This retrospective pilot study was conducted to examine the validity of upper extremity Motricity Index scores. The strength of the paretic upper extremity of 10 patients with stroke was measured using the Motricity Index and dynamometry. Specifically measured were hand-grasp, elbow flexion, and shoulder abduction. The criterion validity of the Motricity Index scores was supported by their significant and high correlations with dynamometer measures (r >.74). The construct validity of the Motricity Index scores was demonstrated by their high Cronbachís alpha (.968). The Motricity Index is a valid instrument for characterizing the strength of the paretic upper extremity following stroke.
The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that a patient with medial femorotibial osteoarthritis had significant pain relief after the application of a functional wrapping technique with exercise therapy. The authors also describe how to apply the wrapping to reduce the mechanical load on the medial articular cartilage of the knee joint. This report also indicates the possibility of the correction of malalignment of the knee by physical therapy, describing the mechanism of the knee joint deformity which is related to the rotational malalignment between the femur and tibia, and explains how the wrapping technique works on the knee joint. To conclude, although it is still ambiguous whether or not the knee joint alignment of the patient was corrected by physical therapy, it was indicated that the wrapping technique combined with exercise therapy was at least efficient in alleviating pain of the patient with moderate medial femorotibial osteoarthritis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training on sensorimotor functions including muscle strength, motor time for the ankle, balance reaction and performance in six minute walk using a step exercise training program for a period of 8 weeks in 10 elderly women (mean age=79.8, SD=5.8) among residents of a health institution for the aged. As a result of the training program the follow factors significantly improved: the best mean torque for the dorsi flexor and the plantar flexor (0.12 ± 0.07→0.21 ± 0.07 Nm/kg, 0.44 ± 0.13→0.62 ± 0.19 Nm/kg); motor time at the dorsi flexor and the plantar flexor (61.0 ± 6.4→45.0 ± 4.2 msec, 55.1 ± 5.4→42.7 ± 5.1 msec); anteroposterior movement distance of the body’s center of gravity (3.6 ± 2.0→5.6 ± 2.7 cm) and the six minute walk distance (256.4 ± 48.4→319.3 ± 65.4 m). Also, it was shown that there were significant correlations between Δ the best mean torque and both Δ the anteroposterior movement distance and Δ the six minute walk distance (r=0.78 p<0.01, r=0.66 p<0.05). These results suggest that the training program increased gait performance.
The motions involved in the ordinary act of walking which we all perform unthinkingly are in fact very complex and require great agility, and once impairment occurs, abnormal gait will result. The present study experimented with mechanical analysis of walking with a false leg, with a view to clinical application. Attention was focused on wave components common to the floor reaction patterns of A/K (-trans-femoral (Above Knee) amputation) and B/K (-trans-tibial (Below Knee) amputation) subjects, and waveform factors were analyzed. In this research, a VICON 3D motion analysis system was used to analyze the walking motions of A/K and B/K subjects by means of stick figure and force plate representations. Attention was focused on knee-joint movement in stick-figure analysis, and on Z-component waveforms in force plate analysis. Results showed significant differences between false leg and natural leg during mid stance in A/K subjects. Furthermore, the false leg Z-component waveforms were saw-tooth type with A/K subjects, and notch type with B/K subjects.
Changes of inter-cortical correlation based on the electroencephalogram (EEG) during motor learning process were investigated. The subjects consisted of ten healthy volunteers aged 19 to 27 years (mean=20.4 ± 2.4 years). The task of motor learning was reciprocal tapping of the IV and V finger in the non-dominant hand with maximum effort. Practices were executed five days per week for four weeks. To provide an index of motor learning, the tapping frequency and EEG during ten seconds were measured once per week. The results showed significant increases of rate of tapping during four weeks in all subjects. As inter-cortical correlations, temporo-spatial synchronization between supplementary motor area (SMA) and motor cortex (MI) were gradually increased during the four weeks. It is suggested that an increase of inter-cortical correlation between SMA and MI may reflect the central mechanism of motor learning.
