[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR) program on cognitive function and balance in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) attending G welfare center in Gurye. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients with MCI were studied. The patients were exposed to the VR program for 30 min per experiment, which was conducted 20 times for four weeks. [Results] The cognitive function and balancing ability of the experimental group, when compared to the control group, showed a statistically significant increase in Visual Span Test (VST), Word or Test (WCT), and Limit of Stability (LOS), which are the sub-categories of CNT 4.0, after the exposure to the program. In all test categories, the experimental group exhibited statistically significant differences compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Thus, the VR program is an effective intervention for the elderly with MCI.
[Purpose] To clarify factors contributing to habituation of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] We included 13 healthy females and examined diurnal and nocturnal urination frequency at initial program participation and at 3 months. The survey used the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), a 10-level self-assessment of anxiety associated with urinary incontinence, and a 10-level self-evaluation of PFMT understanding and skill acquisition. We evaluated PFMT practice at home and postures that facilitated PFMT. The practice of PFMT at home was surveyed during a 3-month period. [Results] Compared to baseline, the level of skill acquisition assessed by the ICIQ-SF and PFMT according to the 10-level self-evaluation improved significantly at 3 months. The rate of PFMT sessions performed at home per week was high. The number of times PFMT was performed per day was positively correlated with level of understanding and acquisition of skills pertaining to PFMT, according to the 10-level self-assessment. [Conclusion] By incorporating behavior modification techniques appropriate for urinary incontinence and by increasing the level of understanding regarding incontinence and PFMT, as well as the level of skill acquisition, self-efficacy increased. This may have motivated habituation of PFMT.
[Purpose] This research aimed to examine the effects of back massage and foot bath with blended essential oil on psychophysiological response in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 14 adult stroke patients randomly divided into the experimental group (7 patients) and the control group (7 patients). Physical and psychological stress, mood state and sleep satisfaction was measured using evaluation instruments and body temperature was measured with infrared thermography (T-1000). [Results] Measurements included physical and psychological stress, and mood state of the experiment group became significantly lower than that of the control group. The body temperature and sleeping satisfaction of the experimental group became significantly higher than that of the control group. [Conclusion] The present study suggested that aroma therapy and foot bath that can be used as alternative physical therapy that offers an overall beneficial effect on psychophysiological response such as reduced stress, mood state and increased body temperature, sleeping satisfaction of stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study aimed to analyze the effects of complex training on carbon monoxide, cardiorespiratory function, and body mass among lege students with the highest smoking rate among all age group. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 lege students voluntarily participated in this study. All subjects smoked and were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (N=20) and the control group (N=20). The experimental group underwent complex training (30 min of training five times a week for 12 weeks) while the control group did not participate in such training. The complex training consisted of two parts: aerobic exercise (walking and running) and resistance exercise (weight training). [Results] Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed significant interactions among CO, VO2max, HRmax, VEmax, body fat, and skeletal muscle mass, indicating that the changes were significantly different among groups. [Conclusion] A 12 week of complex physical exercise program would be an effective way to support a stop-smoking campaign as it quickly eliminates CO from the body and improves cardiorespiratory function and body condition.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of spinal support device (SSD) on pain and hamstring extensibility in patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). [Subjects and Methods] 20 patients with NSLBP were recruited and randomly assigned to either the SSD group or the control group. In the SSD group, SSD was applied; in the control group, bed rest in supine position was performed. Both groups underwent treatment 20 min/day, 3 times a week, for a duration of 4 weeks. To assess the hamstring extensibility, sit and reach test (SRT) was performed. To assess pain pressure threshold (PPT) of the sacroiliac joint, a pressure algometer was used. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to quantify pain. [Results] The SSD group showed a significant improvement in sacroiliac joint pain with increased VAS, and the control group showed a significantly increased VAS after intervention. In the SSD group, VAS was significantly increased, but SRT was not changed compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These results demonstrated that an application of SSD effectively attenuates low back pain. Therefore, SSD may be a suitable intervention for pain control in patients with NSLBP.
