We investigated a reproductive flock of Zatorska geese. The birds were divided into four groups: three-year-old ganders (n = 10), and one-, two-, and three-year-old layers (n = 30). Mature feathers were collected from the birds between July and September (i.e., after breeding). Before collection, the feathers and down were evaluated to determine their maturity. The quantitative composition of each sample of feathers was evaluated manually. The evaluated quality traits of the feathers were turbidity of an aqueous extract, acidity, oxygen index number, and fat content. The data were analyzed using the SAS statistical package with multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures.
The weight of feathers collected from all three gatherings was the highest for the three-year-old ganders. In subsequent gatherings, the weight of the collected feathers tended to increase. There was a statistically significant difference in down composition between the first and the subsequent two gatherings in all age-groups of geese. Neither the age nor the gender of the birds had an effect on the quantity of down obtained, which was 80-85g.
The turbidity of the feather extract was lowest for feathers collected in the first gathering. For the layers, the turbidity of the feather extract was lowest in feathers obtained from the one-year-old birds. The feathers ranged from slightly acidic to neutral, with pH values between 5.9 and 7.2. The fat content was lowest in feathers collected in the first gathering (2.4-2.7%), and tended to increase in subsequent gatherings. There was no statistically significant difference in the oxygen index number between individual gatherings, or between the three-years-old layers and the ganders.
In Japan, the majority of chicken meat is obtained from fast-growing broiler chickens. Because most Japanese chicken breeds have a low meat yield and egg production, many of these breeds are endangered. Recently, the palatability of meat and eggs of native chickens has been reevaluated in the Japanese market. Jidori, which means chicken from the local, is an indigenous local chicken that is more delicious, firmer in texture, and more expensive than the broiler chickens. Most Japanese consumers recognize that the meat of Jidori chicken is richer in flavor than that of the broiler chicken. However, the reason for this rich flavor of the meat of Jidori chicken has not been elucidated. Recently, we found that arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4n-6), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is associated with the rich flavor of the meat and eggs of Jidori chicken. The present paper summarizes the discovery of the involvement of AA in the flavor characteristic of the meat and eggs of chicken, and also the genetic regulation of the AA content in the meat and eggs of Jidori chicken.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synbiotic supplementation, a potential alternative to antibiotic supplementation, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, immunity, and oxidative status of Cherry Valley ducks. In total, 540 1-day-old male Cherry Valley ducks were randomly subjected to 3 treatments, and each treatment group consisted of 6 replicates with 30 birds each. Birds in the 3 treatments were fed a basal diet devoid of antibiotics (control group) or a basal diet supplemented with either 40mg/kg zinc bacitracin or 1.5g/kg synbiotic composed of xylooligosaccharide, Clostridium butyricum, and Bacillus subtilis for 42 days. Compared with the control group, dietary synbiotic and antibiotic supplementation decreased the feed/gain ratio of ducks (P = 0.025) to a similar extent (P > 0.05). Birds in the antibiotic group exhibited lower average daily feed intake (P = 0.024) whereas such an effect was not observed in the birds of the synbiotic group (P > 0.05). Synbiotic and antibiotic supplementation reduced abdominal fat yield (P = 0.032) and drip loss of the breast muscle (P < 0.001) to similar extents (P > 0.05). Additionally, synbiotic and antibiotic supplementation increased the relative weight of the bursa (P = 0.005) and total superoxide dismutase activity in the ileal mucosa (P = 0.025) to similar extents (P > 0.05). Moreover, ileal malondialdehyde accumulation was reduced with the supplementation of synbiotic (P = 0.028), but not antibiotic. The results indicated that dietary synbiotic supplementation was beneficial for growth performance, carcass compositions, meat quality, immune function, and antioxidant capacity of Cherry Valley ducks, and it could be used as an alternative to antibiotics in Cherry Valley ducks.
