Salmonella is the most common cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Poultry eggs are a major contamination source of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella has been effectively reduced since a series of measures were taken to reduce contamination in egg-laying houses. In the present study, 1,512 environmental samples obtained from layer farms of different production scales were screened in a voluntary Salmonella survey study. Contaminations were detected using a PCR method. Genetic relationships among Salmonella samples were specified using molecular typing by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. The survey results showed that two layer farms, located in the Shandong and Hebei provinces, were contaminated with Salmonella. Thirty-one samples from these two farms, including feed, drinking nipples, egg collection belt, air inlets and outlets, air, overshoes, and eggshells, were identified as Salmonella-positive. It was observed that certain samples within the henhouses as well as in the egg collecting areas showed relatively high similarities. The survey conclusively revealed minor Salmonella contamination in northern China. Moreover, various areas within the layer farms were identified as part of the propagation chain of Salmonella. Furthermore, evidence of cross-contamination of Salmonella was found in the laying houses and egg collection areas, even between these two regions. Therefore, it is necessary to establish routine Salmonella detection and subsequent environmental control measures in order to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella.
Many types of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-crops are being grown worldwide, triggering concerns about their potential impact on humans and livestock. To ensure better yield and food safety in China, an attempt has been made to develop Bt-rice targeting a broad range of insects. We aimed to investigate whether feeding genetically modified rice expressing the Bt chimeric Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab protein has any effects on the intestinal microbiota of broilers. Broilers were fed either Bt-rice or its unmodified isogenic parent line for 42 days, and total DNA was isolated from cecum contents for high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 1,241,005 reads, assigned to 12 phyla, 31 families, and 48 genera were generated. No significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of organisms identified among the major phyla, families, and genera, except for two less abundant families, Thermoanaerobacteraceae and Peptostreptococcaceae, and two less abundant genera, Anaerotruncus and Gelria. The results were in agreement with those from culture-based analysis and Biolog EcoPlates. These results illustrate that feeding Bt-rice has no adverse effects on the broiler intestinal microbiota and provide sufficient support for the food safety of Bt-rice.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of olive leaf and marigold extracts on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of the principal nutrients and energy, as well as on mineral utilization (Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) in relation to bone characteristics in broilers fed walnut- or linseed oil-supplemented diets. Thirty-six 12-day-old commercial broilers Ross 308 were reared in metabolic cages, assigned to one of the six dietary treatments (3 × 2 factorial design): three supplements (not supplemented, olive leaf extract, or marigold extract), and two oils (walnut or linseed oil). The results showed that the marigold extract reduced Zn and P balances and tended to lower the balance of ash and Mg, and the ATTD of Zn and Mg. Diets with linseed oil increased the ATTD of acid detergent fiber and reduced the ATTD of the organic residue and Cu. No differences in the bone characteristics of tibia were observed between treatments. These results indicated that the inclusion of marigold extract had a negative effect on the Zn and P balance, and that neither extract had any major effect on the digestion and utilization of energy and other investigated nutrients, or on bone mineralization, irrespective of the oil source included in the diet.
We conducted two trials to evaluate the methionine-sparing effects of choline (Chol) and betaine (Bet), and their effects on growth performance and blood antioxidative potential in heat-stressed broiler chickens fed methionine (Met)-deficient diets. We used 361-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) in a completely randomized study with 5 replicate pens of 12 birds each. After Day 21, we raised the temperature to 35±3°C using an automated air-forced heater for 12 hours/day from 8 am to 8 pm to expose the birds to heat stress. In Trial 1, the treatments comprised a negative control (control-; 1200 mg/kg Met-deficient), a positive control (control+; recommended level of Met), 280Chol (control- plus 280 mg/kg Chol), 560Chol (control- plus 560 mg/kg Chol), 320Bet (control- plus 320 mg/kg Bet), and 640Bet (control- plus 640 mg/kg Bet); and in Trial 2, the treatments comprised a negative control (control-), a positive control (control+), 140Chol+160Bet (control- plus 140 mg/kg Chol and 160 mg/kg Bet), 280Chol+160Bet (control- plus 280 mg/kg Chol and 160 mg/kg Bet), 140Chol+320Bet (control- plus 140 mg/kg Chol and 320 mg/kg Bet), and 280Chol+320Bet (control- plus 280 mg/kg Chol and 320 mg/kg Bet). Compared with the other treatments, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved in the 280Chol and control+ groups in Trials 1 and 2 (P<0.05). In Trial 2, the cost of meat production for the entire experimental period (1-42 days) was higher in the 140Cho+320Bet-fed birds than in the other birds (P<0.05), except the control- birds. Supplementing diets with 280 mg/kg of Chol significantly reduced the serum concentration of uric acid compared with the control+ group (P<0.05). Our results indicate that the Met requirements of heat-stressed broiler chickens can be reduced by 20% (1200 mg/kg) if the diet is supplemented with 280 mg/kg of Chol.
