Amblyopia is one of the leading causes of unilateral or bilateral visual impairment in children. The experiences of clinicians have been confirmed by basic researchers, changes, and evidence found by basic researchers has been used by clinicians. The mechanism of visual development is being investigated intensively. In particular, the basic science of amblyopia has been remarkable development in the last decade. The classic knowledge of amblyopia may be reconsidered in some aspects. In this article, I summarize the clinical and basic studies of amblyopia.
Even though it is commonly known that palpebral fissure width influences non-contact tonometer, measurement the phenomenon has not been quantitatively analyzed. A numerical simulation was carried out using a workstation, whose performance has improved remarkably in recent years, though the application of computational fluid dynamics, without using special equipment such as a high speed camera. Palpebral fissure width decrease causes increase in the measured value, resulting in measurement error. Analysis results showed that palpebral fissure width narrower than a critical value accelerated the increase in measured intraocular pressure value. Though it has been generally accepted that the strong air jet from the non-contact tonometer deforms the corneal surface, present results imply that pressure wave impingement on the eye surface contributes partly to shape deformation. For the first time, the present study reveals this mechanism by means of a method other than experimental.