Calpain 3 (CAPN3), also known as p94, is associated with multiple production traits in domestic animals. However, the molecular characteristics of the CAPN3 gene and its expression profile in goose tissues have not been reported. In this study, CAPN3 cDNA of the Sichuan white goose was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The CAPN3 full-length cDNA sequence consists of a 2,316-bp coding sequence (CDS) that encodes 771 amino acids with a molecular mass of 89,019kDa. The protein was predicted to have no signal peptide, but several N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation, and phosphorylation sites. The secondary structure of CAPN3 was predicted to be 38.65% α-helical. Sequence alignment showed that CAPN3 of Sichuan white goose shared more than 90% amino acid sequence similarity with those of Japanese quail, turkey, helmeted guineafowl, duck, pigeon, and chicken. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that goose CAPN3 has a close genetic relationship and small evolutionary distance with those of the birds. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in 15-day-old animals, the expression level of CAPN3 was significantly higher in breast muscle than in thigh tissues. These results serve as a foundation for further investigations of the function of the goose CAPN3 gene.
The aim of this study was to optimize and characterize Flavourzyme hydrolysis conditions for the preparation of antioxidant peptides from duck meat, using response surface methodology. The results indicated that optimal Flavourzyme hydrolysis conditions for preparation of antioxidant peptides from duck protein were a temperature of 50.19°C, pH 5.45, and a reaction time of 1.03 h. Compared to non-hydrolyzed duck meat, Flavourzyme hydrolysis significantly improved the hydroxyl-radical scavenging, DPPH radical-scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, reducing, and ABTS radical cation-scavenging activities of duck meat. Therefore, Flavourzyme can be regarded as an effective hydrolytic enzyme for the preparation of antioxidant peptides from duck meat.
Mitochondrial content is regarded a useful feature to distinguish muscle-fiber types in terms of energy metabolism in skeletal muscles. Increasing evidence suggests that specific mitochondrial bioenergetic phenotypes exist in metabolically different muscle fibers. A few studies have examined the energetic properties of skeletal muscle in domestic fowls; however, no information on muscle bioenergetics in broiler chickens selectively bred for faster growth is available. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mitochondrial contents and functions of chicken skeletal muscle consisting entirely of type I (oxidative) (M. pubo-ischio-femoralis pars medialis), type IIA (glycolytic/oxidative) (M. pubo-ischio-femoralis pars lateralis), and type IIB (glycolytic) (M. pectoralis superficialis) muscle fibers. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was the highest in type IIA muscle tissues and isolated mitochondria, among the muscle tissues tested. Although no difference was registered in mitochondrial CS activity between type IIB and type I muscles, tissue CS activity was significantly higher in the latter. Histochemical staining for NADH tetrazolium reductase and the ratio of muscle-tissue to mitochondrial CS activity indicated that type I, type IIA, and type IIB muscle-fiber types showed decreasing mitochondrial content. Mitochondria from type I muscle exhibited a higher coupled respiration rate induced by pyruvate/malate, palmitoyl-CoA/malate, and palmitoyl-carnitine, as respiratory substrates, than type IIB-muscle mitochondria, while the response of mitochondria from type IIA muscle to those substrates was comparable to that of mitochondria from type I muscle. Type IIA-muscle mitochondria exhibited the highest carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 level among all tissues tested, which may contribute to the higher fatty acid oxidation in these mitochondria. The results suggest that mitochondrial abundance is one of the features differentiating metabolic characteristics of different chicken skeletal muscle types. Moreover, the study demonstrated that type IIA-muscle mitochondria may have distinct metabolic capacities.
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is released from the intestinal L cells in response to food ingestion and stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreatic B cells, by binding to its specific receptor (GLP-1R), which is expressed on the pancreatic B cells in the mammalian pancreas. Previously, we demonstrated that chicken GLP-1R was expressed on the pancreatic D cells by using a specific antibody against chicken GLP-1R. In the present study, we compared the localization of GLP-1R in the pancreases of three avian species; white leghorn chicken, northern bobwhite, and common ostrich, using the double immunofluorescence technique. We found that the types of pancreatic islets in the northern bobwhite pancreas were similar to those found in the chicken pancreas. The ostrich pancreas contained several types of pancreatic islets. GLP-1R-immunoreactive cells were found in all types of pancreatic islets in both northern bobwhite and ostrich and expressed somatostatin immunoreactivity. The present results indicate that pancreatic D cells are the target cells of GLP-1, and GLP-1 might play a physiological role via somatostatin in the avian species.