[Purpose] To investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field with or without exercise therapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty male patients aged 55–65 years with benign prostatic hyperplasia were invited to participate in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to Group A (n=20; patients who received pulsed electromagnetic field in addition to pelvic floor and aerobic exercises), Group B (n=20; patients who received pulsed electromagnetic field), and Group C (n=20; patients who received placebo electromagnetic field). The assessments included post-void residual urine, urine flow rate, prostate specific antigen, white blood cells count, and International Prostate Symptom Score were weighed, before and after a 4-week intervention. [Results] There were significant differences in Group A and B in all parameters. Group C showed non-significant differences in all measured variables except for International Prostate Symptom Score. Among groups, all parameters showed highly significant differences in favor of Group A. There were non-significant differences between Group A and B and significant difference between Groups A and C and between Groups B and C. [Conclusion] The present study demonstrated that electromagnetic field had a significant impact on the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Accordingly, electromagnetic field can be utilized alone or in combination with other physiotherapy modalities. Moreover, clinicians should have the capacity to perceive the advantages accomplished using extra treatment alternatives. Electromagnetic field is a safe, noninvasive method and can be used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of a pelvic compression belt (PCB) and chair height on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during sit-to-stand (STS) maneuvers in healthy people. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two people participated in this study. They were required to perform STS maneuvers under four conditions. Hip joint moment and angular displacement of the hip, knee, and ankle were measured. A PCB was also applied below the anterior superior iliac spine. [Results] The angular displacement of the ankle joint increased while performing STS maneuvers from a normal chair with a PCB in phase 1, and decreased during phase 2 when performing STS maneuvers from a high chair. The overall angular displacement in phase 3 was decreased while rising from a chair with a PCB and rising from a high chair. When performed STS maneuvers from a high chair, the angular displacement of the hip, knee, and ankle joint decreased considerably in phase 3. This decreased lower extremity motion in phase 3 indicated that participants required less momentum to complete the maneuver. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that a PCB might be appropriate for patients with pelvic girdle pain and lower back pain related to pregnancy.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of increased visual dependence to age, balance, attention, and vertigo. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve younger, 12 visually independent (VI) older and 12 visually dependent (VD) older adults were assessed for levels of visual dependence using Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) tilt values, balance ability using the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (CTSIB), and attentional requirements through the dual-task paradigm and experience of vertigo by completing the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ). [Results] VD older adults had higher SVV tilt values, greater postural sway in a scenario where visual and proprioceptive inputs were simultaneously altered, similar dual-task cost and lower SVQ scores compared with younger and VI older adults. No difference was observed between the latter two. [Conclusion] Visual dependence may not necessarily increase with age but affect balance in a sensory condition involving visual-proprioceptive conflict. There is a non-significant trend for elevated visual dependence with increased attentional demands. Greater visual dependence is not accompanied by more frequent symptoms of vertigo in visually complex environments.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine which factors, including pulmonary, physical, and mental functions; dyspnea; and daily physical activity (PA) affect the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in IPF patients. [Subjects and Methods] The pulmonary, physical, and mental functions; dyspnea; PA; and 6MWD were assessed in 38 outpatients with IPF. PA was represented by the mean number of steps per day. [Results] The mean 6MWD was 443.8 m (SD, 98.5), and the mean number of steps per day showing PA was 5148.4 (SD, 3295.7). The 6MWD was correlated with age, base dyspnea index, vital capacity (VC), diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide, quadriceps force (QF), dyspnea during the 6-minute walk test, and PA. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that VC (β=0.382), QF (β=0.272), and PA (β=0.574) were contributing factors of the 6MWD. [Conclusion] In patients with IPF, PA has a greater effect on the 6MWD than VC and QF. The evaluation of daily PA, in addition to physiological and muscle functions, is important in patients with IPF.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic ankle instability and induced mediolateral muscular fatigue of the ankle on competitive Taekwondo athletes during single-leg drop landing. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen competitive taekwondo athletes with chronic ankle instability and 14 healthy adults participated, and they performed three single-leg drop landings from a 40-cm height before and after induced fatigue. Ankle angular position, peak vertical ground reaction force, loading rate, eccentric work, and contribution were calculated and analyzed. [Results] Athletes had lower ankle eversion and abduction angle than the controls did at maximum knee flexion both pre- and post-fatigue. Furthermore, athletes had lower eccentric work of the hip than the controls did post-fatigue, and they had lower eccentric work of the knee than controls at both pre- and post-fatigue. The eccentric work of the knee increased while, peak vertical ground reaction force decreased in both, athletes as well as controls post-fatigue. [Conclusion] Taekwondo athletes with chronic ankle instability who participate in a high-intensity training program are continuously exposed to potential injuries of their ankle or knee joints. Therefore, competitive taekwondo athletes with chronic ankle instability should limit their participation in regular training until they complete the rehabilitation process.