The study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and nutritive value of sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles (sDDGS) and its effect as a feed supplement on the performance of geese. Experiment 1 showed that the gross energy, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, and amino acid content values of sDDGS were 17.87 MJ/kg and 15.48, 4.26, 31.46, 0.17, 0.25, and 0.06-3.18% [dry matter basis (DM)], respectively. Experiment 2 used fasting-force feeding to measure the true metabolizable energy of sDDGS (11.38 MJ/kg DM) and true total tract digestibility of amino acids (43.16-80.92% DM) in geese. Experiment 3 examined the effectiveness of sDDGS as a feed supplement for geese. Three hundred and fifteen 35-day-old male Sichuan white geese with an initial average body weight of 1,732 g were randomly allocated to five treatments. Geese in each treatment group were fed one of five experimental diets (control diet alone, or supplemented with 4, 8, 12, or 16% sDDGS) until 70 days of age. Inclusion of sDDGS in the diet did not affect daily average weight gain (P > 0.05). Birds fed diets containing up to 8% sDDGS had higher average feed intake (P < 0.05) than geese fed the control diet, and the feed/gain ratio in geese fed diets containing 16% sDDGS was higher (P < 0.05) than in the control and the 4% sDDGS group. The yields of breast meat, leg meat, subcutaneous fat and skin, and abdominal fat were not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary sDDGS levels. Generally, sDDGS is a potentially valuable feedstuff for geese, but it should be supplemented with a high-energy or protein-rich ingredient. To improve growth performance and carcass yield, up to 12% sDDGS can be included in diets from 35 to 70 days of age.
The offal (hearts, stomachs, and livers) of 24 African ostriches (Strutio camelus var. domesticus) from Polish farms were used in this study. Offal were taken directly from the production line; they were weighed and their water, fat, protein, ash and total collagen contents were determined. Ostrich hearts and stomachs were found to have high protein (18.1% and 19.0%, respectively) and low fat content (2.0% and 0.9%, respectively), typical of lean meat. Thus, the offal could be used in processed offal products or in pet food. Ostrich livers had slightly lower protein content (16.6%) and significantly higher and diverse fat content (4.4-28.4%). Heavier livers had significantly (P < 0.05) higher fat and lower protein, water, and ash content. The utilization of ostrich liver should be preceded by classification of its fat content.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary fenugreek seed extract (FSE) supplementation on egg production, egg quality, blood profiles, cecal microflora, and excreta noxious gas emission in laying hens. A total of 384 laying hens (26-weeks old, Hyline-brown) were fed three different levels of FSE (0, 0.05, and 0.1%) in a corn-soybean diet for 6 weeks. The inclusion of FSE in the laying hen diet did not affect egg production, feed intake, or feed conversion among treatments; however, egg weight, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell thickness, and yolk color increased in FSE-fed groups (linear, P<0.05). Supplemental FSE decreased the serum total cholesterol concentration, whereas the HDL-cholesterol concentration increased in the FSE fed-groups (linear, P<0.05). FSE led to an increase in cecal Lactobacillus number (linear, P<0.05), and a decrease in Escherichia coli number (quadratic, P<0.05) and excreta ammonia gas emission (linear, P<0.05). These results suggest that the addition of FSE does not increase egg production, but may affect egg quality, serum total- and HDL-cholesterol concentration, and cecal microflora. FSE also decreased ammonia gas emission in laying hen excreta.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell walls (YCWs) in diets with low doses of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), alone or in combination, on broiler performance and immune response. A total of 210 male broilers aged 1-21 days were used. Broilers were completely randomized into seven treatments with five replicates of six broilers each, as follows: 1) control diet; 2) control + 350 μg/kg AFB1; 3) Control + 350 μg/kg OTA; 4) Control + 350 μg/kg AFB1 and 350 μg/kg OTA; 5) Control + 350 μg/kg AFB1 and 1.5 kg/ton YCW; 6) control + 350 μg/kg OTA and 1.5 kg/ton YCW; 7) control + 350 μg/kg AFB1, 350 μg/kg OTA, and 1.5 kg/ton YCW. The broilers were housed under environmentally controlled conditions in Petersime battery cages. Weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion index were measured. The relative weights of the thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius (BF) were evaluated. The local immune response was assessed by quantifying the level of intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA). The cellular immune response was evaluated using a delayed hypersensitivity test. Hemograms and blood cell counts were also performed. The results showed that mycotoxins decreased performance and reduced the immune response (p<0.05) of broilers. Weight gain and feed conversion improved in the groups receiving YCWs. The YCWs increased (p<0.05) intestinal IgAs and the cellular immune response (p<0.05). The addition of YCWs also affected the relative weight of the thymus, spleen, and BF (p<0.05), and the leukocyte, lymphocyte, and heterophil counts (p<0.05). The addition of YCWs can be an alternative to counterage the negative effect of low doses of AFB1 and OTA in broilers diets.
