The purpose of this study was to compare the ventilation-carbon dioxide production slope (VE-VCO2 Slope) of a field walking test, comprising of a six minute walk test (6M) and self-paced walking (SP), with the exercise capacity or VE-VCO2 Slope obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Expiration gas was measured during exercise loading in 25 healthy university students. The VE-VCO 2 Slopes obtained by 6M and SP were significantly lower than the VE-VCO2 Slope for CPX (p<0.04, p<0.0001). The 6M VE-VCO2 Slope showed a significant negative correlation to the CPX VE-VCO2 Slope (r=-0.41, p<0.02). Consequently, these results revealed the clinical usefulness of the 6M VE-VCO2 Slope as an evaluation tool since it allows an estimation to be made for the CPX VE-VCO2 Slope.
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of an isometric neck muscle force measurement device. Thirty-five healthy non-athlete subjects (18 males and 17 females, aged 19-30) participated in this study. The maximal isometric muscle strength of the neck extensor and flexor muscles were measured at different times and on different days using a newly designed neck muscle force measurement apparatus. On each occasion, subjects performed three maximum voluntary contractions in each direction of neck extension and flexion movement. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard deviation within subjects (Sw) were computed to evaluate the reliability and magnitude of measurement error between measurements. The results of the intra-rater, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability (ICCs ≥ 0.94, Sws ≤ 4.9 N) indicate that the neck muscle force measurements were highly repeatable and varied little between measurements. There were no statistically significant differences in neck muscle force measurements between times, between days and between raters. Maximal isometric muscle strengths were significantly higher in males than in females (p < 0.00). Women's neck muscle strengths were 55% and 54% of men in cervical extension and cervical flexion, respectively. The isometric muscle force measurement device which was used in this study appears to be a reliable and useful method for measuring the force of the neck extensor and flexor muscles. It could also be suitable for the assessment of a physiotherapeutic or rehabilitation program.
The purpose of this study was firstly to investigate the pattern of the rearfoot (RF) motion, and secondly to determine any in vivo relationship between the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) movement as a measure of the windlass mechanism and the RF motion during the normal stance phase of walking. Seventeen healthy subjects between the ages of 22 and 33 years old were studied. The timing and magnitude of the RF motion and the first metatarsophalangeal (FMTP) joint extension were assessed using a six-camera Vicon motion analysis system. In addition, the MLA angle was recorded. The results indicate that the timing and magnitude of the RF motion were significantly associated with dynamic windlass function. Subjects could be divided into two groups (EARLY and LATE EVERSION ONSET) based upon the time when the RF motion began the maximum eversion during the stance phase of walking. The LATE EVERSION ONSET group had a greater magnitude of the RF eversion and the maximum MLA angle. In addition, this group had delayed onset of the FMTP joint extension.
The purpose of this study was to investigate tissue oxygen saturation during a single knee extension exercise in seven chronic respiratory disease patients (CRF) and six age-matched controls. The subjects performed three minutes of dynamic knee-extension exercises at two different intensities, as no weight exercise and 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) exercise. Tissue oxygen saturation (SO2NIRS = oxygenate hemoglobin/total hemoglobin) in the vastus lateralis muscle was measured by continuous-wave NIRS (NIRS: near-infrared spectroscopy). The relative changes in SO2NIRS (ΔSO2NIRS) was expressed by changes from resting value, and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measurements used to evaluate the overall comparisons of exercise responses between the CRF and control groups. There was no significant change in quadriceps muscle force between the CRF and control group (208.7 ± 19.6 N; mean ± SE, 234.7 ± 25.9 N, respectively). ΔSO2NIRS during exercise showed a significant difference between the two groups during no-weight and 10%MVC exercises (p<0.01, p<0.05, respectively), while SaO 2 did not show any significant difference. We concluded that CRF subjects demonstrated a lower tissue oxygen saturation during exercise than did healthy older ones, and this difference could be explained by the changes in oxygen supply and/or consumption in the exercised muscle.
