This study was carried out to determine the effects of dietary inclusion level of canola meal (CM) on performance, organ weights and hepatic type I deiodinase gene expression in broilers. A completely randomized design with 4 levels of CM (0, 10, 20 and 30%) as a substitute for soybean meal (SBM) was utilized with 5 replicates of 9 birds each. The results showed that body weight gain (1 to 42 d) decreased linearly (P<0.01) as the inclusion of CM increased. An increase in dietary level of CM also resulted in a linear (P<0.05) increase in feed conversion ratio (1 to 42 d). Proportion of thyroids (P<0.05) and liver (P<0.01) increased linearly with increased levels of CM. A significant linear increase in right ventricular weight: total ventricular weight ratio (P<0.01) and heart weight (P<0.05) were observed by substituting CM for SBM. The concentration of plasma triiodothyronine and triiodothyronine: tetraiodothyronine ratio decreased linearly (P<0.01) with increasing level of CM. Expression of hepatic type I deiodinase gene (D1) decreased linearly (P<0.01) as inclusion level of CM in diets increased. Moreover, increasing linear (P<0.01) and quadratic responses (P<0.05) were observed in follicles number and epithelial thickness in broilers thyroids followed by increased levels of CM. In addition, increases in dietary CM inclusion led to a linear (P<0.01) increase in thyroid follicles diameters. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that feeding increasing CM inclusions from 0 to 30% negatively affect growth performance of broiler chickens. From this study, it can also be concluded that substitution of CM for SBM adversely interferes with thyroid and liver functions and decrease D1 gene expression, likely because of higher dietary concentration of glucosinolates.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lemon balm (LB; Melissa officinalis L.) extract as additive on performance, health status and carcass traits of broilers during a 42-days production cycle. One hundred mixed chicks of Ross 308 strain were assigned for five dietary treatments with four replicates per group and five birds per replicate as follows: control diet, 0.5LB, 1.0LB, 1.5LB and 2.0LB with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mL of LB extract per liter of drinking water, respectively. In overall, at 42nd day, low feed, energy and protein efficiency (P < 0.05) were observed in 1.0LB group than in control diet. However, during the 3rd and 5-6th weeks, feed, energy and protein intakes were improved (P < 0.05), without any efficiency enhancement (P > 0.05) mainly in group on 1.0LB diet. During the 5th week of rearing, daily weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in groups 0.5LB, 1.0LB and 2.0LB compared to control diet. At the end of feeding period, cecal enterococcus bacteria colony count was higher (P < 0.05) and left cecum diameter was lower (P < 0.05) in 1.0LB group. Hematological parameters and viscera and carcass traits remained unaffected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the supplementation with LB as natural feed additive resulted in a potential positive effect on broilers performance mainly during the grower and finisher periods.
Chicken agonistic behavior, a type of social behavior related to threatening and fighting, is among the most serious problems in the poultry industry. However, due to luck of effective models for investigating the brain mechanisms of the behavior, no effective measures have been taken. This study, therefore, aimed to select the behavioral tests available for monitoring chicken agonistic behavior. Two behavioral tests, resident-intruder (R-I) test and social interaction (SI) test, were performed for 10 minutes in 10 pairs of male layer chicks at 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 days of age, and total agonistic frequencies (TAF: Sum of the frequencies of agonistic displays like pecking, biting, kicking, threatening, and leaping) and latency (the period of time from the beginning of the behavioral test to the occurrence of the first agonistic behavior) were measured as indices of agonistic behavior. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in TAF and latency between aggressors and opponents in both the behavioral tests. In the R-I test, the TAF of aggressors significantly increased from 8 to 20 days of age, and the latency significantly decreased from 8 to 24 days of age. In the SI test, however, the TAF of aggressors significantly increased and the latency significantly decreased only from 16 to 20 days of age. When the criterion of high agonistic behavior was defined as the TAF, where aggressors showed more than 30 times of TAF and the opponents did less than one-third TAF of aggressors, the aggression establishment rate (AER), which is equal to the number of aggressors showing high agonistic behavior per total behavioral trials, was significantly higher in the R-I test than in the SI test. These results suggest that the R-I test, rather than the SI test, is an effective tool for monitoring agonistic behavior of layer chicks.