Gross, histological, and immunohistochemical changes in the combs of chickens after bile duct ligation (BDL) are described. Gross reductions in comb size and volume and lower serum testosterone levels were evident in chickens after BDL. Histologically, atrophic combs were characterized by reduced blood capillary diameter, decreased acid mucopolysaccharides, thinning of the stratum germinativum of the epidermis and dermis, and reduced immunostaining intensity of androgen receptors. These results suggest that the affected cells in atrophic combs are androgen targets. BDL caused testicular atrophy in chickens, a primary complication of liver disease, and the resultant low serum testosterone levels subsequently caused atrophy of the comb. In other words, the atrophy of the comb observed in BDL chickens was a secondary complication of liver dysfunction that simulated the effects of liver disease.
Microcystins (MCs) are included in drinking water and a family of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins that have been implicated in the impairment of liver function in various animals. There is scarce information on the effect of MCs on cytokines and apoptotic gene expression and on whether MCs can induce inflammation and apoptosis in avian hepatic tissue. This study investigated the expression of genes related to proinflammatory interleukins, apoptosis, and antioxidant function in chicken liver tissues cultured in the presence of different doses of microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR). Livers were collected from five hens and liver slices were placed in sterile tubes containing Dulbecco’s medium supplemented with 0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL of MC-LR. After 6 h of cultivation, total RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was performed for interleukin genes (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8), TNF sf15, an apoptotic gene (caspase-3), and genes involved in antioxidant function ([catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-PX], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]). Liver tissues in each group were fixed for histopathology. MC-LR downregulated the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF sf15 as compared to the control (0 ng/mL) in dose-dependent patterns; however, the differences were not significant. The expression of IL-6 in liver tissues exposed to 100 ng/mL of MC-LR was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in tissues exposed to 1 ng/mL. In contrast, MC-LR upregulated the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and genes involved in antioxidant function in the liver tissues after 6 h, without the difference reaching statistical significance. Hepatocytes showed vacuolar degeneration and focal necrosis according to the dose of MC-LR. This study highlighted the risk of low doses of MC-LR in chicken liver. Moreover, MC-LR could modulate the transcriptional patterns of at least IL-6 in liver-tissue culture of chicken after 6 h of exposure.
Lutein is an essential dietary carotenoid with health benefits and is inter alia responsible for the colouration of egg yolk. The relationship between lutein accumulation and egg yolk colouration was therefore studied in more detail. After feeding a low-luteine diet for 21 days, 14 birds (Lohmann brown hens aged 20 weeks) were fed a diet containing marigold (80 mg lutein/kg feed) and 14 other birds were fed a diet containing oleoresin (45 mg lutein/kg feed) for 21 days; for both groups of birds, this feeding period was followed by withdrawal for 21 days. The Roche Yolk Colour Fan (RYCF) score (0 to 15, where higher values denote greater colour intensity; R2 = 0.87; P < 0.01) and redness (R2 = 0.89; P < 0.01) increased with increasing lutein content of egg yolk. Total carotenoid content had a poor relationship with lightness (R2 = 0.13; P > 0.05) and yellowness (R2 = 0.12; P > 0.05) of the yolk. It may be concluded that increased lutein is potentially responsible for an increased RYCF score and redness (a*), but decreased yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*), of egg yolk.
