The cellular effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound on the protein content of muscle after trauma were determined in this study. Rats were subjected to a single impact trauma to the gastrocnemius. Six major treatment groups were employed: (1) uninjured control, (2) injured control, (3) & (4) uninjured ultrasound treated, and (5) & (6) injured ultrasound treated. The ultrasound treated groups were subdivided into continuous ultrasound, and pulsed ultrasound treatments (dosage = 1.0 watts/cm2 × 5 min), which were given from day 2 to day 7 post-trauma once daily. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 7 days, the medial gastrocnemius muscle being dissected and solubilized for protein content determination. On day 7 the control injured group had a statistically greater mean protein content than the injured continuous ultrasound treatment group, and the mean protein content of the injured pulsed ultrasound treatment group was statistically greater than both the injured control or the injured continuous ultrasound treatment groups (one way ANOVA, P<0.05). The means of all three uninjured control groups were not significantly different at day 1 or 7. Within each group, only the control injured (18% or 44 mg increase ± 17 mg) and the injured pulsed ultrasound treatment (7% or 22 mg increase ± 9 mg) groups showed statistically significant changes (95% Confidence Interval) in protein content from day 1 to day 7. All other treatment groups showed no statistically significant increases.
We obtained and analyzed personal health and QOL of 145 players participating in the 2002 Japan Sitting Volleyball Goodwill Games in Hakuba, Japan. QOL was measured by the SF-36 Health Survey providing 8 specific categories of physical and emotional scores summarized into 2 main scores: the Physical Component Score (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS). There were 42 players with disabilities and 103 players without any disabilities. There were significant differences between the two groups of participants in physical functioning, role physical, and social functioning among the 8-scale profile functional health and well-being scores, and physical component summary in summary measures (p<0.05). Even though our research showed that almost all of the sitting volleyball players with disabilities could move by themselves, they felt difficulties in several categories of physical functioning and role physical. Considering our results, participation in sitting volleyball may contribute to improve disabled players' QOL. This research indicates that SF-36 is a useful survey for the QOL of people playing sitting volleyball with and without disabilities.
This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between quadriceps strength and balance to falls of institutionalized elderly people. The subjects comprised 25 elderly women aged 75.3 ± 3.4 years. The values of the postural sway in two standing positions, functional reach test, and quadriceps strength were compared between two groups of elderly adults, those with or without a history of fall. Quadriceps strength was measured using isometric contraction of the knee extension. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the postural sway in the two standing positions and the functional reach test. Quadriceps strength in the non-fall group was, however, significantly higher than that in the fall group (1.48 Nm/kg vs. 1.08 Nm/kg, p<0.01). The discriminating criterion for muscle strength between the two groups was 1.28 Nm/kg, with an apparent error rate of 24.8%. These findings suggest that (1) the degree of quadriceps strength may be a useful indicator for the prospect of fall in institutionalized elderly people, and (2) quadriceps strength should be maintained at least more than 1.28 Nm/kg to prevent fall.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ankle taping and the combined effect of ankle taping and exercise on ankle stabilization under four different conditions (pre-taped, taped, walking on the treadmill, removal of tape) in drop landing from a 40 cm height. The subjects consisted of 14 healthy adult (four male, ten female) volunteers with ages ranging from 22-28 years. Preamplified EMG electrodes were attached to the soleus, tibialis anterior, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris. EMG and force plate data were collected at 500 Hz. While standing on one leg, subjects hopped from a 40 cm height onto a force plate. The ankle of the right leg was then taped followed by a repeat of the hopping task, walking on a treadmill, and a second repetition of the hopping task. The hopping task was again repeated following the removal of the tape. Significant increases occurred in vertical ground reaction forces for the taped conditions compared with those in pretaped and untaped conditions. In the taped conditions, the soleus displayed a significant decrease in mean iEMG from impact to peak vertical ground reaction force (p<0.05). Results suggest that taping can provide enough mechanical support to limit ankle motion even after 30 minutes of walking on the treadmill. Additionally, diminished soleus iEMG activity may be related to an increase in the ground reaction forces upon landing from a jump.
The objective of the present study was to clarify the effects of physical fitness elements on rising from the supine to sitting position in the elderly. Subjects were 18 elderly persons (12 men and 6 women) who lived at home. Rising from the supine to sitting position was analyzed by measuring the amount of time required for rising and observing body movements. Dynamic balance was assessed by measuring maximum forward and lateral reach of the arm in the sitting position. Trunk muscle strength was also assessed by measuring trunk bending by while sitting in a chair. Furthermore, flexibility was assessed by measuring finger-floor distance (FFD) while standing on the feet and bending the upper body forward. The average minimal rising time was 2.7 ± 0.9 seconds. There were two distinctive movement patterns for rising, and the results of one-way ANOVA showed that FFD was the only significant principal effect. Multiple regression analysis of the relationship of minimal rising time to maximum lateral reach and maximum trunk muscle strength showed a determination coefficient of r2=0.795 (p<0.01). The results of the present study indicate that flexibility affects movement patterns, and that lateral reach and trunk muscle strength are the determination factors for the amount of time required for rising from the supine to sitting position.