[Purpose] This study aimed to develop a simple, inexpensive, and accurate method for measuring the strength of shoulder flexion (Experiment 1) and evaluate the bilateral force deficit in shoulder flexion (Experiment 2) in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] In Experiment 1, maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in isometric shoulder flexion were measured on both sides using an isometric dynamometer (ID) and a hand-grip dynamometer (HGD), as an alternative dynamometer, in six subjects. In Experiment 2, bilateral force deficit was evaluated using HGD in 21 subjects who performed unilateral and bilateral MVCs in isometric flexions of the shoulder. The peak value of electromyography (PVE) in the lateral head of the biceps brachii and anterior deltoid was measured during MVCs. [Results] In Experiment 1, ID and HGD showed almost similar coefficients of variation. A strong positive correlation was found between the values obtained using the two methods. In Experiment 2, the bilateral force deficit in shoulder flexion associated with a reduced PVE (‒10.9%) was found in 85.7% of subjects. [Conclusion] The reproducibility of measurements was similar between ID and HGD. HGD could evaluate the bilateral force deficit in shoulder flexion and is a practical tool for measuring shoulder strength.
[Purpose] This study was carried out to investigate the carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance (single legged hop test as functional performance test and Kujala score for functional activities). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A) consisted of 15 patients undergoing hip strengthening exercises for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of knee exercises program then measuring all variables again. Group (B): consisted of 15 patients undergoing knee exercises program for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of hip strengthening exercises then measuring all variables. Functional abilities and knee muscles performance were assessed using Kujala questionnaire and single legged hop test respectively pre and after the completion of the first 4 weeks then after 8 weeks for both groups. [Results] Significantly increase in Kujala questionnaire in group A compared with group B was observed. While, there were significant increase in single legged hop performance test in group B compared with group A. [Conclusion] Starting with hip exercises improve the performance of subjects more than functional activities while starting with knee exercises improve the functional activities of subjects more than performance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index.
[Purpose] This study aimed to compare physical activities between junior high school and high school female football players in order to explain the factors that predispose to a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school female football players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine female football players participated. Finger floor distance, the center of pressure during single limb stance with eyes open and closed, the 40-m linear sprint time, hip abduction and extension muscle strength and isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque were measured. The modified Star Excursion Balance Test, the three-steps bounding test and three-steps hopping tests, agility test 1 (Step 50), agility test 2 (Forward run), curl-up test for 30 seconds and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were performed. [Results] The high school group was only significantly faster than the junior high school group in the 40-m linear sprint time and in the agility tests. The distance of the bounding test in the high school group was longer than that in the junior high school group. [Conclusion] Agility and speed increase with growth; however, muscle strength and balance do not develop alongside. This unbalanced development may cause a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school football players.
[Purpose] This study investigates the effects of task-oriented activities on hand function, cognitive function, and self-expression of the elderly with dementia, and then identify the influencing factors on self-expression in sub-factors of dependent variables. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly persons were divided into two groups: intervention group (n=20) and control group (n=20). The interventions were applied to the subjects 3 times a week, 50 minutes per each time, for a total of five weeks. We measured the jamar hand dynamometer test for grip strength, the jamar hydraulic pinch gauge test for prehension test, nine-hole pegboard test for coordination test, and Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric Population for cognitive function, and self-expression rating scale for self-expression test. [Results] The task-oriented activities promoted hand function, cognitive function (visual perception, spatial perception, visuomotor organization, attention & concentration) and self-expression of the elderly with early dementia, and the factors influencing the self-expression were cognitive function (visual perception) and hand function (coordination). The study showed that the task-oriented program enabled self-expression by improving hand function and cognitive function. [Conclusion] This study suggested that there should be provided the task-oriented program for prevention and treatment of the elderly with early dementia in the clinical settings and it was considered that results have a value as basic data that can be verified relationship of hand function, cognitive function, and self-expression.
[Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and foot and ankle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy (young adults) volunteers participated in this study. Each participant completed tests for ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, hallux flexor strength, and ankle plantar and dorsiflexor strength. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexor strength and dorsiflexion range of motion and (2) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexor strength and first toe flexor muscle strength. Ankle dorsiflexor strength is the main contributor ankle dorsiflexion range of motion to and first toe flexor muscle strength. [Conclusion] Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion can play an important role in determining ankle dorsiflexor strength in young adults.
