The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities of learning by words in the education of skills. In this paper, we focused on the relationship between exercise and words from the viewpoint from "can learners learn exercise by words?".
According to St. Augustine's theory of teaching, “… we do not learn anything by means of the signs called words”. This means that before we know the word, we know the thing it designates. This suggests the impossibility of education by language. This means that before we know the word, we know the thing it designates. This suggests the impossibility of education by language.
However, coaches and physical education teachers try to encourage learners' skill acquisition by the use of language when teaching. So it seems that the word may have some role in physical education and coaching.
In this paper, we used the title theory of Sasaki and examined the relationship between words and exercise. As a result, for the learner, it turned out that before and after listening to the words expressing the exercise, the appearance of the exercise changed to a different one, and a new perception appeared. It can be said that this provides a viewpoint of "what the exercise means".
Furthermore, quoting Herrigel's "Zen in the Art of Archery", it is possible to present an example to show that targeted skills are guided by words. In this case, it can be said that the words indicate "how to exercise".
From the above, it can be said that words in such a scene function to know (learn) new things.
In this paper, I examined Daryl Siedentopʼs thoughts on Physical Education by considering the influences of Existentialism and Behaviorism and comparing it with Donald Hellisonʼs huma nistic physical education. Siedentop aimed for autonomy and authenticity in physical education and suggested the existential nature where man has the choice to be by himself but, paradoxic ally, cannot exist without his fellow man. His concept of physical education, which aimed tenden cy (attitude) to play, was common with Humanistic physical education movement because they emphasized affective development like “self-actualization.” However, his thought was not consist ent with the movement due to the following 3 points; he believed (1) in selves that are modified and learned, and not a unitary self that should be realized or uncovered, (2) that the inner world is considerably influenced by the other (outer) world, so otherʼs evaluation of oneʼs physical perfo rmance is more important than what one thinks about oneʼs own physical ability, (3) not suppose something subjectivity that transcend the environment and heredity, so communication in play environment is more important than dialogue and uncovering himself. These differences make each physical education theory and curriculum. Hellison suggested developmental level and dialo gue methods. Siedentop suggested festivity experience with team affiliation. Siedentopʼs physical education has two meanings in terms of acquiring skill, both personally and for the group. How to include self-reflection of skills is the next problem for this theory.
The purpose of this study is to examine Oriental and Japanese theory of mind-body based on Kegonshu Philosophy（華厳宗哲学）.The procedure of the study is as follows. First，I explained a unique view of the world of “Kegonkyo”（華厳経） which is the premise for creating mindbody unification. Here I explained about “what is Kegonkyo” and “what is Kegonshu Philosophy”. Then I investigated the enormous heart of Vairocana（毘盧遮那仏，the world of the truth）which is the premise of the possibility of creating mind-body unification among “Kegonkyo”. Next，through examining the Four Dharma-dhatu（四種法界），that is Ji Dharma-dhatu（事法界），Ri Dharma-dhatu（理法界），JiRi Dharma-dhatu（事理無礙法界），JiJi Dharma-dhatu（事事無礙法界）that creates a unique philosophical worldview of Kegonshu called JiRi unification（事理合一），I showed the original Oriental and Japanese theory of mind-body. The conclusions of the study are as follows.
According to Kegonshu Philosophy，existence was heterogeneous entities of mind and body. But it is also said that it is the proper existence of mind and body that the two sides are inseparably coupled. Takuan, who is directly affected by Kegonshu Philosophy pointed out that ‘training is never to be one-sided. Ji (body) and Ri (mind) are like two wheels of a cart.’
From the above，it can be said that the correct mind-body relationship of human existence in physical education is unity of mind and body. I can be also said that it becomes possible to give light to complicated questions such as mind-body theory in physical education and traditional view of mind-body in Japan by focusing on Kegonshu Philosophy.
In this article, I explore, through the prism of Yoshimichi Nakajima’s discrimination theory, the structural aspects of sport that generate discrimination. According to Nakajima, discriminati on does not only occur when people find someone unpleasant and start feeling hatred or contem pt toward that person; it also occurs when people find someone threatening and then take pride in themselves, or in the group with whom they affiliate and become filled with a sense of superi ority. In this study, I demonstrated that sport matches and training sessions incessantly produce feelings of unpleasantness, hatred, contempt, fear, pride, and superiority.
On the matter of how to deal with discrimination, Nakajima argued that people need to thor oughly criticize the discrimination feelings of others. He also asserted that people should feel th emselves indebted to those born with inferior capacities, or those who are less fortunate. When engaging the discrimination that arises in sports, the winners in a match should feel indebted to the losers or to the less able competitors. However, athletes who wish to pursue excellence must not be bound by such a sentiment toward losers and instead must ceaselessly strive to improve their own performance. Moreover, what impresses people in sport are overwhelming performa nces by athletes who are never satisfied with being on the same level as other athletes. Thus, I demonstrated that sport has unique structural aspects that generate discrimination that excepti onal athlete should not feel indebted to the losers.