The Journal of Protozoology Research
Online ISSN : 2434-7027
Print ISSN : 0917-4427
Volume 21, Issue 2
The Journal of Protozoology Research
Displaying 1-7 of 7 articles from this issue
  • AbouLaila, M., Terkawi, M.A., Yokoyama, N., Igarashi, I.
    2011 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 30-35
    Published: 2011
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2019
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) accounts for 50-80% of the total catechin in green tea. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, and antitrypanocidal activities. In this study, an inhibitory effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate was revealed on the in vitro growth of equine Babesia parasites. The in vitro growth of the equine Babesia species was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited in the presence of micromolar concentrations of EGCG (IC50 values = 4.42 and 3.64 µM for Babesia caballi and Babesia equi, respectively). The parasites showed no regrowth at the concentration of 100 µM for B. caballi and 50 µM for B. equi in the subsequent viability test. These findings highlight the potentiality of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate as a chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of equine babesiosis.
    Download PDF (405K)
  • AbouLaila, M., El-Bahy, N., Hilali, M., Yokoyama, N., Igarashi, I ...
    2011 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 36-44
    Published: 2011
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2019
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    This study of enteric parasites of ducks was undertaken to determine their prevalence and the relationships between their prevalence and the age and breed of ducks in the Behera governorate, Egypt. A total of 110 ducks of different ages and breeds were examined. The prevalence of helminths was 4.54% from which the prevalence of nematode, cestode, and trematode infections was 2.72%, 3.63%, and 1.81%, respectively. The recovered nematodes were Ascaridia galli (0.9%) and Heterakis gallinarum (1.81%). The reported trematodes were Echinoparyphium recurvatum (0.9%) and Echinoparyphium paraulum (1.81%). The new reported cestodes were Cladogynia phoeniconaiadis (3.63%), Echinolepis carioca (3.63%), and Baerfainia anoplocephaloides (3.63%). The helminths infections were only recorded in Native (5%) and White Peckin (11.11%) and only in the 8-12-months age group. The prevalence of Entamoeba gallinarum was 0.9% and only recorded in one White Peckin of 8-12-months age group. Cryptosporidium species could not be detected in the examined ducks. This study presented the first record of three new cestodes in ducks from Egypt.
    Download PDF (156K)
  • AbouLaila, M., El-Bahy, N., Hilali, M., Yokoyama, N., Igarashi, I ...
    2011 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 45-49
    Published: 2011
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2019
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic parasite. The diagnosis of infection in animals is an important tool to prevent human infection. In the present study, Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) in ducks from Behera Governorate, Egypt. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 13.9%. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was the highest in the Native breed (17.65%) and in 6-8-months age group (19.4%). End-point titer of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 were recorded in 61.9%, 19.05%, and 19.05% of the positive samples, respectively. Duck meat is one source of the Toxoplasma gondii infection for human in Egypt.
    Download PDF (259K)
  • Kameyama, K., Nishimura, M., Ybañez, R.D., Hiasa, J., Xuan, X., ...
    2011 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 50-58
    Published: 2011
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2019
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii scavenges cholesterol from host cells for its growth. Here, we demonstrated that T. gondii modified neutral lipid metabolism in macrophage cell line J774A.1 cells. Cell-surface expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the scavenger receptor SR-A were increased upon T. gondii infection at 40 hours post infection (hpi). In addition, RT-PCR analyses showed that the infection induced the upregulation of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase at 20 hpi and ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 1 (ABCA1) at 40 hpi. On the other hand, the downregulation of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) was observed at 40 hpi. Acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) expression increased in both infected and uninfected cells at 40 hpi. Accumulation of lipid bodies and high levels of cellular cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TAG) were observed in J774A.1 cells following T. gondii infection. These results suggest that intracellular cholesterol may be used for T. gondii replication, not for lipid body formation. Our findings support the notion that modulation of the lipid metabolism in host cells is a potential strategy for the treatment and prevention of toxoplasmosis.
    Download PDF (395K)
  • Kibugu, J.K., Mdachi, R.E., Kagira, J.M., Muchiri, M.W., Makumi, ...