[Purpose] To examine the effects of sling exercise on the balance of post-stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 18 post-stroke patients (13 men; mean age, 55.3 years) were recruited, and randomly assigned them into sling exercise (n=10) and control exercise (n=8) groups. The Good Balance System was used for measurement of velocity (anteroposterior and mediolateral, mm/s), velocity moment (mm2/s) of the movement of the center of pressure, and distance (anteroposterior and mediolateral, mm) between the center of pressure and the center point. The changes in mediolateral velocity, anteroposterior velocity, and velocity moment were compared between two groups in addition to the comparison of distance between the center of pressure and the center point of postural sway. [Results] The sling exercise group showed more significant improvements in anteroposterior velocity, mediolateral velocity, velocity moment, anteroposterior distance, and mediolateral distance than the control exercise group. [Conclusion] Sling exercise improved post-stroke balance performance and could be used as a therapeutic strategy to improve post-stroke functional recovery.
[Purpose] To investigate the patellar movement perception related to backward-leaning standing. [Subjects and Methods] Both the patellar range of motion during backward-leaning standing and perception related to patellar movement were analyzed using television-x irradiation images in 12 randomly selected healthy young individuals. [Results] Starting in a relaxed condition, two types of patellar movements were confirmed: those where the patella moves (patellar movement trials) and those where the patella does not move (patellar non-movement trials) during backward-leaning standing. The rate of the perceived patellar motion in the patellar movement trials was significantly higher (90.9%) than that in the patellar non-movement trials (66.7%). When starting in a quadriceps-contracted condition, the rate of perceived trials (77.0%) was significantly lower than that of the trials started in a relaxed condition. [Conclusion] The perception of patellar movement while backward-leaning standing may contribute to the perception of a backward standing position especially when the patella really moves.
[Purpose] To compare function, activity, participation, and quality of life of Down syndrome children and typically developing children according to age. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 16 Down syndrome children and 20 children with typical development were included as subjects for this study. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Child and Youth version (CY) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a questionnaire were used to measure children’s functioning, activity, and participation. To measure quality of life, KIDSCREEN 52-HRQOL questionnaire was used in this study. [Results] ICF-CY function, activity, participation, and quality of life showed statistically significant differences between Down syndrome children and typically developing children. Down syndrome children with higher functions showed higher activities and participation. Higher function, activity and participation features were correlated with better quality of life. Higher function resulted in better quality of life. [Conclusion] Function, activity, participation, quality of life, and several common factors of Down syndrome children depend on the ability of children. Function of Down syndrome children affects their activity, participation, and quality of life. Activities and participations also affect quality of life. Therefore, children’s functional aspect is the foundation for quality of life.
[Purpose] To evaluate various key functions related to obstacle crossing motions in hemiplegic people based on the paralysis degree. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven patients with maintenance-stage hemiplegia who could independently ambulate outdoors were included. Subjects’ crossing movements were measured using obstacles with heights of 10%, 20%, and 30% of the trochanter length. The relationship among maximal crossing height and isometric knee extension muscle strength, one leg standing time, Trunk Impairment Scale score, disease duration, and subject age was examined, as was the target variable of maximum crossing height and the top four measurement items, to determine the explanatory variables. The participants were grouped based on Brunnstrom Recovery Stages III–IV (severe spasticity) and V–VI (mild spasticity). [Results] The explanatory variables were the Trunk Impairment Scale in the severe spasticity group and unaffected side-knee extension muscle strength in the mild spasticity group (contribution rates: 75.6% and 21.0%, respectively). [Conclusion] Trunk function in the severe spasticity group majorly contributed to crossing obstacles. Furthermore, knee extension muscle strength on the unaffected side in the mild spasticity group moderately contributed to crossing obstacles. Selecting and implementing a physical therapy routine that is aimed at improving function, depending on the severity of paralysis, is necessary.