatic or asymptomatic ischemic heart disease was found to be high. Therefore, in patients with risk factors or low peak systolic velocity in the cavernous artery, exercise tests should be implemented prior to treatment of erectile dysfunction.
(Purpose) The change of sacral reflex activity of the striated urethral sphincter in the urine storage phase is investigated using evoked potential reaction of the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR). (Methods) Eleven normal male subjects and 13 male patients with neurogenic bladder due to suprasacral (C3-C7) spinal cord injury (SCI patients) were investigated. Within the SCI patients, five were complete SCI and 8 were incomplete SCI. BCR was elicited by electrical stimulation of dorsal nerve of the penis, and the evoked potential of the BCR was recorded with a concentric needle electrode from the periurethral striated muscle. BCR was performed both at empty and at filled bladder respectively, and changes of the amplitudes (AMP) were examined. Moreover, the changes of AMP affected by bladder filling were compared between the normal subjects and the SCI patients. (Results) In both the normal subjects and the SCI patients, AMP increased at the filled bladder as compared with that of the empty bladder. In addition, the change of AMP was statistically bigger in the SCI patients (a ratio of amplitude at filled bladder/amplitude at empty bladder: 4.73±3.90) than in the normal subjects (the ratio: 1.32±0.44). (Conclusion) Sacral reflex activity was accelerated by bladder filling in both the normal subjects and SCI patients. And the acceleration in the SCI patients was more remarkable than that in the normal subjects. In addition to the conventional evaluation of the integrity of sacral reflex arc by BCR examination, the observation of changes of BCR affected by bladder filling may provide the information for the continuity of sacral segment and supraspinal micturition center.
A case of ectopic prostatic tissue in urinary bladder and uretero-seminal vesicle fistula with ipsilateral aplastic kidney is reported. A 29-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for residual sensation and perineal pain. Ultrasound examination revealed a cystic change in the right side of urinary bladder. C. T. and M. R. I. revealed a defect of a right kidney and ipsilateral ureteral dilation and seminal vesicle swelling. A cystscopy under lummbar anesthesia revealed a edematous cystic change of the right side of trigone and defect of the right ureteral orifice. Trans urethral resection of the wall of urinary bladder was simultaneously performed. And the contents of the cyst were sperum and old red blood cells. A retrograde ureterograph showed blind-ending ureter at L5 level and seminal vesicle swelling. A resected bladder tissue contained prostatic tissue. After operation he was free from commplains. Uretero-seminal vesicle fistula with ipsilater aplastic kidney is rare disease. In addition a case complicated ectopic prostatic tissue in urinary bladder was not reported in Japanese medical literature.
Acquired cystic disease of the kidney (ACDK) is a common phenomenon in long-term adult dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal hemorrhage and neoplastic transformation of the cyst are two major complications of this entity and these two can occur independently. Here we describe a 65-year-old man with a history of hemodialysis-dependent end-stage renal failure for 12 years presented with macroscopic hematuria and right flank pain. Investigations revealed right massive perirenal and subcapsular hematoma with ACDK. The hemorrhagic state required nephrectomy of the right kidney. Histological study showed ACDK with massive subcapsular and perinephric hematoma containing minimal clear cell carcinoma region (0.5cm in diameter). Although a causal relationship between renal hemorrhage and renal cell carcinoma in this patient was unproven, the present case suggests radical surgery can be a recommendable treatment modality of hemorrhagic ACDK.