To elucidate helper T (Th) cell activation by the class Ⅱ major histocompatibility complex (MHC), Ia molecules, positive antigen presenting cells (APC), including macrophages and activating B cells, changes of the number of Ia positive APC in spleen cell were examined by flowcytometric analyses in Babesia microti and Bebesia rodhaini infected mice. The number of neither Ia positive macrophages nor Ia positive B cells showed significant difference between B. microti and B. rodhaini infected mice until day 9 after inoculation. However, the splenic Th cell developed IFN-γ Producing Th cell type 1 (Th1) in B. microti and IL-4 producing Th cell type 2 (Th2) in B. rodhaini infected mice. These results demonstrated that the proliferation of APC is not major factor for the differentiation of Th cell into Th1 or Th2 cell and suggested that some humoral factors regulate the differentiation in the early phase of infection with B. microti and B. rodhaini.
Persistent severe proteinuria in malaria is an indication of renal involvement, one of the secondary complications of malaria. The level of awareness of this fact in many malaria endemic countries is far from being satisfactory. In order to address this problem, we used the biuret method to estimate the urinary protein concentration of 100 malaria patients attending the Minna general hospital in Northern Nigeria. The student t-test was used in the analysis of the data obtained. The patients were grouped into males and females to see if sex had any effect on proteinuria in malaria. Results obtained showed urinary protein concentrations ranging from 2-46.5mg/dl with a mean of 12.54± 8.52mg/dl in the malaria patients. These were significantly higher than those of the control population with corresponding values of 2-13.5mg/dl and 5.03±2.37mg/dl respectively. There was no significant difference in the degree of proteinuria between males and females. It is suggested that management of malaria patients in endemic areas should go beyond mere administration of anti-malaria drugs to include pathological test．
Anemia is a recognized feature of both animal and human trypanosomiasis. The mechanism of trypanosomal anemia is however unknown. Understanding the mechanism of anemia is important for the effective management of trypanosomiasis patients, especially in animals where anemia could be extremely severe. Anemia was monitored in five goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax by measuring the packed cell volume (PCV) and the hemoglobin level (Hb) up to 26 days post infection. Parasitemia and serum free fatty acid (FFA) levels were also estimated. Massive parasitemia was observed on days 5 and 12 post infection. There was 45-59% decrease in the PCV and 33-63％ decrease in the Hb level. The serum FFA level progressively increased through out the course of infection. Anemia in the early stages of the infection is initiated and maintained by living trypanosomes, the severity of the anemia depending on the level of parasitemia. Persistent anemia as the disease process progresses is caused by factor(s) other than living trypanosomes. It is suggested that erythrocyte haemolysis and erythrophagocytosis are the underlying causes of trypanosomal anemia.
The pathology of Trypanosoma evansi infection in Yankasa sheep was studied using an isolate obtained from the blood of an infected camel slaughtered at Kano Abattoir, Kano State, Nigeria. Pathological changes affecting various organs were noted including pale and anemic carcasses and serious atrophy of adipose tissue. The major gross lesions observed were lymphadenitis, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly.
Histopathological changes in the infected Yankasa sheep included fatty degeneration involving hepatocytes, erythrophagocytosis, and haemosiderosis associated with focal areas of hepatic necrosis in chronic cases. Glomerular necrosis, and that of proximal and distal collecting tubules, mononuclear cell infiltration, and congestion were observed in the kidneys of the T. evansi infected Yankasa sheep. Other lesions associated with the infection include emphysema, pulmonary congestion, and diffuse mononuclear cell infiltration into the lung parenchyma (pneumonia). There were no significant findings in the organs of the control sheep.
The results of this study have indicated the susceptibility of the Yankasa sheep to the T. evansi isolate. The full genetically characterization of the isolate was, however, not carried out.
Blood samples of 523 which including 391 sheep and 132 goats were examined in Al-Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia from 1994 to 1997. Theileria hirci seems to be the only blood parasite infecting sheep and goats in this are. The overall infection rate was recorded as 20.46％(80/391) in sheep and 7.57％ (10/132) in goats. The highest prevalence was recorded during the autumn season, nearly equal in winter and summer seasons, while it was the minimum in the spring season. The Sudanese sheep exhibits the highest infection rate with T. hirci, while there is no significance difference in the infection rate between the Najdi and the Naeimi sheep.