Physicochemical properties of materials have been changed at nanoscale. It is so considerable for scientists and researchers to investigate and analyze the properties of nanomaterials compared with conventional ones. On the other hand, protozoa have been considered as important model organisms for biological studies and research activities. In this regard, in addition to the ecological and environmental importance, the population growth rate of these microorganisms is significant for laboratory researches. In this research, about 48 hours after culture, Paramecia cells were observed, via the 4× light microscope objective lens, and counted by Sedgewick-Rafter counting chamber. Then, the effects of Ca2+, Mg2+ and magnesium oxide nanoparticle (MgO NP) on the population growth of Paramecium caudatum were analyzed. According to results, the highest population growth has been obtained in the case of yeast medium enrichment using Ca2+ +MgO NP compared with CaCl2 +MgCl2 (p < 0.01). These findings have demonstrated that enriched yeast medium with MgO NP and CaCl2 is one of the most appropriate specific media for culture and proliferation of P. caudatum leading to easy and frequent access to abundant Paramecia cells for laboratory research activities emphasizing the ecological and environmental importance of this sensitive microorganism.
Avian trichomoniasis is a serious infection caused by a trophozoite of Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878) in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica). Different culture media are currently used for the T. gallinae identification in these hosts. Two commercially available cultured media, namely modified Diamond’s medium and modified thioglycolate medium, were used to identify T. gallinae growth. Microscopic examinations of oral swabs of pigeons were carried out post inoculation by incubating at various temperature. Significant difference between incubation time found for modified Diamond’s medium and Modified thioglycolate medium have been tested. Modified thioglycolate medium had been tested as a readily available, low-cost substitute for the Diamond’s medium. Diamond’s medium is considered as “gold standard” for identification T. gallinae in animals. However, modified thioglycolate medium was found to be practically efficient than Diamond’s medium in recovering the parasites from specimens and may provide a readily available, low-cost substitute for the Diamond’s medium. The current research also demonstrated the histopathology associated with infection of T. gallinae.
Learning is a fundamental process that involves complex neural systems. However, microorganisms without a nervous system have also been shown to have learning abilities. Specifically, Paramecium caudatum has been reported to form associations between lighting conditions and cathodal shocks in its swimming medium. We replicated previous reports on this phenomenon and tested predictions of a molecular pathway hypothesis of paramecium learning. In contrast to previous reports, our results indicated that paramecia can only associate higher light intensities with cathodal stimulation and cannot associate lower light intensities with cathodal stimulation. These results support the predictions of the previously proposed model of the molecular mechanisms of learning in paramecia, which depends on the effects of cathodal shocks on the interplay between cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels and phototactic behavior in paramecia.
The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of ovine theileriosis and its timely prevention in sheep. We therefore conducted an epidemiological study in four areas in Jilin province, China. We extracted DNA from 95 blood samples from sheep and analyzed them by nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18S RNA gene of ovine Theileria spp. Positive samples were further analyzed by PCR using species-specific primer sets for T. luwenshuni, T. uilenbergi, and T. ovis, respectively, to detect and differentiate among these three Theileria spp. Phylogenetic analysis of positive samples based on 18S rRNA gene sequences of Theileria spp. was also conducted. Theileria spp. was prevalent in all four investigated areas, with a positivity rate of 18.9%. T. luwenshuni was universally prevalent with a positivity rate of 11.6%, whereas no T. uilenbergi or T. ovis infections were detected in these regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the positive samples in all four regions belonged to the T. luwenshuni cluster. This survey confirmed the epidemiology of ovine theileriosis and provided important data to support the prevention and control of this epidemic disease in northeastern China.
In developing and developed countries, infection with Cryptosporidium species is considered as a disease of major health and economic concerns. Among the several identified species, C. parvum (zoonotic and anthroponotic agent) and C. hominis (anthroponotic agent) are the most important species, inducing diarrhea in humans and calves. Fatality of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients and immunocompromized
individuals engender the importance of immune response against such disease. As most of parasitic diseases, the vaccine development against Cryptosporidium is still problematic because of great complexity of developmental parasitic stages. However, the immuno-prophylactic and therapeutic approaches have exhibited promising results in mouse and cattle models. Both cellular and humoral immunities are required for conferring protective immunity in the tested animal models. Recombinant DNA and protein based on glycoprotein Cp15 and P23 are the predominantly evaluated candidates and the mostly successful vaccine antigens. This review highlighted the previous studies with successful vaccine antigens, summarizes the current challenges and limitations, and suggests solutions for future application in vaccine development against Cryptosporidium infection.