Bitterness is one of the five basic tastes, and sensitivity to bitterness is important in that it enables animals to avoid harmful and toxic substances. In humans, taste sensitivity decreases with age, although the extent of loss varies depending on the taste quality. In chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), baby chicks have been found to be more sensitive to salt and sour taste qualities than adults. In this study, therefore, we investigated the growth-associated changes in bitter taste sensitivity in chicks. We examined the behavioral perceptions toward the bitter compounds chloramphenicol and andrographolide in chicks at three different growth stages. Then, we measured the relative expression of the functional bitter taste receptors in the chick palate. In behavioral drinking tests, the 0-1-week-old chicks consumed a significantly lower amount of bitter solutions than water, whereas the 8-9-week-old chicks showed lower avoidance of the bitter solutions than the 0-1-week-old and 4-5-week-old chicks. Real-time PCR assay showed that the 0-1-week-old chicks had significantly higher expression of one of the functional bitter taste receptors in the palate than that in the older chicks. These results suggest that baby chicks are more sensitive to bitterness than older chicks. These findings may be useful in the production of new feedstuff for chicks according to their growth stages.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of lysolecithin emulsifier on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood lipid profiles in growing broiler chickens. In total, 1,020 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens with an average initial live weight of 43 ± 1.2 g were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments for a 35 d experiment. The treatments included: (1) NC, negative control (metabolizable energy (ME) = 3,100 kcal/kg for phase 1 and phase 2), (2) PC, positive control (ME = 3,200 kcal/kg), (3) T1, NC + 0.03% lysolecithin, (4) T2, NC + 0.06% lysolecithin, and (5) T3, NC + 0.09% lysolecithin. During days 1-35, the feed conversion ratios (FCR) of broiler chickens fed with T2 and T3 diets were lower than those of broiler chickens fed with NC diet (P < 0.05). On day 35, the total tract nutrient retention (TTNR) of gross energy and ether extract of broiler chickens fed with PC and T3 diets was higher than those fed with NC diet (P < 0.05). However, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels were not influenced by lysolecithin supplementation. In conclusion, lysolecithin supplementation improved FCR and TTNR of energy and ether extract when broiler chickens were offered a reduced energy diet.
Selenium (Se) is an essential element in poultry nutrition and its bio-efficacy depends on its chemical form. A growing body of research proves that organic forms of Se, mainly selenomethionine (SeMet), in poultry diets have a range of important advantages over traditional sodium selenite. In fact, the organic Se concept considers SeMet as a storage form of Se in the chicken body. As chickens are not able to synthesize SeMet, its provision through diet is a key strategy to fight commercially relevant stresses. Indeed, in stress conditions, when increased selenoprotein expression requires additional Se, while its provision via feed usually decreases due to a reduction in feed consumption, Se reserves in the body (mainly in the muscles) could help maintain an effective antioxidant defense and prevent detrimental consequences of stresses. The poultry industry is looking for the most effective sources of organic Se for commercial use. In this review, advantages and disadvantages of main organic Se sources for poultry (Se-yeast, SeMet, and OH-SeMet) are analyzed, and future directions for the development of new Se sources are identified.
Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is enzymatically metabolized to two compounds, kynurenine and serotonin, and 95% of tryptophan is metabolized to kynurenine. As chickens have hyperglycemia and high temperature, tryptophan glycation occurs more easily in chickens than in mammals. Part of tryptophan is non-enzymatically converted to two types of glycated tryptophan, tryptophan-Amadori product and (1R,3S)-1-(D-gluco-1,2,3,4,5-pentahydroxypentyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (PHP-THβC). Although these compounds are detected in the plasma of chickens, information on the half-life of PHP-THβC in the blood circulation is limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to measure the half-life of plasma PHP-THβC in chickens. PHP-THβC (114 nmol/0.2 mL/70 g body weight) was intravenously administered to chickens via the wing vein, and blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 180, 360, 720, and 1440 min after administration. Plasma concentrations of PHP-THβC were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma PHP-THβC reached to a peak concentration of 16.1 μM at 30 min after administration, and then decreased rapidly to return to the physiological level (0 min) at 360 min after administration. The half-life of plasma PHP-THβC was calculated by non-linear regression analysis, and it was found to be 107 min. This study was the first to measure plasma half-life of glycated tryptophan.
