Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) was launched in an effort to address recent global issues in the context of building sustainable ties between humans and nature and individuals and society. Lifetime sport play a vital role in creating and fostering sustainable connections among individuals with varying physical abilities. The present study therefore explores the types of competition that bring together individuals of varying physical abilities. Aiming to make inquiry into promotion of lifetime sport, the study also examines competition among sport clubs for members desirous of competition from members of other clubs. In the study, competitions in masters swimming and wheelchair basketball were examined based on Georg Simmel’s theory of conflict. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of gaining social capital, competitions held among sport clubs were examined with regard to members desire to compete with members of other clubs. The findings were as follows. First, competition among individuals of different ages requires setting rules that reduce the range of age variation with regard to their physical abilities, thereby establishing a competition framework that demonstrates excellence in performance within the same range of ages. In contrast, competition among individuals with disabilities requires setting rules that differentiate the varying physical abilities of the differently abled as well as rules for teaming differentiated individuals, thereby establishing a competition framework that demonstrates excellence of a team in its ability to both score and defend. Second, competition among athletes of different sport clubs is vital in promoting lifetime sport. In particular, competition among sport clubs to satisfy individuals’ desire to “engage in competition with people outside of the sport club in regional games” is essential since the services generated as the result of such inter-club competitions not only benefit the clubs but also contribute to achieving social value, which implies promotion of lifetime sport.
In this paper, we try to examine the places and the meanings of physical education in discourses of education clued by the term of ‘tai-iku (physical education)’ in “ New discourse of pedagogy” proposed by Heizaburo Takashima. Heizaburo Takashima(1865-1946) was a prominent advocate of physical education (P.E.) in the latter part of the Meiji era of Japan. As meanings of P.E. has changed since its importation, to trace its process of changing we should not overlook him. But attempts to read his books so far are not sufficiently to be comprehended. The present paper attempts to clarify the meaning of the term ‘tai-iku’ (physical education) and find its theoretical places and importance in his discussions of education relatively. Firstly, we brought his main work of P.E. “Principles of physical education” (1904) into focus to clarify meanings of the term ‘tai-iku’. This has two meanings that are to cultivate the physical, and to bring up the intellectual and the moral. Secondly, from the contexts we extracted the fundamental theory on which the meanings is based. This theory is of education. But in his “principles”, his discussion of education was not developed enough. So finally, shifting object of examination to his work of education “New discourse of pedagogy” (1901), we confirmed the meanings of ‘tai-iku’ and examined his arguments about the relations between ‘tai-iku’ and education. Meanings which Takashima brought out are two meanings of P.E.. One is to educate human body based on Spencer’s educational theory (called ‘san-iku’ in Japan). The other is the methodological concept that means to educate the intellectual and the moral based on his theory of the body-mind relationship. Both contribute to character building, which is the general purpose of education, in each ways. Therefore, according to his “New discourse of pedagogy”, ‘tai-iku’ is a result deduced from his discussion about education, namely it is a part of his thought of education. Moreover, ‘Tai-iku’ as an ideal phase backs up the importance of existence of ‘gymnastics’ as a subject in the educational system, and works as the critical point of view of it. So, ‘Tai-iku’ in takashima’s logic is an ideal which guides practices in the field of education.
The most essential moment of the concept of physical education is the education. So physical education should be sincere to be as education. It is important for the establishment of the concept of physical education to investigate the education theories. In historical perspective, a lot of theories of education were raised and proposed. Physical education as an academic discipline should investigate all of them, to cultivate the academic potential. The purpose of this study is to investigate the one of the educational foundations of physical education through the analysis of the education theory of Diesterweg, A.W., in order to constitute the essential theory of physical education Diesterweg, A.W. was a one of the important theoreticians in the modern German academism of education. His education theory was based on the humanism constantly. His theoretical proposal point was just on the general building for godhood in its individuality, which was not for usefulness for nation, not for achievement, and not for the utility. He emphasized the enhancement of each individual humanity in his education theory. It was called as the pedagogic humanism. In this view point, Physical education should meditate the truth meaning of physical education as education. Physical education is essentially education not mere instruction of sport, not mere health promotion, and not mere fitness training. There is a certain potential of physical education as education, especially enhancement of their humanity through the physical movement. It is the important potential for physical education to be and keep being as education forever. The potential in physical education should be argued with the essential of education in historical pedagogic perspective. It is necessary for physical education as an academic discipline to learn by lots of education theories to promote and develop its academic potential.