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the positive effect of exercise on knee osteoarthritis in rats with osteoarthritis induced by applying effective walking speed when changing speed conditions during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The rats used in this study were male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300 g and 7 weeks old, and 20 rats were used. The Osteoarthritis (OA) rats model was induced by MIA (monoiodoacetate). The rats was randomly divided into experimental group (MIA injection group) and control group (normal cell line injection group). Treadmill exercise was provided two groups for 2 weeks, 4 days per week. The knee joint angle of the stance was divided into pre-test and post-test, and each group was subjected to paired sample test. Independent sample t-test was conducted to examine the difference between experimental group and control group. [Results] There were statistically significant changes in the control and experimental groups. The knee angle was changed from 99.70 ± 2.40 to 85.60 ± 2.67 in the control group. The knee angle was changed from 100.96 ± 1.36 to 87.71 ± 1.57 in the experimental group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the angle of the knee gradually decreases. It is considered a characteristic of progressive osteoarthritis. The change of knee angle was less in the experimental group than in the control group. This means that the stiffness of the joints during the walking exercise was less progressed in the experimental group than in the control group.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of kinetic chain exercise using EMG-biofeedback on balance and lower extremity muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 30 stroke patients participated in this study and they were divided into closed kinetic chain exercise using EMG-biofeedback group (CKCE+EB) and open kinetic chain exercise using EMG-biofeedback group (OKCE+EB), each group consisting of 15 patients. The kinetic chain exercise using EMG-biofeedback was performed by the patients for 20 minutes once a day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks using an Myo-Ex. BioRescue was used to measure balance ability, while surface EMG was used to measure the lower extremity muscle activation. [Results] According to the results of the comparison within the groups, after the intervention, both groups showed significant increases in the balance ability and lower extremity muscle activation. In the comparisons between the groups, after the intervention, balance ability and lower extremity muscle activation were significantly higher in the CKCE+BE than in the OKCE+EB. [Conclusion] This study showed that closed kinetic chain exercise using EMG-biofeedback is effective for improving balance ability and lower extremity muscle activation in stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) as a tool to measure supraspinatus tendon thickness in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects were assessed in similar sitting position. Two experienced musculoskeletal ultrasound specialists measured supraspinatus tendon thickness. Tendon was measured twice in one day by each of two raters with an interval of one hour for within day reliability and was re-measured following one week for between days reliability. Data analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). [Results] Results reflected excellent within day intra-rater and inter-rater reliability with Mean ± standard deviation (SD)=5.14 ± 0.83 and 5.17 ± 0.78, ICC (2,1)=0.89–0.93 and ICC (2,2)=0.98 (0.95−0.99) and SEM=0.18–0.18 and 0.17 while between days intra-rater rater and inter-rater reliability with Mean ± SD=5.14 ± 0.83 and 5.17 ± 0.78, ICC(2,1)=0.88–0.90 and ICC(2,2)=0.95 (0.88−0.98), SEM=0.17–0.38 and 0.17 [Conclusion] The results of the current study indicate that MSKUS is a reliable tool for measuring supraspinatus tendon thickness in healthy subjects.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyse the intraday test-retest reliability of stabilometric measurements on the Centre of Pressure (CoP) in persons with Multiple Sclerosis. [Subjects and Methods] The measurements were taken with the subject standing on the force platform with both feet together, in four different conditions: eyes open and closed whilst standing on both a rigid surface and then on foam. The measurements were taken on three occasions with intervals of 20 minutes between them. 18 persons with confirmed Multiple Sclerosis (MS), (aged 44.4 ± 13.3 years and 3.5 ± 1.5 EDSS) participated in the study. Relative reliability was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI); and the absolute reliability using the coefficient of variation (CV) and standard error of measurement (SEM). [Results] The measurements of the CoP in all of the variables in each of the four conditions, showed a reliability of good to excellent (ICC=0.69–0.92) in the intraday test-retest. The variables which showed greatest consistency with repetition were X Speed, Y Speed and Side Length. [Conclusion] Given the results it would seem that the best variables for monitoring postural control in persons with MS are Speed on X and Y along with Side Length.
[Purpose] The current study attempted to examine the effects of centrifugal contraction exercise of the rectus abdominis during the isometric contraction of the transversus abdominis on pain and balance of patients with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included thirty patients who were diagnosed with back pain due to causes other than neurological by a specialist after conducting a medical precision diagnosis. The experiment was performed after evenly dividing the subjects into two groups, namely, control and experimental, using a random method. This study measured pain by using the visual analog scale. To determine the patients’ balancing ability using the Multifunktionale trainsgerate balance measurer. [Results] All groups showed a statistically significant within-group difference in visual analog scale and balance change. However, no significant between-group difference was observed in the comparison of therapy effects. [Conclusion] Strengthening the rectus abdominis can be an important factor for increasing the stability and reducing the pain of the lumbar area among patients with back pain.