Separating breast meat with low water-holding capacity, conformation parameters (thickness, volume, bottom area, and perimeter), and color of chicken breast meat were measured by direct measurement and by imaging analysis with a digital camera. Samples were obtained from a production line. The L* value was used to separate the samples by three characteristics designating the quality of the meat: dark-colored samples (L* < 50), normal-colored samples (50 ≤ L* ≤ 56), and light-colored samples (L* > 56). Light-colored samples had higher moisture content, thawing loss, drip loss, and lower pH compared with those of normal- and dark-colored samples. Lower thickness was observed in the light-colored samples compared with those of normal- and dark-colored samples. Light- and normal-colored samples had a greater volume of meat than did the dark-colored samples. Imaging analysis showed that light-colored samples had a greater bottom area and perimeter compared with those of normal- and dark-colored samples. However, these conformation parameters showed low correlation with water-holding capacity, which was determined as thawing and drip loss of the samples. Therefore, the conformation parameters, determined by direct measurement or imaging analysis, could not be used to predict the water-holding capacity of breast meat. Nevertheless, water-holding capacity showed high correlation with the L* value of breast meat. Imaging analysis could be used to separate light-colored breast meat with mostly low water-holding capacity. The accuracy of determining the characteristics of light-, normal-, and dark-colored samples by imaging analysis was evaluated. The characteristics of light-colored samples were determined with higher accuracy by imaging analysis than were the characteristics of normal- and dark-colored samples. This result indicated that imaging analysis using a digital camera could be used to separate light-colored breast meat with mostly low water-holding capacity from normal- and dark-colored meat.
The expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx, a muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, is increased in catabolic conditions that result in muscle atrophy. The expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA is also decreased by the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in mammalian skeletal muscle cell cultures. This study investigated the effect of IGF-I on the expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx in chicken skeletal muscle cell cultures. Chick myotubes were incubated with IGF-I for 1, 6, or 24 h. Protein content was increased by IGF-I (100ng/ml) and incubated for 24h in chick myotubes. The expression of atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA decreased in the presence of IGF-I (1, 10, and 100ng/ml) for 6 h in chick myotubes. The expression of the m-calpain large subunit and cathepsin B mRNA was not decreased by IGF-I. Phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO1 increased in the presence of IGF-I (100ng/ml) for 1 h in chick myotubes. These results indicate that IGF-I suppresses atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA expression by phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO1, resulting in an increase in muscle growth in chick myotube cultures.
Cold stress is a major environmental factor restricting the sustainable development of animal husbandry. To gain insight into the gene-regulation processes in broilers under cold stress, gene expression profiling was conducted using high-throughput Solexa sequencing of broiler liver tissue under cold stress conditions and control conditions. According to Solexa sequencing, we identified 255 genes whose expression levels differed between the treatment and control group. Under cold stress, 135 genes were up-regulated and 120 genes were down-regulated genes compared with levels in the control group. Moreover, 469 genes were expressed only in the control group, and 172 genes were expressed only in the treatment group. These data were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in material metabolism and immune functions. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were enriched in pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism，insulin signaling pathway and others. In conclusion, these results may serve as an important reference for broiler breeding and provide new clues for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of cold stress.