The objectives of this study were to examine morphological changes of oogonia and primordial follicles in the ovaries of turkey poults within the first week after hatching, and to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation on histology and apoptosis of these immature ovaries. Ovaries from poults at Day 1, Day 3, Day 5 and Day 7 post-hatch were cryopreserved using a modified vitrification method. The histology of oogonia and primordial follicles in fresh and cryopreserved tissue was assessed, and the apoptosis of tissue in different age groups was identified using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The mean oogonium diameter in fresh tissue increased from 11.9 ± 1.3 μm (Day 1) to 15.2 ± 2.7 μm (Day 7) within the first week; however, oogonia in cryopreserved tissue from Day 3 and Day 7 ovaries were smaller than those in fresh tissue (P <0.05). Formation of primordial follicles was observed as early as Day 5. For Day 7 ovaries, follicles in cryopreserved tissue were smaller than those in fresh tissue; this was also true for oocyte diameter (P <0.05). Apoptosis was most frequent in Day 1 fresh tissue, which was reduced as the poults aged. The frequency of apoptosis in cryopreserved tissue was comparable among age groups. This study provides the first documentation of morphological changes in the turkey ovary within the first week post-hatching. Results suggest that oogonia and primordial follicles that are smaller in size could be more resistant to the damage caused by cryopreservation. Of the ages assessed in this study, it is concluded that 3 days of age appears optimal for recovery of donor ovaries for cryopreservation, taking the advance of reduced cryoinjury and ease of tissue handling at this age.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of melatonin to protect cultured granulosa cells from the harmful effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in quail. Granulosa cells isolated from Japanese quails were pretreated with or without melatonin (10 or 100 μg/mL) for 12 h and then incubated for 12 h in the absence or presence of 100 ng/mL LPS. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (dityrosine and nitrite) were determined by ELISA and the Griess reaction. Cell viability was quantified using an MTT assay. Additionally, the level of progesterone was measured by ELISA. We found that melatonin decreased LPS-induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, melatonin increased the dityrosine level, but suppressed the nitrite level. Finally, melatonin administration increased the viability of LPS-stimulated granulosa cells in vitro. However, progesterone basal secretion was not significantly changed. These results suggest that melatonin protects cultured granulosa cells from LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress damage and provide evidence that melatonin might have therapeutic utility in ovarian follicle infection in Japanese quail.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of melatonin on progesterone production by granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. For in vitro experiments, granulosa cells were isolated from pre-ovulatory follicles (F1-F3) when the F1 follicles were predicted to be either immature or mature (at 3-6 or 18-21 h after oviposition, respectively). Granulosa cells were cultured for 12 h with or without melatonin concentration gradients of 0.0001-100 μg/mL, thereby averting luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulation. The concentration of progesterone in culture medium was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The expression of melatonin receptor subtypes in granulosa cells from F1 follicles was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. The LH receptor (LHCGR) mRNA level in cultured granulosa cells of the F1 follicles was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Six quails were used in each of four groups for in vivo experiments. Each group received intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (0.67 mg/kg body weight) or mock-vehicle at 3 or 18 h after oviposition, respectively. The birds were decapitated to collect serum 3 h later (at 6 or 21 h after oviposition, respectively). The serum progesterone level was also measured using an enzyme immunoassay. We observed that melatonin receptor subtypes (Mel-1a, 1b, and 1c) were expressed in the granulosa cells of the F1 follicles of the Japanese quail. Melatonin suppresses the LHCGR mRNA expression in granulosa cells of F1 follicles but does not affect the basal secretion of progesterone in cultured granulosa cells of the F1-F3 follicles. In addition, melatonin treatment has no influence on the serum progesterone concentration at 6 h post-oviposition, but suppresses progesterone level 21 h after oviposition in the Japanese quail.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of dietary inclusion level of canola meal (CM) on performance, organ weights and hepatic type I deiodinase gene expression in broilers. A completely randomized design with 4 levels of CM (0, 10, 20 and 30%) as a substitute for soybean meal (SBM) was utilized with 5 replicates of 9 birds each. The results showed that body weight gain (1 to 42 d) decreased linearly (P<0.01) as the inclusion of CM increased. An increase in dietary level of CM also resulted in a linear (P<0.05) increase in feed conversion ratio (1 to 42 d). Proportion of thyroids (P<0.05) and liver (P<0.01) increased linearly with increased levels of CM. A significant linear increase in right ventricular weight: total ventricular weight ratio (P<0.01) and heart weight (P<0.05) were observed by substituting CM for SBM. The concentration of plasma triiodothyronine and triiodothyronine: tetraiodothyronine ratio decreased linearly (P<0.01) with increasing level of CM. Expression of hepatic type I deiodinase gene (D1) decreased linearly (P<0.01) as inclusion level of CM in diets increased. Moreover, increasing linear (P<0.01) and quadratic responses (P<0.05) were observed in follicles number and epithelial thickness in broilers thyroids followed by increased levels of CM. In addition, increases in dietary CM inclusion led to a linear (P<0.01) increase in thyroid follicles diameters. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that feeding increasing CM inclusions from 0 to 30% negatively affect growth performance of broiler chickens. From this study, it can also be concluded that substitution of CM for SBM adversely interferes with thyroid and liver functions and decrease D1 gene expression, likely because of higher dietary concentration of glucosinolates.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lemon balm (LB; Melissa officinalis L.) extract as additive on performance, health status and carcass traits of broilers during a 42-days production cycle. One hundred mixed chicks of Ross 308 strain were assigned for five dietary treatments with four replicates per group and five birds per replicate as follows: control diet, 0.5LB, 1.0LB, 1.5LB and 2.0LB with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mL of LB extract per liter of drinking water, respectively. In overall, at 42nd day, low feed, energy and protein efficiency (P < 0.05) were observed in 1.0LB group than in control diet. However, during the 3rd and 5-6th weeks, feed, energy and protein intakes were improved (P < 0.05), without any efficiency enhancement (P > 0.05) mainly in group on 1.0LB diet. During the 5th week of rearing, daily weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in groups 0.5LB, 1.0LB and 2.0LB compared to control diet. At the end of feeding period, cecal enterococcus bacteria colony count was higher (P < 0.05) and left cecum diameter was lower (P < 0.05) in 1.0LB group. Hematological parameters and viscera and carcass traits remained unaffected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the supplementation with LB as natural feed additive resulted in a potential positive effect on broilers performance mainly during the grower and finisher periods.
Chicken agonistic behavior, a type of social behavior related to threatening and fighting, is among the most serious problems in the poultry industry. However, due to luck of effective models for investigating the brain mechanisms of the behavior, no effective measures have been taken. This study, therefore, aimed to select the behavioral tests available for monitoring chicken agonistic behavior. Two behavioral tests, resident-intruder (R-I) test and social interaction (SI) test, were performed for 10 minutes in 10 pairs of male layer chicks at 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 days of age, and total agonistic frequencies (TAF: Sum of the frequencies of agonistic displays like pecking, biting, kicking, threatening, and leaping) and latency (the period of time from the beginning of the behavioral test to the occurrence of the first agonistic behavior) were measured as indices of agonistic behavior. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in TAF and latency between aggressors and opponents in both the behavioral tests. In the R-I test, the TAF of aggressors significantly increased from 8 to 20 days of age, and the latency significantly decreased from 8 to 24 days of age. In the SI test, however, the TAF of aggressors significantly increased and the latency significantly decreased only from 16 to 20 days of age. When the criterion of high agonistic behavior was defined as the TAF, where aggressors showed more than 30 times of TAF and the opponents did less than one-third TAF of aggressors, the aggression establishment rate (AER), which is equal to the number of aggressors showing high agonistic behavior per total behavioral trials, was significantly higher in the R-I test than in the SI test. These results suggest that the R-I test, rather than the SI test, is an effective tool for monitoring agonistic behavior of layer chicks.
The present study aimed to establish whether supplemental Japanese pepper seed (JPS) affects feed intake in broiler chicks under ad libitum conditions. Experiments were designed to estimate the acute effect of JPS on feed and water intake using 5%—20% JPS supplemental feeds. JPS supplemental feed demonstrated a tendency to suppress feed intake and water intake in a dose-dependent manner during the 2 h post-feeding period, and chicks seldom ate 20% JPS supplemental feed at 1 h post-feeding. No significant difference was observed in the rectal temperature between groups during the 2 h post-feeding period. In a 5-h feeding experiment, no JPS level had any effect on feed or water intake in chicks. These data suggest that the adverse effect of JPS may be due to volatile stimulation; however, the effect disappears after 5 h post-feeding.
The excessive accumulation of body fat has become a serious problem in the broiler industry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of glucagon on the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in chicken white adipose tissue (WAT). Four hours of fasting significantly increased plasma levels of free fatty acid in broiler chickens. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in abdominal WAT significantly increased by fasting, whereas the mRNA levels of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homolog 2 (DGAT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) significantly decreased. The results suggest that fasting stimulates lipolysis and suppresses adipogenesis and re-esterification of TG in chicken WAT. Glucagon significantly increased the mRNA levels of PDK4 in chicken primary adipocytes, whereas there were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of ATGL, DGAT2, and PPARγ. Our findings suggest that glucagon upregulates PDK4 expression and may stimulate lipolysis without affecting the expression of ATGL in chicken WAT.
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Notice on the revision of Instruction for Authors for JPS.
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October 09, 2015
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