To date, few reports have been published on the sensitivity of birds to sweet tastes. Therefore, in this study, the behavioral responses of White Leghorn chicks to the sweet taste of saccharin and the bitter taste of quinine were assessed. Three chicks were provided with a solution of 3.0 mM quinine and a mixture of 3.0 mM quinine mixed with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 10.0 mM saccharin in a two-bottle choice test for 48 h. It was found that the chicks consumed more of the 0.5 mM saccharin/3.0 mM quinine mixture but significantly less of the 10.0 mM saccharin/3.0 mM quinine mixtures than the quinine solution alone (P < 0.05). The aversive behavior of 3.0 mM quinine solution was eased when mixed with 0.5 mM saccharin, indicating that chicks are detecting the sweetness associated with the 0.5 mM saccharin. The aversion to the 1.0 and 10.0 mM saccharin solutions might be stronger than to the 3.0 mM quinine solution alone. These findings suggest that chicks are able to detect this artificial sweetener.
This study evaluated the interaction effect of maternal and progeny vitamin regimens on the performance of ducklings. At 38 weeks of age, 780 female and 156 male duck breeders were fed either regular or high vitamin premix diet (maternal high premix had higher levels of all vitamins except K3 than maternal regular premix) for 16 weeks. Ducklings hatched from eggs laid at the end of the duck breeder trial were kept separate according to maternal treatment and were fed 2 levels of vitamin premix (NRC and high, progeny high premix had higher levels of all vitamins except biotin than progeny NRC premix) for 35 days. Body weight (P<0.001) and tibia ash (P=0.033) of 1-day-old ducklings and serum total superoxide dismutase activity of 14-day-old ducklings (P=0.027) were increased by maternal high vitamin premix. Progeny high vitamin premix increased body weight (14 days, P=0.019; 35 days, P=0.034), body weight gain (1-14 days, P=0.021; 1-35 days, P=0.034), gain:feed ratio (1-14 days, P<0.001), feed intake (15-35 days, (P=0.037), serum total antioxidant capacity (14 days, P=0.048; 35 days, P=0.047), and serum calcium (14 days, P=0.007), and decreased serum malondialdehyde (14 days, P=0.038; 35 days, P=0.031) of ducklings. Maternal vitamin premix-progeny vitamin premix interaction significantly affected body weight (14 days, P=0.029), body weight gain (1-14 days, P=0.029), and feed intake (1-14 days, P=0.018) of progeny ducklings. Briefly, progeny NRC premix decreased the growth performance (days 1-14) of ducklings from maternal regular vitamin group, but not duckling from maternal high vitamin group. The results demonstrate a shortcoming of current vitamin recommendations for ducklings and suggest that the vitamin needs of starter ducklings can be met by either maternal or progeny vitamin supplementation.