Glycation is a chemical reaction in which reducing sugars bind non-enzymatically to compounds containing amino groups. Avian species like chickens are hyperglycemic animals and have high body temperatures compared to mammalian species, which enables avian species to accelerate the glycation of proteins and amino acids with glucose. Although varying dietary crude protein (CP) levels alter the plasma concentration of proteins and amino acids, the influence of varying CP levels on the glycation of plasma proteins and amino acids has not been studied so far. In the present study, therefore, glycation of albumin, tryptophan, and valine in the plasma of chickens fed diets with varying CP levels (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60%) was examined. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of glycoalbumin, glycated tryptophan (tryptophan-Amadori product and (1R, 3S) — 1 - (D - gluco - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - pentahydroxypentyl) - 1, 2, 3, 4 - tetrahydro - β - carboline - 3 - carboxylic acid (PHP-THβC)), and valine-Amadori product were measured. Although plasma albumin concentration was reduced along with the decrease in dietary CP levels from 20% to 0%, glycoalbumin in the plasma was increased under such dietary conditions. Similar increase in the ratios of tryptophan-Amadori product to tryptophan and valine-Amadori product to valine in the plasma of chickens fed a protein-free diet was observed. These results suggest that dietary protein deficiency might enhance the non-enzymatic glycation of plasma proteins and amino acids in chickens.
The present study aimed to establish whether supplemental Japanese pepper seed (JPS) affects feed intake in broiler chicks under ad libitum conditions. Experiments were designed to estimate the acute effect of JPS on feed and water intake using 5%—20% JPS supplemental feeds. JPS supplemental feed demonstrated a tendency to suppress feed intake and water intake in a dose-dependent manner during the 2 h post-feeding period, and chicks seldom ate 20% JPS supplemental feed at 1 h post-feeding. No significant difference was observed in the rectal temperature between groups during the 2 h post-feeding period. In a 5-h feeding experiment, no JPS level had any effect on feed or water intake in chicks. These data suggest that the adverse effect of JPS may be due to volatile stimulation; however, the effect disappears after 5 h post-feeding.
The excessive accumulation of body fat has become a serious problem in the broiler industry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of glucagon on the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in chicken white adipose tissue (WAT). Four hours of fasting significantly increased plasma levels of free fatty acid in broiler chickens. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in abdominal WAT significantly increased by fasting, whereas the mRNA levels of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homolog 2 (DGAT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) significantly decreased. The results suggest that fasting stimulates lipolysis and suppresses adipogenesis and re-esterification of TG in chicken WAT. Glucagon significantly increased the mRNA levels of PDK4 in chicken primary adipocytes, whereas there were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of ATGL, DGAT2, and PPARγ. Our findings suggest that glucagon upregulates PDK4 expression and may stimulate lipolysis without affecting the expression of ATGL in chicken WAT.
This study aims at investigating the effects of different grain sources during pre-hatch (from diet of the breeders) and post-hatch (from the diet of broilers) on coloration (Roche color fan scores; L*, lightness; a*, redness; and b*, yellowness) as well as the growth performance in yellow-skinned chickens at market age (42 days old). In this experiment, six thousand yellow-skinned broiler breeders at 27 weeks were fed with a corn or sorghum and barley-based diet in which contained high (+) or low (−) xanthophyll levels, respectively. After the beginning of the trial, from day 41 to 42, eggs from two treatments were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2×2 factorial designs were used and male chicks hatched from breeders fed with a corn or sorghum-based diet. According to the results, it demonstrated that hens fed with a corn-base diet were observed an elevated coloration both in the eggs and newly-hatched chicks (p<0.05). The dietary pigments improved pigment deposition in the egg yolk and the tissue of newly-hatched chicks. Besides, there was no difference in growth performance attributed to dietary grain sources both from hens or chicks. There showed no difference of coloration in abdominal fat, shank or breast skin (or kept at 4°C for 24 hours and 7 days) between two breeder grain sources (p>0.05). However, abdominal fat, shank and breast skin from the broiler chicks fed with the corn-based diet had a significantly higher RFC scores, a* and b* value than that fed with the sorghum and barley-based diet. The current results indicated that the broiler dietary grain sources (different xanthophyll contents), other than the breeder dietary grain sources influenced the pigmentation in abdominal fat, shank and breast skin, and the skins stored at 4°C in broiler. Therefore, it can be suggested that a low xanthophyll-containing diet (sorghum and barley-based diet) might be applied in yellow-skinned broiler breeders without causing negative effects of coloration or growth performance on their offspring at market age.