    2011 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 59-69
    Published: 2011
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2019
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Through immuno-suppression, aflatoxins could affect drug and vaccine efficacy. Such effects have not been evaluated in treatment of many diseases including trypanosomiasis. We assessed the effect of aflatoxin B1 on the efficacy of suramin, the drug used for treatment of early stage sleeping sickness, in a murine model. Mice were fed daily on a diet containing 0.50 mg aflatoxin/kg body weight or a placebo. They were infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense on day 7 post-aflatoxin exposure and then treated with one of 6 different doses of suramin (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 mg/kg body weight) at the onset of parasitemia. The mice were fed on aflatoxin diet for 30 days and the curative dose values (CD50, 75, and 90) computed and compared using a logistic linear regression model. Aflatoxin B1 induced transient protection of the host against T. b. rhodesiense infection and a consistent increase in suramin CD values in the mice suggesting reduced drug efficacy. Aflatoxicosis hindered curative treatment of T. b. rhodesiense infection in mice, and may contribute to reduced efficacy of suramin during treatment of sleeping sickness in man.
    Download PDF (442K)
  • Narva, K.M., Diaz, A.C., Claveria, F.G.
    2011 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 70-77
    Published: 2011
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2019
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Coexisting individuals of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica in livers of slaughtered carabaos grazed in Tacurong City, Sultan Kudarat, Mindanao, Philippines were compared based on their body length and widest body width, body width at ovary level, cone width along the proximal end of acetabulum, the distance from the anterior body to the proximal end of the acetabulum; and the distance from the posterior end of the acetabulum to the posterior body end. Flukes were relaxed in phosphate buffered saline solution containing MgCl2 crystals, and were fixed in alcohol formalin acetic acid. In the four infected livers, F. gigantica was the dominant species (66.7-83.3%) relative to F. hepatica (16.7-33.3%). While F. gigantica was longer (16- 39 mm), with 64.0% of the flukes in the range 30-39 mm, they had narrower bodies (4-10 mm) compared to F. hepatica (7-11 mm). Body width measurements at the ovary level revealed a wider range in F. gigantica (2-9 mm) compared to F. hepatica (4-8 mm). Cone width ranged 2-4 mm and overlapped between the species. The distance from the anterior body end to the proximal end of the acetabulum of almost 96.0% of the flukes was 2-3 mm. The measurement from the distal end of the acetabulum to the posterior end of the body in 65% individuals of F. gigantica ranged 26-37 mm, and the other worms overlapped with those of F. hepatica. Although there were overlaps in body measurements between the two species, only the differences in the mean body length; mean widest body width; and mean of the distance from the posterior end of the acetabulum to the posterior end of body were significant (p ≤ 0.05). While the significant difference in the morphometrical values noted in the current study alongside marked difference in the appearance/shape are clearly useful in the identification of Fasciola spp., the commonly reported coexistence of both forms together with the existence of intermediate forms in the liver of any susceptible mammalian host species may point to seem to these merely as polymorphic populations, and not necessarily as separate species. It would be interesting to examine various aspects of the reproductive organs of flukes in view of the recognized differences in testicular and ovarian patterns (Bergeon and Laurent, 1970) between the species.
    Download PDF (317K)
  • Ohmori, T., Uetsuka, K., Nunoya, T.
    2011 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 78-84
    Published: 2011
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2019
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    To know the infectivity of Babesia microti parasites in dogs, two dogs were experimentally inoculated with B. microti and parasitemia levels were monitored. Number of erythrocytes gradually decreased until 32 days after the inoculation and then recovered to normal levels thereafter. Parasites in the erythrocytes were first observed at 35 days after the inoculation and parasitemia levels reached approximately 1% around 50 days after inoculation in 2 dogs. Infected dogs showed transiently decreased number of erythrocytes but no clinical signs during the experimental periods. Smears of the parasitized dog erythrocytes showed positive reaction with anti-B. microti serum. The PCR assay in parasites DNA from the dogs showed the amplification of B. microti marker gene and the sequence showed 99% homology with the 16S-like small subunits from B. microti. These findings show the replication of B. microti in dogs and suggest the possibility that B. microti is a source of canine babesiosis if the parasite can be transmitted by ticks.
    Download PDF (605K)
feedback
Top