Objective: To compare the Timed "Up and Go" and Functional Reach tests to the Berg Balance Scale for concurrent validity in a broad adult population. Design: A prospective study of individuals with balance deficits. Setting: Neurological rehabilitation, skilled nursing, and acute care facilities. Subjects: Twenty subjects: 12 females and eight males, aged 38 to 86 years (μ=68, SD=14.5). Intervention: The order in which the three tests were performed on each subject was randomized and the scores from the three tests were analyzed using correlation coefficients. Main Outcome Measures: Balance and correlations were based on scores from each of the three balance tests performed. Results: There was a significant correlation between the Berg Balance Scale and Timed "Up and Go" test (r=0.47, p=0.04) but no significant correlation between the Berg Balance Scale and the Functional Reach test (r=0.42, p=0.06). Pairing the Timed "Up and Go" and Functional Reach tests however, revealed a significant correlation (R=0.56, p=0.04). Conclusion: This study suggests that the Timed "Up and Go" test alone or a combination of the Timed "Up and Go" and Functional Reach tests can be used as a simple measure of balance comparable to the Berg Balance Scale.
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether or not the center of gravity shifting to the non-paralytic side in hemiplegics after stroke was influenced by relative distances of the voluntary shifted center of gravity from the paralytic side to the non-paralytic side and vice versa. Using 55 hemiplegics, bilateral points of the voluntary shifted center of gravity in a standing position were measured by means of the stabilometer for 10 seconds, each with the eyes open and closed, and also the voluntary shifting of the center of gravity to the non-paralytic side and the paralytic side. Mean of X-axis was employed as an index for the bilateral points of the center of gravity. The middle of the mean of X calculated from the center of gravity shifted between the non-paralytic side and the paralytic side was used as the middle point. A significant positive correlation between the spontaneous standing point and the middle point was obtained when the eyes were open and closed. The result suggests that the bilateral centers of gravity in the standing position of hemiplegics can be determined relatively by active shifted distances of the centers of gravity between the non-paralytic and paralytic sides.
The muscle strength of the trunk and electromyography (EMG) of paraspinal muscles were recorded during maximal isokinetic exercise in 17 girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in 12 matched control subjects. Median power frequency (MdPF) and Integrated EMG (IEMG) were calculated. The muscle strength in the AIS group was significantly lower than in the control group. Positive correlation of Cobb angle with strength of trunk extensors, but not with flexors was observed, and negative correlation with the flexion-extension ratio (F/E value). There was a close relationship between the Cobb angle and the decrease of rotation muscle strength on the convex side to that on the concave side. MdPF's in AIS were lower than those in the control, and the difference between right and left sides tended to be large. Exercises to strengthen the muscles of the trunk at a high speed with an effort close to the maximum, with consideration given to flexion and rotation on the concave side of the trunk, are recommended for AIS patients.
A survey was conducted to investigate attitudes towards professional knowledge and practice of 1,017 Japanese physiotherapists. The questionnaire consisted of 22 statements and demographic variables. The final response rate was 57.7 per cent and the respondents' age ranged from 23 to 72 (mean ± SD: 32.9 ± 8.4) years. The statements were organised into six dependent variables. The findings indicated that the majority of the respondents supported a humanistic approach, showing less concern for the personal and socio-psychological problems of the client. Gender differences on professional practice were small, but women tended to endorse a more holistic view of treatment placing emphasis on the client's responsibility and promotion of their coping skills. Comparative analyses of Japanese and Australian physiotherapists revealed that Australian men placed emphasis on treatment methods and techniques and holistic and work domain attitudes. Australian women endorsed all the attributions and attitudes except interaction attributions. Swedish physiotherapists highly endorsed technique attributions as well as a holistic view of professional practice. Findings are discussed within the framework of the attribution theory and in the context of viewing physiotherapy as a biomedical science or as a caring profession, as well as from historical and cultural perspectives.
We have already reported on the effect of a standing-up exercise on forward bending in the long sitting position in elderly subjects. Each subject performed forward bending before and after carrying out the standing-up exercise. The results indicated that forward bending in the long sitting position measured after the standing-up exercise improved significantly (p<0.001). We hypothesized that contraction of muscles surrounding the hip joints and knee joints during the standing-up exercise performed as a light load exercise had some inhibitory effects on the hamstring muscles and the muscles of the upper back and the lumbar regions. We also tested the influence of the standing-up exercise in normal adult subjects so as to verify the findings in the clinical situation. However, we failed to obtain significant effect in the normal adult subjects when the test was carried out under the same load conditions as used for the elderly subjects, although the test results showed similar tendencies to those observed in the elderly subjects. In this study, we tested the effect of a single-leg half squat exercise in normal adult subjects to determine the loading dose of the warm-up exercise required for facilitating forward bending in the long sitting position. In a control group, subjects sat at ease for 3 minutes before the forward bending test, and in a squat group, subjects performed single-leg half squatting before the test. Forward bending in the long sitting position improved significantly in the squat group compared with the control group. These results suggest that the order of training items should be considered when instructing the elderly and normal adults in health exercises and low back pain prevention exercises.