An epidemiological investigation was conducted on mixed farms in Tororo and Soroti districts of
Uganda from January to February 2000 to determine the cause of reported persistent mortality of
cattle. Blood and faecal examination of 98 cattle comprised of 33 Friesians, 58 Zebu and 7 Sahiwal was undertaken. Results revealed 7 (7.1%) cattle had trypanosome infection, mainly due to
Trypanosoma vivax and T. brucei, 17 (17.3%) had Fasciola infection, 28 (28.6%) had gastrointestinal nematode infection, 33 (33.7%) had Theileria parva infection and 13 (13.3%) had
Anaplasma marginale infection. Mixed infections were detected in 24.5%, 30%, 20.6% and 43%
of all cattle, Friesians, Zebu and Sahiwal respectively. Anaemia (PCV <25) was detected in 21%,
24%, 19% and 14% of all cattle, Friesians, Zebu and Sahiwal respectively. Persistent mortality of
Friesians, Zebu and Sahiwal cattle on these farms could have been due to either single or mixed
parasitic infections probably exacerbated by malnutrition.
Giardia lamblia is a commonly identified intestinal pathogen protozoan in humans in
Serbia, since 8.0% of the children are infected in Belgrade area. In light of the zoonotic potential
of Giardia infection, a total of 167 dogs were examined for giardiasis in the same urban area. Six
of 81 dogs (7.4%) from urban homes, 14 of 75 dogs (18.6%) from the pound, and four of 11 dogs
(36.4%) from the farm were excreting Giardia cysts. Thus, the overall prevalence of infection in
dogs in the Belgrade area was 14.4%. Of six household pets excreting Giardia, five owners and
all 16 of their family members were Giardia-negative, while in case of one dog both the owner
and the only other family member were Giardia- positive. The data demonstrate that a potential
animal reservoir exists in urban Serbia and underline the possibility of transmission between dog
and human in close contact, thus having important implications for the epidemiology of giardiasis
in urban areas.
Study on the in vitro survival of the theront stages of Cryptocaryon irritans in different
nutrient media, temperature and salinity showed that these three factors could influence then- life
span. Theront of C. irritans had a longer mean life span in HBSS (62.40 ± 23.02 hrs) and BBSS
(46.64 ± 13.29 hrs) compared to control seawater medium (29.23 ± 6.81 hrs). The shortest
mean life span was obtained from the MEME non-essential ammo acid medium ranging from
0.45 to 0.83 hrs. Out of 9 media, only 2 media (HBSS and BBSS) managed to prolong the life
span of theront compared to the other 7 media (MEME, MEME non-essential amino acid, L-15
with 5% serum, L-15 with 10% serum, tissue homogenate (gills, scale & mucus, fin and muscle).
Tukey HSD analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the total mean life span in HBSS and BBSS. Theront also could sustain their mean life span longer in 30℃ (11.38
± 1.01 hrs) followed by 25 ℃ (10.66 ± 1.48 hrs), 20 ℃ (4.34 ± 2.30 hrs), 35 ℃ (1.59 ± 0.08 hrs) and 40 ℃ (0.23 ± 0.03 hrs). As for salinity, the longest mean life span of theront were
obtained in 20 ppt (33.60 ± 0.50 hrs) followed by 25 ppt (32.85 ± 0.88 hrs), 35 ppt (23.76 ± 0.90
hrs) and 30 ppt (21. 18 ± 2.42 hrs) and 40 ppt (22.07 ± 4.96 hrs) respectively.
We have tested an indirect fluorescence technique (IFAT), fast agglutination screening
test (FAST) and direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in
serum and blood samples from patients with visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. For
visceral leishmaniasis the results obtained with DAT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100%
with a cut-off value of 1:800. The blood and serum samples could also be clearly read in FAST
using a 1:100 dilution with the same high sensitivity. Both DAT and FAST were not able to detect
significant amounts of antibodies in samples from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.