Objective: In this study the efficacy of transvaginal electrical stimulation in female genuine stress incontinence was assessed. Methods: Female patients with urinary incontinence were examined physically following history in a multiclinically based study involving Urology, Gynaecology, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation. Urodynamics were performed for all patients, and 27 patients with genuine stress incontinence were included in this study. Transvaginal electrical stimulation were applied to the patients 30 mins once a day, 5 days a week, for a total of 4 weeks. The daily number of pads, incontinence and micturition times (day-night) were obtained and all patients completed the incontinence-specific quality of life questionnaire (I-QoL) before, at the end of and at the 3rd month after therapy, and 25 patients who completed this study were evaluated. Results: In patients treated with transvaginal electrical stimulation, the times of incontinence, micturition times, and number of pads were significantly decreased (p<0.001) and the scores of I-QoL were significantly increased (p<0.001) after treatment and at the 3rd month post-treatment when compared with pretreatment levels. According to subjective assessment eighteen (72%) of patients were cured. The number of patients improved moderately and minimally were 4 (16%) and 3 (12%) respectively. No patient reported side effects during treatment. Conclusion: Transvaginal electrical stimulation could be an effective and safe treatment for women with genuine stress incontinence.
Heterotopic ossification has been reported as a complication of central nerve disorders such as spinal cord injuries and cerebral lacerations. Whenever heterotopic ossification is an associated complication, range of motion limitations arise and this makes it an important factor in the obstruction of rehabilitation. The exact cause of heterotopic ossification has not been clarified; however, we do know that it is important to carry out rehabilitation, especially physical therapy exercises, such as gentle range of motion exercises, early on as a preventative measure. Subarchinoidal hemorrhage at the acute stage has several danger factors such as hemorrhage, angiospasms and hydrochephalus so there is a tendency to delay the start of rehabilitation compared to cases of cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. In this report we look at four cases of heterotopic ossification associated with subarchinoidal hemorrhage and also look at the prevention of heterotopic ossification.
In carpal tunnel syndrome, depending on the severity and duration of compression, varied degrees of demyelination or axonal degeneration leads to low action potential amplitude with wrist stimulation. Amplitude drop across the lesion can distinguish demyelination from axonal degeneration. In 61 control and 127 consecutive CTS patient hands we recorded antidromic sensory nerve action potentials after palm and wrist stimulation to compare amplitude ratios. The latency, amplitude and velocity of median SNAPs were significantly different between normal and CTS groups (p<0.001). Although patients with milder involvement had similar distal latency to controls (p=0.977), SNAP amplitude and conduction velocity, being still in the normal ranges, were significantly different from controls (p<0.001). SNAP wrist to palm amplitude ratio was 0.81 ± 0.12 in controls. In 87 hands mean amplitude ratio was significantly lower than it was in normal group (0.53 ± 0.23, p<0.001) but the remaining forty hands with milder involvement had a mean amplitude ratio (0.75 ± 0.23) similar to controls (p=0.127). There was a significant reduction of SNAP amplitudes at the wrist compared to the palm in 54 % of hands. Comparison of amplitudes between wrist and palm segment may give information about conduction block.
The effects of physical activity, treadmill running, on bone of ovariectomized mice were investigated. Forty 12-week-old female ICR mice were used. They were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SHAM) and half of them were run on a treadmill at 16 m/min, 5 days/week for 6 weeks (Ex). All animals were sacrificed at week 12 after operation. Mechanical strength of the left femur and tibia were measured by the three-point bending strength test. The bones were dried, weighed and burned to ash. Mechanical strength and ash content of the femur and tibia in Ex group were significantly higher than those of control animals. Also mechanical strength of femur and tibia in OVX/Ex were not different from SHAM/Cont mice. Physical activity, treadmill running, thus affected inhibition of bone loss and maintenance of bone mass. It is necessary to continue this basic study to determine effective modes of physical activity.
Background and purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathologies, neck pain and postural differences. Subjects and Methods. Eighteen patients referred to us with TMJ and neck pain complaints were included in the study. The control group consisted of individuals who had no TMJ and neck pain complaints. Both groups were subjected to cervical X-Ray and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of TMJ. Patients were evaluated by mandibular ROM (active-passive), and head-shoulder angles parameters. Mandibular ROM as active and passive was measured with a ruler in milimeters between the upper and lower first incisor teeth. For measurement of head and shoulder angles, tragus, processus spinosus of C7 cervical vertebra and acromial head on shoulder were marked and angular measurements were taken from these three points on the patients' photographs. Results. There was a statistical difference in head-shoulder angles and TMJ active-passive ROM values when both groups were compared with each other (p<0.001). Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that cervical postural changes affect the muscles of the stomatognathic system and cause TMJ dysfunction pathologies.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between the effects of cementless and cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) through gait analysis. The subjects were 23 patients with osteoarthritis of the knees who were operated on with cementless TKA (average age 72.1 ± 5.0) and 25 patients with the same complaint who were operated on with cemented TKA (average age 70.7 ± 4.9). Physical therapy after surgery was the same except that in the case of cemented TKA, full weight bearing started 2 weeks earlier than for cementless TKA. Four force-plates were used to examine the knee function during customary gait. The differences before and 3 months after the operation were examined for the 2 groups and evaluated for velocity, averaged vertical component of floor reaction force (for both knees) with normalization for weight, and ratio of single support (single support time/gait cycle time) (for both knees). There was a significant difference in the ratio of single support on the non-operated side (p<0.05). This was -3% in the case of cementless and 1% for cemented. The result was that the non-operated sides in the cementless cases were weaker than in the cemented cases. The 2 groups exhibited no significant differences on the operated side.