This study was designed to determine indicators for an objective evaluation of kinematic abnormalities in cerebral palsy. The analysis included 30 healthy children (with a mean age of 4.8 years) and 21 cerebral palsy children (mean age, 5.3 years). Spastic type of CP was observed in 11 (diplagia: 8, quadplagia: 3) of the 21 children, and athetosis type or athetosis with spasticity (mixed type) was observed in the remaining 10 (quadplagia:10). By using cluster analysis, kinematic patterns of the children's rolling over behavior were divided into three types (A, B, and C). The patterns in 19 of the 21 children with cerebral palsy were divided into Type B or C. In Type A, the necks and legs were in flexion when both the scapulas and pelvis were elevated from the floor. The phenomena were considered to be the characteristics of rolling over in healthy children. In Type B, the necks and ankles were in extension and plantar flexion; these traits were considered to be the distinctive kinematic patterns of cerebral palsy. In Type C, rolling over of the upper body preceded extension of the neck, plantar flexion of the ankles, and extension of the legs. These phenomena were also considered to be the characteristics of cerebral palsy.
Within the last century, many medical approaches have been invented and widely upgraded in the field of medical sciences. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive method in medical diagnosis which has several applications in musculoskeletal evaluation. Each ultrasonography picture is a very thin tomographic slice of the anatomy being examined. With ultrasonography an examiner is able to measure the cross-sectional area, and linear dimensions such as the anterioposterior dimension (APD) and lateral dimension (LD) of the muscle. It is also possible to calculate the multiplied linear dimension by the equation APD times LD and the shape ratio by the equation LD/APD. In biophysiological measurement ultrasonography is a digital measurement device with a high accuracy for identifying small structures. In the field of muscle research, compared to muscle strength test and surface electromyography, ultrasonography can easily screen and evaluate the individual muscle contraction even in the deep layers. During ultrasonography the muscle image is continously updated. Therefore, the method may be useful in physiotherapy of weak muscles by means of visual feedback.
In this study, we tested the effect of a standing-up exercise on forward bending in the long sitting position in elderly subjects. We compared the subjects' abilities to perform forward bending under two conditions: after standing-up exercise and without the standing-up exercise. The objective of this study was to propose, strategies for instructing the elderly in health exercise and low back pain prevention exercise. The results indicated that forward bending in the long sitting position measured after the standing-up exercise improved significantly (p<0.001) compared with those without performing the standing-up exercise. We hypothesized that contraction of muscles surrounding the hip joints and knee joints during the standing-up exercise acted as a light load exercise and provided some inhibitory effects on hamstring muscles and back muscles and lumbar regions. The possible inhibitory effects that could have occurred include: i) reciprocal inhibition against antagonistic muscles, ii) relaxation of the hip joint extensors after the maximal contraction, and iii) improvement of the preparatory state for the subsequent exercise brought about by accelerated peripheral blood circulation and temperature rise in the muscles. We report here on the usefulness of muscle contraction, for example, by standing-up before instructing the elderly in health exercise and low back pain prevention exercise, in that it makes the subsequent stretching exercise more effective. We also suggest the necessity of the order of exercises to be practiced in physical treatment.
The purpose of this study was to compare chest expansion (CE) measurements in two arm positions of and between healthy subjects and subjects with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Twenty-two subjects with AS with a mean age of 41.41 years and 25 healthy subjects with a mean age of 41.04 years were tested in two arm positions: hands on head, and arms at the sides. The tape measure was placed at the level of the xiphisternum. Each tester recorded three trials in both arm positions on two separate occasions which were 10 minutes apart. Results showed there was no significant difference in CE measurement between the two arm positions and between healthy subjects and subjects with AS. It was concluded, that CE may not be an appropriate measurement tool of chest wall or thoracic spine involvement in subjects with AS.
A survey was conducted to investigate attitudes towards professional practice of physio/occupational therapists. Participants were from a sample of 1,017 physiotherapists and 1,006 occupational therapists. The instrument consisted of 22 statements and various demographic variables. The final response rate was 57.7% for physiotherapists and 50.3% for occupational therapists. The respondents ranged in age from 23 to 72 years for the physiotherapists and from 22 to 65 years for the occupational therapists. The statements were organised into six dependent variables. The majority of respondents generally supported a humanistic approach to care with less concern shown for the socio-psychological problems of the client. Gender differences in opinion on professional practice were small, but women generally favoured a more holistic view of treatment. The physiotherapists placed more emphasis on the client's personal responsibility, while occupational therapists endorsed a more holistic view of treatment and promotion of the client's individual resources and coping skills, although professional differences were negligible. Occupational therapists working in non-medical institutions placed more emphasis on the client-therapist relationship, while physiotherapists promoted the coping skills of their clients. In conclusion, the view of regarding therapy as a caring profession was generally prevalent amongst the therapists.