[Purpose] To translate and culturally adapt the Örebro Musculoskeletal Screening Questionnaire (ÖMSQ-12) into Japanese (ÖMSQ-12-J), and to preliminarily investigate practicality from the clinicians’ perspectives, and determine inter-session reliability. [Subjects and Methods] This study included four phases: cross-cultural adaptation (Phases 1–2); survey among 14 clinicians (two medical doctors and 12 physiotherapists) about the practicality of using the questionnaire in six perspectives (speed of evaluation/treatment; capacity to detect patients with yellow flags; attitude towards management with bio-psycho-social perspectives; quality of evaluation/treatment; considerations of communications with patients at history-taking, physical assessments and interventions; and general clinical usefulness) based on their experiences with patients (Phase 3); and investigation of inter-session reliability among 50 patients with musculoskeletal disorders (Phase 4). [Results] The ÖMSQ-12-J was developed in Phases 1–2 using the recommended international guidelines for cultural adaptation and translation. In Phase 3, most responses were in the 3-positive options (35.7–78.6%). In Phase 4, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for each item ranged from 0.71–0.99 and 0.92 for the total score. [Conclusion] This study developed the ÖMSQ-12-J, which has preliminary evidence of good practicality and moderate-strong inter-session reliability. Further investigation is required to determine the predictive and prognostic capacity within a problematic musculoskeletal Japanese population.
[Purpose] Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of global disability. Acupressure is a manual approach that can be used for self-management of LBP. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of acupressure in treating chronic LBP. [Subjects and Methods] The research design was a single system study utilizing an AB design. The subject was recruited using convenience sampling. During phase A, the subject received traditional physical therapy interventions. During phase B, the subject received acupressure in addition to traditional physical therapy interventions. Outcomes included the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). [Results] For the VAS, the pain was 38.8 mm at baseline, decreased to 11.3 mm after phase A, and decreased to 2.5 mm after phase B. For the PSFS, the subject’s function was 5/10 at baseline, remained the same after phase A, and increased to 9/10 after phase B. For the ODI, the subject’s disability was moderate (30%) at the baseline, decreased to minimal (14%) after phase A, and completely resolved (0%) after phase B. [Conclusion] The data indicated that integrating acupressure in physical therapy could reduce pain, increase function, and decrease disability.
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify social skills and support that are related to the coping strategies Janpanese physical therapy students use during their clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Third-year students who were finished with their clinical practice participated. Self-administered questionnaires were used, including the daily life skill scale, social support scale, and tri-axial coping scale. Spearman’s partial correlation coefficients were calculated between social skills, support of daily living, and coping strategies used during the clinical practice, while controlling for gender. [Results] A total of 56 completed questionnaires (median of age: 21 years; 27 males). Social skills during personal situations—knowledge summarization, self-esteem, and positive thinking—were significantly, positively correlated with planning and affirmative interpreting strategies to approach stressors regarding clinical practice, and negatively related to giving up strategies to avoid stressors. Intimacy, leadership, and empathy (social skills during interpersonal situations) were significantly, positively correlated with the following responses to approach stressors: catharsis, information gathering, and affirmative interpreting. Moreover, emotional/companionship social support was significantly, positively correlated with all avoidant coping strategies. [Conclusion] Japanese physical therapy students who had low personal and interpersonal social skills and excess emotional/companionship support in daily life tend to select avoidance, not approach, coping strategies during clinical practice.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to measure the center of mass using a smartphone application during walking in healthy. [Subjects and Methods] Forty eight healthy participants volunteered for this study. Measurements of center of mass were obtained by gait analysis application using smartphone while subjects performed 6 meter walking test. The measured data were automatically calculated by the application, subjects performed three trial walks to get a more accurate data analysis. [Results] There were no significant differences among subjects or between genders during the three trials in the vertical and lateral displacement of COM, and the results of the Kolmogorov-Simirnov test showed no differences in vertical and lateral displacement of COM in all subjects or between genders. However, the vertical displacement of COM significantly varied in male subjects than in female subjects, but the lateral displacement of COM did not significantly differ between the male and female subjects. [Conclusion] We can use the Smartphone application to measure the COM for walking; however more studies comparing advanced technological instruments with the smartphone application are needed.
[Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19–21 years) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University. Participants were shown a picture of a Tokara goat or shack (control) while prefrontal cortical oxygenated haemoglobin levels (representing neural activity) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The prefrontal cortical near-infrared spectroscopy signal was significantly higher during viewing of the animal picture than during a rest condition or during viewing of the control picture. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to objectively identify brain activity changes during human mentation regarding animals; furthermore, these preliminary results suggest the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy could be related to increased activation of the prefrontal cortex.