L-Aspartate (L-Asp), D-aspartate (D-Asp) or their chemical conjugates plays important physiological roles in regulating food intake, plasma metabolites and thermoregulation in animals. However, there are very few studies available in layers and no reports have been found in broilers. Broilers are very important commercial birds for meat production, so effects of L- or D-Asp in broilers would provide new physiological insight of this strain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral administration of L- or D-Asp on feed intake, rectal temperature and some plasma metabolites in broiler chicks. Broiler chicks (5 days old) were orally administered with different doses (0, 3.75, 7.5 and 15mmol/kg body weight) of L- or D-Asp. At 120 min after administration of L- or D-Asp, the blood was immediately collected through the jugular vein. The rectal temperature of chicks was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after administration using a digital thermometer with an accuracy of ± 0.1°C, by inserting the thermistor probe in the rectum to a depth of 2cm. A repeated-measures two-way ANOVA was applied for the analysis of feed intake and rectal temperature. Plasma metabolites were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and regression equations. The study showed that oral administration of both L- and D-Asp did not alter feed intake. However, D-Asp, but not L-Asp, dose-dependently decreased the rectal temperature in chicks. It was also found that D-Asp increased plasma glucose and decreased triacylglycerol concentrations. The changes in plasma metabolites further indicate that D-Asp treatment modulates the energy metabolism in broiler chicks. In conclusion, D-Asp may be a beneficial nutrient not only for layers but also for broilers, since orally administered D-Asp lowered rectal temperature without reducing feed intake.
A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary mannan level and β-mannanase supplementation on egg production performance, nutrient retention and blood metabolites of laying hens. Two hundred and forty Hy-Line Brown layers (52 wk-old) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 8 replicates with 5 birds (40 birds per treatment). Laying hens were fed low or high mannan diets containing 0, 0.4 or 0.8 g β-mannanase/kg diet in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement during 56 d feeding period. Laying hens fed diets supplemented with high β-mannanase level had greater (P<0.05) overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, retention of gross energy, crude protein and mannan than hens fed the diets without β-mannanase. Laying hens fed diets without β-mannanase or supplemented with high β-mannanase level had greater (P<0.05) retention of dry matter than hens fed diets with low β-mannanase level. Moreover, laying hens fed high mannan diets had higher (P<0.05) feed intake and feed conversion ratio than that of hens fed low mannan diets. Furthermore, laying hens fed diets supplemented with a high level of β-mannanase had increased serum glucose (P<0.05) concentrations but these diets had no effect on total cholesterol, total protein or blood urea nitrogen. The results obtained in the present study indicate that a high mannan content in diets had adverse effect on the performance of laying hens and that dietary supplementation with β-mannanase has the potential to improve laying hen performance and nutrient retention.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of oregano, attapulgite, benzoic acid and their combination on broiler performance, microflora composition of jejunum and cecum, intestinal architecture and breast and thigh meat composition. A total of 400 one-day-old broiler chicks were used in a 42-day trial. They were randomly distributed into five treatments with four replicates of twenty chickens per pen: Control group; Attapulgite group; Oregano essential oil group; Benzoic acid group; Mixed group. At the end of the trial, total counts of bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacilli, and Clostridium perfringens were enumerated by real time PCR at both jejunum and cecum. Intestinal morphology was carried out in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, for villus height and crypt depth. Cell proliferation was also evaluated in the small intestine and the cecum. The results showed that oregano and benzoic acid improved some growth performance parameters. The combined use of the examined substances increased enterobacteria counts in the jejunum, and cell proliferation in the duodenum and the jejunum. Benzoic acid improved intestinal wall morphology in the ileum. In conclusion, the combined dietary supplementation with oregano, attapulgite and benzoic acid can be a novel tool to beneficially modulate broiler chickens performance.
