(Purpose) The prostate size and motivation to visit clinics were investigated in patients with prostate hyperplasia. (Objects and methods) One hundred ninety-five patients who had urinary symptoms and visited our outpatient clinic between September 1994 and October 1999 and 268 age-matched volunteers in Mitaka City who underwent a medical examination of the prostate in June 1997 were compared. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Quality Of Life Score (QOL score), residual urine volume, prostate volume and urinary flow rate were measured. (Results) The prostate volume of the volunteers was 20-25cm3 irrespective of the age. The prostate size of the outpatients was larger than that of the volunteers for every age group. IPSS and QOL score were significantly higher in the outpatients than in the volunteers. Diurnal urinary frequency and sense of residual urine contributed to the discrimination index of the two groups more significantly than the other scores. There was a significant correlation between prostate volume and residual urine volume. The score of weak urinary steam was inversely and significantly correlated with peak urinary flow rate. (Conclusions) There was no age-related enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate gland was significantly larger in the patients than in the volunteers even in those in their fifties. Urinary frequency and sense of residual urine are important factors for men to seek and receive medical care.
(Objectives) Because of recent increases in health care costs, reformation care cost system similar to the disease related group/prospective payment system (DRG/PPS) was attracted attention in Japan. We analyzed the costs for inpatients with urologic diseases in our institution and compared them with the costs reported in Japanese trials of DRG/PPS. (Materials & Methods) Subject consisted of 363 consecutive urologic diseases inpatients treated in our hospital in the period between April 1 1997 and March 31 1998. Of these 107 had bladder tumor, 79 BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia), 34 prostate tumor, 32 renal tumor, 17 in urinary stone (excluding cases with bladder stones) and 94 cases in others. The total hospital charge for each case was calculated, and the averages and standard deviations for each disease were analyzed. We analyzed the relationship between hospital charges for each disease, and complications, the degree of disease, age and length of stay (LOS). Health care costs are assessed in unit, each of which is the equivalent of 10yen. (Results) The average of total hospital charges was 108, 841.6 points for bladder tumor, 61, 692.2 points for BPH, 96, 825.3 points for prostate tumor, 188, 459.0 points for renal tumor, and 66, 052.2 points for urinary stones. The standard deviation was 99, 611.3 points for bladder tumors, 16, 712.9 points for BPH, 65, 419.3 points for prostate tumor, 204, 389.6 points for renal tumor and 30, 081.7 points for urinary stone. There was a positive colerration between hospital charge and LOS in most diseases. The average hospital charges for each disease were much higher than the reimbursement charges of the trial Japanese DRG/PPS. (Discussion) Shortening of LOS using established clinical pathways reduces health care costs. However, in Japan, the wide range of preliminary results suggests that it may be too early to introduce the DRG/PPS system for health care cost. Furthermore nationwide investigations are needed before the introduction of the DRG/PPS system into Japanese health care reimbursement system.
(Purpose) Recently there have been several alternatives not only to improve symptoms but to retain an acceptable quality of life as well as to reduce the complications. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the degree of erectile dynfunction in the population of men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). (Materials and Methods) Total 252 men with LUTS were investigated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) and sexual function inventory (SFI) consisting of sexual drive, erection and ejaculation. Spearman's rank order correlation was used to determine the degree of any correlation between age, the total I-PSS, the individual I-PSS questions and the various sexual function scores. (Results) 208 patient data were available for analysis. There were poor function patients in 67.8% for sexual drive, in 46.2% for erection and in 47.1% for ejaculation. On the other hand, 24% considered their sexual drive to be a big or medium problem, 20.7% for erection and 18.3% for ejaculation. Overall, 27.4% of the men were mostly or very dissatisfied with their sex life. There was a significant correlation between a patient's age and his score for each of the three sexual variables (p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant correlation was noticed between the total I-PSS and the SFI score (p<0.05). It might be suggested that the more symptomatic a patient for LUTS, the poorer his sexual function will be. (Conclusions) About 20% men with LUTS are bothered by their sexual symptoms. Erectile dysfunction in dependent of age and the extent of LUTS. Consideration of the high population of erectile dysfunction in men with LUTS is necessary to the treatment of their urinary symptoms.
(Purpose) We reviewed 54 pediatric patients with ectopic ureter treated at our institution from 1975 to 1999. (Materials and Methods) Our series comprised 40 female and 14 male children, with age from 1 month to 11 years. Clinical records of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. (Results) Chief complaint was urinary incontinence in 24, high fever in 18, abdominal mass in 6, scrotal swelling in 3 and growth retardation in 2 patients. Two patients were found to have ectopic ureters without symptom during urological work-ups for their anorectal anomaly. The ectopic ureters opened into vagina in 19, vestibulum in 8, bladder neck in 7, urethra in 17, seminal vesicle in 2 and ejaculatory duct in 1 patient (s). Treatment was ureterocystoneostomy in 30, nephroureterectomy in 19, hemi-nephroureterectomy in 2, and ureteral ligature in 1 patient (s). Postoperatively, most of the patients became symptom free except for 6 patients in whom urinary incontinence was not cured due to mal-development of the bladder neck and sphincter, and due to Gartner's duct cyst. (Conclusion) Urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection are most frequent presentations of ectopic ureter in children. Although most of the patients are cured with ureterocystoneostomy or nephroureterectomy, some incontinent girls continue to have urinary incontinence due to maldevelopment of the bladder neck and sphincter or Gartner's duct cyst.
A 4 year old boy, who underwent 2 times of unsuccessful primary closure of the extrophied bladder at 7 days and 5 months after birth, was treated with construction of a rectal bladder with sigmoid-pull through by Duhamel procedure. Vas deference, seminal vesicles and prostate were not found at the cystectomy operation. Epispadias urethral mucosa was removed and phalloplasty was performed using the ventral hooded foreskin. The results were cosmetically and functionally excellent. He could keep continence and his upper urinary tract was normal at 6 months after the operation.
A 19-year-old woman with von Recklinghausen's disease was referred to our hospital because of right adrenal pheochromocytoma. The tumor was detected incidentally with the abdominal ultrasonography when she complained epigastralgia to the home doctor who treated her hypertension. Plasma and urinary catecholamines level were elevated. The tumor was removed by laparoscopy assisted adrenalectomy without pneumoperitoneum. The resected specimen was 35×60×75mm in size and weighed 70g. Pathological diagnosis was adrenomedullary pheochromocytoma. Postoperative course was uneventful. She has been well with no signs of recurrence after 7.5 years. We reviewed 67 Japanese patients previously reported as von Recklinghausen's disease with pheochromocytoma. Of the 60 patients whose details were described, 16.7% had metastases and pathological malignacy from pheochromocytoma.
We experienced a curious case that hydronephrosis had caused spontaneous evacuation of calculi in a caliceal diverticulum. A 50-year-old woman was visited to our department complaining of right lower abdominal pain. Several right ureteral stones, right hydronephrosis and a great numbers of small round-shaped calculi in a right caliceal diverticulum were diagnosed. Many of the calculi moved from the diverticulum to ureter, and were evacuated spontaneously. The month after, the right hydronephrosis had already subsided and almost all of the calculi had disappeared. It was supposed that a hydronephrosis had widened the narrow channel between the diverticulum and the calyx and enabled the small calculi to pass through. Recent reports show that effectiveness of ESWL for symptomatic caliceal diverticular calculi is doubtful, because the narrow channel hinders the passage of stone fragments. However, this case suggests that an artificial hydronephrosis created by retrograde occlusion ureteral balloon catheter may lead to good drainage of gravel and better stone-free rate of caliceal diverticular calculi treated by ESWL.