[Purpose] In rotator cuff tendon disease (RCTD), anamnesis is as important as clinical findings and anatomic/radio diagnostic examination. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of patients diagnosed with RCTD using clinical and radiological methods between March 2015 and August 2015 at Malatya Research and Training Hospital Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation department. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 178 patients who were diagnosed with RCTD (128 females and 50 males). A questionnaire comprising 33 questions was given to each patient. [Results] Eighty-eight of the patients (49.9%) had an involvement on their right side, eighty-four (47.1%) had an involvement on their left side, and 6 had bilateral involvement. Mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was found to be statistically significant in favor of female patients. A statistically significant correlation was found between educational status and VAS. The body mass index (BMI) of the female patients was found to be higher than that of the male patients. Statistically significant correlation between doing risky work and gender showed that males were at a higher risk. [Conclusion] RCDT is more seen in people who have high BMI and are at their 50s. Pain complaint and BMI were found higher in female patients. DM, thyroid and cardiac diseases were seen more in the patients who are diagnosed with RCTD relative to the healthy population.
[Purpose] Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has attracted attention as a method for determining prognosis following paralysis after stroke. However, DTI can assess the degree of damage to the corticospinal tract but cannot evaluate other brain regions. In this study, we examined in detail the prognosis of upper-limb function of the paralyzed side following stroke, using DTI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). [Subjects and Methods] We studied 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with stroke, including hemorrhagic and ischemic types, who exhibited hemiparesis and were treated in our hospital. DTI and VBM were performed 14 days after admission. Outcome measurements that assessed upper limb function were Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Motor Activity Log (MAL), which were applied after 3 months. [Results] The fractional anisotropy ratio of the bilateral cerebral peduncles (rFA) was significantly correlated with FMA, amount of use, and quality of movement 3 months after stroke. The precentral gyrus significantly degenerated as compared with the control group for a case with notable motor paralysis, for which rFA was high. [Conclusion] We suggest it may be possible to predict recovery of upper limb function following stroke by combining DTI and VBM visualization methods.
[Purpose] The anti-gravity treadmill (Alter-G®) allows the load on the lower limbs to be adjusted, which is considered useful for patients with lower limb osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise using an anti-gravity treadmill in patients with lower limb osteoarthritis by using a cardiopulmonary exercise load monitoring system. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 patients with lower limb osteoarthritis. These subjects walked naturally for 8 minutes and then walked on the Alter-G for 8 minutes at their fastest speed at a load where lower limb pain was alleviated. [Results] Subjective and objective exercise intensity did not differ significantly between level ground walking and Alter-G walking neither before nor after walking. Pain before walking did not differ significantly between level ground walking and Alter-G walking, but pain after walking was significantly greater with level ground walking than with Alter-G walking. [Conclusion] Exercise therapy using an anti-gravity treadmill was useful for patients with lower limb osteoarthritis in terms of cardiopulmonary function, which suggested that this could become a new form of exercise therapy.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays (HI-LPNR) and stretching on hypertonia in cerebrovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 cerebrovascular disease patients with hypertonia of the ankle joint plantar flexor muscle. The subjects were randomly allocated to groups undergoing treatment with HI-LPNR irradiation (HI-LPNR group), stretching (stretching group), HI-LPNR irradiation followed by stretching (combination group), and control group (10 subjects each). In all groups, the passive range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the specified intervention. [Results] The changes in passive range of motion, significant increase in the stretching and combination groups compared with that in the control group. The changes in passive resistive joint torque, significant decrease in HI-LPNR, stretching, and combination groups compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has effect of decrease muscle tone. However, combination of HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has no multiplier effect.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine whether a systematic high intensity aerobic exercise on treadmill was effective in improving pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 22 healthy elderly women over 65 years of age who were attending the Senior Welfare Center and Social Welfare Center programs in B city. For the pulmonary function test, a spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy) was used. The item for measurement of pulmonary function in elderly women was maximum-effort expiratory spirogram (MES). The pulmonary function test was performed 3 times, and its mean value was used for analysis. After a 15 minute warm-up stretching, high intensity aerobic exercise was performed for 20 minutes as a main exercise, followed by 15 minutes of cool-down stretching. Exercise was performed three days a week for 12 weeks. [Results] Among items of maximum-effort expiratory spirogram, a significant difference after exercise was demonstrated in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Two factors were improved after exercise. [Conclusion] The results demonstrated that high intensity aerobic exercise on the treadmill has a positive effect on the pulmonary function of elderly women.