The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of elevating the heel during unilateral weight-bearing on structure of the foot, especially a “flat” foot, and on function of the foot in maintaining balance. We examined 16 healthy women, 21 to 23 years of age, who stood unilaterally on the right foot with the heel elevated 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 mm. We measured height of the medial longitudinal arch, rearfoot pronation (calf-to-calcaneus angle), displacement of center of pressure under the foot during ten seconds, and mean position of the center of pressure during those ten seconds. Elevating the heel raised the medial longitudinal arch, reduced rearfoot pronation, increased length of displacement of the center of pressure, and brought the mean center of pressure forward and medially. In feet that initially had strong rearfoot pronation, presence of an initially high medial longitudinal arch was associated with a greater curtailment of rearfoot pronation when the heel was elevated than if the arch was not initially high. These results suggest that elevating the heel of a shoe can help reduce the signs of a flat foot, but the accompanying decrease in balance stability and shift of pressure toward the first metatarsal head makes the use of elevated heels questionable as a therapeutic measure.
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the estimation formula for height (Ht) is suitable for correcting data from lung function tests. We collected fundamental data in healthy young adults to investigate whether the data was correlated to the actual pulmonary functions or not. The subjects were 157 healthy young persons (59 males and 98 females). We measured arm span (AS), length of upper arm (UA), and the right second digit proximal phalangeal length (RII). The values of AS, UA, RII for males and females correlated positively and significantly with each other. Next, the vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume per second (FEV1.0) were determined in 70 females and 35 males in all subjects, by the electrospirometer. In both sexes, correlation coefficients between VC, FEV1.0 and Ht was more than 0.6, but correlation coefficients between VC and the sizes of body parts was 0.6 or less. These results suggest that height estimation derived from RII, obtained from the upper extremities, was useful. However, the accuracy of estimation for VC and FEV1.0 based on the lengths of body parts was low because their correlation coefficients were as low as 0.6 or less.
This study investigated the effects of the ankle brace “CREATOR” on lower extremity muscles in performances by maximum amplitudes of the integrated electromyogram (IEMG). Twelve female handball players performed four exercises, repeated side step, vertical high jump, standing long jump and pivot. Maximum amplitudes of all muscles with the brace tended to be less than those without it. Those of tibialis anterior in the repeated side step and pivot, medial gastrocnemius in all performances except for repeated side step and peroneus longus and peroneus brevis in the repeated side step were significant. Thus with the brace, subjects performed the same with less muscle activity than without it, and this brace prevented an ankle sprain against the side direction.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor of determination of the center of gravity of the right and left axis in sitting of hemiplegic patients. Subjects were 30 hemiplegic patients. The subjects center of gravity point was measured during 1) natural sitting, 2) sitting on the non-paretic weight-bearing, and 3) sitting on the paretic weight-bearing under eyes open and eyes closed conditions for ten seconds. We calculated the middle point value for 2) and 3), and observed a correlation between the center of gravity point during natural sitting and the middle point. This result indicate that the center of gravity point is decided by relative position of the maximal voluntary weight-bearing of the non-paretic and paretic sides.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of thumb movement at three frequencies on early components of SEP. Subjects consisted of eighteen healthy persons whose age ranged from 19 to 30 years old (average age; 22 ± 3). The subjects pressed a counter set on a desk with the right thumb and electric stimulation was simultaneously applied to the median nerve of part of the right wrist joint. SEP was recorded at C3 on the contralateral scalp. The following results were obtained: 1) The latencies of P1, N1 and P2 were significantly prolonged during the counter pushing at a frequency of 1 Hz.citation=2. The peak to peak amplitudes of the P1-N1 and N1-P2 were significantly reduced by about 14% and 38%, respectively, during thumb movement at a frequency of 3 Hz.citation=3. These peak to peak amplitudes were not significantly decreased during counter pushing at a frequency of 0.25 Hz. The amplitude reduction of early components of SEP was observed during the thumb movements at a high frequency. The reduction was thought due to a repression of the sensory area by the ipsilateral motor one. These repressive effects varied with the frequency of movement.