Interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-dependent cell-mediated immunity plays a pivotal role in resistance against the development of toxoplasmosis, following Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii ) infection. There is now an increased recognition that this response is triggered by the critical initiation cytokine, IL-12 secreted by dendritic cells (DC), but not macrophages (MΦ). This article reviews the current understanding of the role of DC during toxoplasmosis with a view to stimulate further research on the early DC activation events that may likely represent the
" for type 1 cytokine responses leading to the control of Toxoplasma gondii infection.
The main aim of this study was to document information on the existence of endoparasitic infections, ectoparasitic infestations and infectious bronchitis viral infection in village poultry of the Qwa-Qwa district of the northeastern Free State province. Endoparasites isolated were: Ascaridia, Capillaria, and Trichostrongylus species. Eimeria species (coccidian) was also isolated. No haemoparasites were isolated. Ectoparasites isolated were the red fowl mite Dermanyssus gallinae, sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea, and louse Menopon gallinae. Of the 177 blood samples collected for serodiagnosis, 52% of tested sera for infectious bronchitis virus by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were positive. The range of packed cell volume (PCV) values for chickens were from 15-39 %, for ducks 13-36 % and for geese 13-29%. To ensure a thriving and sustainable free ranging system in Qwa-Qwa, the small scale farmers will require assistance in the control and prevention of disease causing agents through vaccination and administration of drugs to infected poultry.
293 blood samples collected randomly from I101 cattle (34.5%), 87 Sheep(29.8%) and 105 goat (35.8) from 12 villages in 3 districts (Bachit, Ganawuri and Riyom) of Riyom LGA were examined. The total number of male animals was 113 (38.5%) while female were 180 (61.4%) for Trypanosoma infections. 39(34. 51%) of the males were cattle, 32(28.3%) sheep and 42 (37.17%) goat. While 62(34.4% of the Cattle were female, 55(30.5%) sheep and 63(35.0%) goats. The blood samples were analyzed for parasitaemia using a combination of blood (Thin, Thick and wet) film techniques and concentration methods. (Haematocrit centrifugation technique [HCT] and Buffy Coat method [BCM]). 21 (7.2%) of the total blood screened from the three districts were positive for both Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. theileri. The average packed cell volume (PCV %) for infected males and non-infected males is 21.4 ± 4.4 and 25.7 ± 5.0 while that of female is 18.6 ± 4.7 and 26.4 ± 11.6, respectively. T. vivax is higher 17(81%) in occurrence than T. congolense 3(14.3%) and T. theileri 1 (4.8%). An incidental low infection of microfilaria was found in cattle, sheep and goats in Bachit 7(6.3%) and Riyom 2(6.7%). Other details are discussed.
Recently, we reported the in vitro growth inhibitory effects of the imidazole derivatives, clotrimazole (CLT) and ketoconazole (KC), and the herbicide, clodinafop-propargy1 (CP), against bovine and equine Babesia parasites. Additionally, in the bovine species, several combined applications of the CLT, KC, and CP were reported to significantly increase the inhibitory effects. In this study, similar combination tests were carried out in order to confirm possible synergistic effects in the equine species, Babesia caballi and Babesia equi. Combinations of CLT/KC, CLT/CP, and CLT/KC/CP exerted a significantly enhanced growth inhibitory efficacy in B. caballi, in contrast to B. equi, where no synergistic effects were observed in any of the combinations. Our results suggest that the combined usage of these drugs may have a high enough potential to be considered applicable in practice.