[Purpose] The current study aimed to investigate factors affecting dyspnea after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients presenting with hypoxemia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were IPF out-patients with stable symptoms whose percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation fell to 88% during the 6MWT test. Quadriceps force, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), dyspnea after the 6MWT, and leg fatigue (LF) were evaluated as exercise-related variables. [Results] The subjects were 14 patients (mean age 73.6 ± 6.3 years) classed based on the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale as 0 for 2 patients, 1 for 6 patients, and 2 for 6 patients, indicating that the patients were comparatively mild cases. Mean 6MWD was 408.9 ± 102.4 m, and dyspnea after the 6MWT and LF were 3.0 ± 1.4 and 1.5 ± 1.5, respectively. Dyspnea after the 6MWT was correlated with vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity, and LF. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified VC and LF as factors significantly affecting dyspnea after the 6MWT. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrated that it is necessary to evaluate both pulmonary function and LF in IPF patients presenting with exercise-induced hypoxemia and exertional dyspnea.
[Purpose] To present legislation comparing direct and referred access—or other measures—to physical therapy. The focus is on the management of the most burdensome musculoskeletal disorders in terms of regulations, costs, effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness. [Methods] Main biomedical databases and gray literature were searched ranging from a global scenario to the analysis of targeted geographical areas and specifically Italy and the Region Piedmont. [Results] legislation on Direct Access highlights inconsistencies among the countries belonging to World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Direct Access could be an effective, safe and efficient organization model for the management of patients with musculoskeletal diseases and seems to be more effective safer and cost effective. [Conclusion] Direct Access is a virtuous model which can help improve the global quality of physical therapy services. Further studies are required to confirm this approach and determine whether the findings of the present overview can be replicated in different countries and healthcare systems.
[Purpose] To present a case demonstrating the relief of cervical radiculopathy following the dramatic reduction of forward head posture and restoration of the cervical lordosis by use of a multi-modal rehabilitation program incorporating cervical extension traction. [Subject and Methods] A 31-year-old male patient presented with severe cervical radiculopathy and muscle weakness as well as neck pain. The patient had limited neck range of motion, and multiple positive orthopedic tests. Radiography revealed excessive forward head posture with a cervical kyphosis. [Results] The patient received a multi-modal rehabilitation proto including mirror image extension exercises, cervical extension traction, and spinal manipulative therapy. After forty treatments over 17 weeks, the patient reported a complete resolution of radiculopathy and significant improvement in neck pain level. Post radiography demonstrated correction of the spine and posture alignment. The patient remained well and maintained corrected posture with limited treatment one year later. [Conclusion] Our case demonstrates the relief of cervical radiculopathy resulting from the non-surgical correction of forward head posture and cervical kyphosis.
[Purpose] To present a case of the non-surgical reduction of ‘slouchy’ hyperkyphosis posture utilizing the multimodal Chiropractic BioPhysics® rehabilitation program emphasizing the mirror image® concept. [Subject and Methods] A 27-year-old female presented suffering from neck and back pains, headaches and gait dysfunction. The patient was treated 30 times over a period of 6-months. Treatment consisted of anterior thoracic translation, thoracic extension, and head retraction exercises as well as spinal traction and spinal manipulation. [Results] After 6-months of treatment the patient displayed a total correction of the posterior thoracic translation with a significant reduction in thoracic hyperkyphosis. The dramatic correction of her overall posture and spine alignment corresponded to the significant relief of neck and back pains, headaches and improvement of various other health issues as demonstrated by self-report and SF-36. [Conclusion] Poor postures corresponding to poor health can be changed for the better with multimodal rehabilitation programs that are now showing consistent postural improvements corresponding with improvements in various health conditions. We suggest that the postural correction of those with various pain symptoms be considered as a first line non-pharmalogical, non-surgical rehabilitation approach for those presenting with poor posture.
[Purpose] This study developed a combined thoracic and backward lifting exercise for thoracic kyphosis angle and intercostal muscle pain. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 41-year-old man who complained of upper thoracic and intercostal pain. He performed the combined thoracic and backward lifting exercise for 15 days. [Results] The initial VAS score for the intercostal area was 4/10. The VAS score decreased to 1/10 after the thoracic exercise combined with backward lifting. The initial thoracic kyphosis angle was 38° and it decreased to 32° after the exercise period. [Conclusion] Therefore, backward lifting and thoracic extension is a good posture for activating the different layers of muscle that are attached to the ribs. The kyphosis angle is also reduced by providing sufficient resistance during the thoracic exercise.
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