Sixty broilers (initially 1.6 kg and 35 d-old) were used to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis C14 and RX7 strains on growth performance, blood parameter, and intestinal microbiota in response to experimental challenge with Salmonell gallinarum. Broilers were distributed to 4 treatment groups include: C1 (control group; no challenge, no B. subtilis), C2 (Salmonella-challenged group; S. gallinarum 108 cfu/bird), T1 (C2 + supplemented with of B. subtilis C14 (1.0×109 cfu/g) at 0.1% in diet) and T2 (C2 + supplemented with of B. subtilis RX7 (1.0×109 cfu/g) at 0.1% in diet). Results indicated that inclusion of B. subtilis (T1, T2) in the diet increased (P < 0.05) the weight gain and feed intake, and improved feed conversion of challenged broilers compared with no B. subtilis supplementation diet (C2). Improvements (P < 0.05) in the immunoglobulin A concentration were observed by the addition of B. subtilis compared with C2 treatment, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α was decreased (P < 0.05). Latobacillus number in small and large intestines was higher (P < 0.05) by B. subtilis additon than C2 treatment but Salmonella numbers were lower (P < 0.05). The results suggested that dietary supplementation of B. subtilis C14 and RX7 improved the growth performance, and affected the blood profiles and intestinal microbiota of broilers against S. gallinarum infection. Therefore, B. subtilis C14 and RX7 may have beneficial effects, in relieving the stress of broilers infected with S. gallinarum.
The present work assessed the effect of supplementation of 0.8% dietary Arbocel® RC Fine, a readily available commercial lignocellulose, to poultry feed. In a complete randomized design using 36 individually caged mature dubbed Hy-Line roosters (aged 55 weeks) grouped in 4 treatments with 9 birds per treatment, a digestibility trial was performed to determine apparent and true metabolizable energy values along with digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acid in Arbocel® containing diets. Results showed that 0.8% Arbocel® supplemented diets improved protein digestibility by 6% (P<0.05). Additionally, Arbocel® caused an increase in apparent and true amino acid digestibility in roosters when compared to control diets and controls with 0.8% wheat bran (WB) supplementation. In a second experiment, 26,000 layers and 2,600 roosters aged 33 weeks (Ross 308 broiler breeder strain) were maintained in 6 poultry houses at a commercial breeding farm, with an average of 4330 layers and 433 roosters per house. Performance, egg grade, and hatchability rate were assessed over a post peak period of 6 months. Compared to the control group fed the 0.8% WB diet, the 0.8% lignocellulose dietary supplementation resulted in a decrease (P<0.05) in percent infertility leading to an average increase of 4.07% (P<0.05) in egg hatchability. The Arbocel® fed group had 3.8 more eggs per housed hen compared to control birds. Overall, Arbocel® supplementation at 0.8% resulted in the production of 5.7 more saleable chicks per housed hen during the 6 months trial, a sizeable profit to the farmer.
Notice on the revision of Instruction for Authors in JPS.
The Instruction for Authors has been revised as of February 20, 2017.
Major point: 1. The revised guidance statement on the use of the supplemental information.
Please read Instruction for Authors carefully before the submission of manuscript to JPS.
Editor-in-Chief the Journal of Poultry Science
October 09, 2015
Notice on the revision of Instruction for Authors for JPS.
The Instruction for Authors has been revised as of October 6th,
2015. Major points are:
1. Revision of categories of the manuscript
2. Addition of instruction on the supplemental information.
Please read Instruction for Authors carefully before the
submission of manuscript to JPS.
the Journal o Poultry Science.
October 09, 2015
Instructions for authors has been updated as of October 6, 2015.
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