The aims of the present study were to investigate the growth performance of ducks fed diets with different types of Sipjeondaebo-tang (ST) byproduct meal and red ginseng marc with fermented red koji (RGMK), and to investigate ammonia (NH3) fluxes from duck litter treated with alum or aluminum chloride (AlCl3). A total of 270 1-d-old ducks (180 males and 90 females) were allotted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replicates of 15 birds per pen. The six diet treatments were: basal diet, pelleted 1% ST byproduct powder, pelleted 1% RGMK, 1% blends (a mixture of ST byproduct and RGMK) powder, 1% pelleted blends, and coated pellets of 1% blends. The six litter treatments were: no treatment, 50, 100, or 200 g alum/kg duck litter, and 100 g or 200 g AlCl3/kg duck litter (treatments T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively). During days 10 to 40, ducks fed the 5 experimental diets had significantly different (p < 0.05) weight gains and feed conversion ratios compared with those fed the control diet, but initial body weight, final body weight, feed intake, and mortality were not affected. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in NH3 fluxes among treatments over the 6 weeks of the study, except for week 0. The relative NH3 losses at week 6 were lower by 25.6, 45.3, 45.6, 46.7, and 48.6% than those in the controls in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively. In conclusion, feeding pellets or coated pellets of ST and RGMK and using alum or AlCl3 in the litter at the same time improves weight gain and feed conversion ratio performance and reduces mortality and NH3 losses in ducks.
Recent studies have suggested that a high-fructose diet leads to the development of metabolic syndrome in mammals. However, relatively little information is available regarding the absorption of fructose in the chicken intestine. We therefore investigated fructose absorption and its transporters in the chicken small intestine. The gene expression of three transporters (glucose transporter protein member 2 and 5 and sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1) in the jejunum of fasted chicks were lower than those in chicks fed ad libitum. The everted intestinal sacs (in vitro method for investigating intestinal absorption) showed that the concentration of fructose uptake rapidly increased within 15 min after incubation, and then gradually increased until 60 min. After 15 min of incubation, fructose uptake in the ad libitum chick intestine was approximately 2-fold that in the fasted intestine and was less than half of the glucose uptake in the ad libitum chick intestine. Our results suggest that fructose is absorbed in the small intestine of chicks and that uptake is decreased by fasting treatment with decreases in the mRNA expression of related transporters.
This study determined the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6) on the expression of eggshell mineralization-related ion transporters in the hen uterus mucosa. Uterine mucosal tissues collected from White Leghorn laying hens were cultured for 1.5 or 3 h in TCM-199 medium with or without 100 ng/mL recombinant chicken IL-1β or IL-6. Total RNA and protein were extracted from the cultured tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses and some tissues were processed into paraffin sections for immunostaining with calcium-binding protein D28K (CaBP-D28K) antibody. The gene expression of CaBP-D28K, PMCA1, PMCA2 (plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1 and 2; calcium pumps), CA2 (carbonic anhydrase 2), and SLC26A9 (solute carrier family 26 member 9; HCO3- transporter) was analyzed by real-time PCR and protein density of CaBP-D28K by western blotting. Expression of CaBP-D28K, PMCA1, PMCA2, CA2, and SLC26A9 was significantly higher in the tissues treated with IL-1β and IL-6 than in the control group at 1.5 h of incubation. Immunoreactive CaBP-D28K was localized in the uterine tubular gland cells in all groups, but its level was significantly lower in the tissues incubated for 1.5 h with IL-1β and IL-6 than in the control group. No significant differences were observed in the expression of all tested genes and CaBP-D28k content between the cytokine-treated and control groups at 3 h of incubation. These results suggest that IL-1β and IL-6 may not suppress the expression of genes related to Ca2+ and HCO3- transportation for eggshell formation, while CaBP-D28K protein content in uterine glandular cells was reduced by these cytokines during the early exposure phase. Thus, IL-1β and IL-6 induced by infections may disrupt the transportation of Ca2+ for eggshell formation through decreased CaBP-D28K content in the uterus.
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone mainly secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. In birds, PRL exerts a variety of physiological functions in target tissues expressing the PRL receptor (PRLR). In chicken, the PRLR mRNA is abundant in the anterior pituitary gland, but its regional and cellular localization are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression of the PRLR mRNA in cephalic and caudal lobes of the chicken anterior pituitary gland. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed high levels of PRLR mRNA in both cephalic and caudal lobes. In situ hybridization revealed that the PRLR mRNA was distributed in a wide area of both lobes, and co-localized with the PRL and growth hormone (GH) mRNAs in the cephalic and caudal lobes, respectively. These results suggest that PRL exerts autocrine/paracrine effects through PRLR on PRL-producing lactotrophs and GH-producing somatotrophs in the chicken anterior pituitary gland.