The purpose of this study was to investigate autonomic disorder of the cardiopulmonary system of patients who were diagnosed as hypoventilation according to coefficient of variation of R-R (CVR-R) in electrocardiograms of SMON (subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy) patients at mass examinations in many regions of Aichi Prefecture in Japan. One hundred twenty two patients, diagnosed as SMON ranging in age from fifty one to eighty eight (mean 72.1) participated. As investigation items, ventilation capability (%VC, %FVC, FEVl%, %MMF, V50 and V25) and CVR-R (during deep breathing load) were measured. The following results were obtained: 1) Ventilation functions among patients: those who had %VC of equal or less than 80%, or those who had FEVl% of equal or less than 70% were 44 cases (36.1%). 2) CVR-R during deep breathing: SMON patients were divided into two groups of ventilation capability normal group and depression group. During deep breathing, significantly higher values than at the resting time were shown in ages equal and below seventy of ventilation capability depression group. Based on the above results, among ventilation capability depression group, disturbance of activities of parasympathetic nerve system was estimated to exist, because CVR-R showed lower values then those of normal group at the resting, while it showed a significant increase at the time of deep breathing load.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Ca intake on bone for limited periods, 50 and 100 days, in ovariectomized and sham-operated mice. Fifty-six female 5-weeks-old ICR mice were used. Six mice were sacrificed at start of this study for the baseline. The remaining fifty mice were either ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SHAM), and mice of both groups were fed either standard mouse diet (SF) or special low calcium diet (L.Ca). Half of the animals were sacrificed at day 50 after operation and the rest at day 100. Maximum load of the femur and tibia were measured by the three-point bending strength test. The bones were dried and burnt to ash. Maximum load, ash content of the femur and tibia in OVX or L.Ca mice were significantly less than in SHAM or SF mice. SHAM/SF and OVX/L.Ca mice showed the highest and lowest values in maximum load and ash content, respectively. The effect of the term was shown in all parameters except for maximum load. Correlation coefficients between maximum load and ash content were 0.704 and 0.776 for the femur and tibia. Ca intake is thus related to inhibition of bone loss and maintenance of bone mass. This influence appeared slowly and had an additive effect with other factors, OVX and term.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic respiratory failure. Subjects were seventeen patients with chronic respiratory failure. HRQL was assessed by means of the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the scores were compared with physiological measures, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), activities of daily living (ADL), anxiety and depression. The mean calculated scores of each component (Symptoms, Activity, Impacts and Total) were 69.5, 73.8, 52.6 and 61.8 respectively. The SGRQ scores correlated with degree of dyspnea (the Hugh-Jones scale), vital capacity (VC), VC as percent predicted, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0), fatigue of the lower limbs, 6MWD, ADL and depression. Four separate stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to identify variables that most influence HRQL. In consequence, body-mass index, ADL, VC, FEV1.0 and 6MWD entered the equations. These findings suggest that, in order to improve HRQL, teaching adequate ADL to reduce dyspnea, training to improve exercise capacity, and to be careful with nutritional and mental status are needed.
This study examined the anticipated postural control and the dynamic postural control ability through measuring required times with the maze-induction type balance board (MIBB) test. The subjects were eighty-seven healthy persons (20-83 years old), divided into three groups by age. The subject was made to take an upright stance on MIBB, then and carry out a task quickly, guide a ball through the maze after a signal, and the required time was measured. The required times were recorded for latitudinal and longitudinal directions. The results were as follows: 1) The required times of longitudinal and latitudinal directions of the aged group were significantly longer than those of the young and middle-age groups. 2) The aged and middle-aged groups by standing on one foot were divided into two groups of stable (holding of 30 sec. over) and unstable (holding of 30 sec. less). The length of center of gravity (C.G.) of opened eyes of the unstable group was significantly longer than that of the stable group (p<0.01), and the length of C.G. of closed eyes also gave a significant result (p<0.05). 3) The required time of longitudinal direction of the unstable group was significantly longer than that of the stable group (p<0.01), and the required time of latitudinal direction also gave a significant result (p<0.01). These results suggested that the MIBB test could be useful in dynamic balance training for keeping the body segments during movement and to prevent falling.
We measured thoracoabdominal motion by analyzing changes of rib cage (RC) and abdomen (ABD) motion during cycle ergometry using respiratory inductive plethysmography in eight healthy subjects (8 males). Cycle exercise was performed at three incremental work rates of 60, 90, and 120w for five minutes each and tidal volume (TV) was continuously measured with a respiratory flowmeter on a breath-by-breath basis. It was found that RC motion increased, but ABD motion did not always increase, during incremental work cycle exercise RC motion contributed more to the increase of TV than ABD motion. These results suggest that TV increase was produced more by RC motion than by ABD motion.