The selection of rapidly growing animals in breeding programs has had inadvertent detrimental effects on meat quality. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body weight (BW) and meat quality traits, and the effects of genes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), and calpain 1 (CAPN1) on BW, carcass yield, and meat quality of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao. Five hundred and ten chickens were used for genotyping. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism were used to determine the genotypes of IGF-I, IGF-II, MC4R, and CAPN1. BWs were collected from 0-16 weeks of age. The chickens were sacrificed at 16 weeks and individual carcass yields and meat qualities (drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force) were recorded. The correlations between BW and meat qualities were determined. Significant correlation between BW and cooking loss and shear force of breast meat and between BW and drip loss of thigh meat were detected (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of the association was low (-0.1 - 0.1). IGF-I was eliminated from the association analysis because genotype AA was lost and the frequency of occurrence of the AC genotype was low (0.04). Significant associations between IGF-II, CAPN1, and BW, and CAPN1 and meat quality were detected, while non-significant association between MC4R and BW was observed. The results indicated a low, negative relationship between BW and meat quality, and that the IGF-II and CAPN1 could be used as genetic markers in Leung Hang Khao chickens to improve growth and meat quality through breeding.
Varying amounts of phytosterols (PS) occur naturally in several foods of plant origin. PS, which are structurally and functionally similar to cholesterol, have been shown to reduce plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Moreover, PS disrupts endocrine function in certain animals. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high doses of PS on adrenal and reproductive endocrine function during sexual maturation in Japanese male quails. Two experiments were conducted; in the first experiment, quail chicks were subjected to long-term chronic feeding of PS (8, 80, and 800mg/kg body weight [BW]) and the chemicals were gavaged into the crop sac from 7-50 days post-hatching. From the forty-fourth day, half of the animals in each group were subjected to a 6-day adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge for artificial stimulation of the adrenal gland and evaluation of long-term PS effects; in the second experiment, single doses of PS were subcutaneously injected (SC) into adult males (10-weeks-old) to assess the acute direct effect. Results indicated that chronically PS-fed animals showed a better adrenal response to ACTH challenge, and the corticosterone levels were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the controls. Moreover, corticosterone levels were also high (P < 0.05) 3 h after SC injection of PS. In contrast, testosterone levels and the testes weights were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the groups chronically administered with PS. No differences were observed in the testosterone levels in the acute experiment or luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in either experiment. In conclusion, the differential effects of PS on the adrenal gland and testis might be due to preferential use of different lipoprotein-cholesterol forms for steroid production. In addition, PS might locally perturb testosterone production by its accumulation or delay in testicular maturation.
Heat stress hampers egg production and lowers fertility in layers. This study investigated global protein abundance in the small yellow follicles (SYFs, 6-8 mm diameter) of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens (TCCs) under acute heat stress. Twelve 30-week-old TCC hens were allocated to a control group maintained at 25°C, and to three acute heat-stressed groups subjected to 38°C for 2 h without recovery, with 2-h recovery, or with 6-h recovery. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis identified 119 significantly differentially expressed proteins after acute heat exposure. Gene ontology analysis revealed that most of these proteins are involved in molecular binding (34%), catalytic activity (23%), and structural molecule activity (11%), and participate in metabolic processes (20%), cellular processes (20%), and cellular component organization or biogenesis (11%). Proteins associated with stress response and survival (HSP25, HSP47, HSP70, HSC70, HSPA9), cytoskeleton remodeling, mitochondrial metabolic process of ATP production, antioxidative defense (peroxiredoxin-6), cargo lipid export and delivery (vitellogenin, apolipoprotein B and A1), and toxin/metabolite clearance and delivery (albumin) were upregulated after acute heat stress in the SYFs of TCCs. No overt cell death and atresia were observed in SYFs after acute heat stress. Collectively, these responses may represent a protective mechanism to maintain follicle cell integrity and survival, thereby ensuring a sufficient pool of SYFs for selection into the ovulation hierarchy for successful egg production.