We investigated the effect of motor learning of a grip force-retaining task with the dominant hand on the transfer of that learning to the non-dominant hand. Seventy right-handed healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. These subjects were randomly divided into seven groups classified by frequency of knowledge of results. In motor learning, all subjects performed a grip force adjusting task consisting of 30 trials. The task was to press a grip force measurer with a force that the subject estimated to be 20% of the maximum force. To test the effectiveness, an initial test and retention tests of 5 mins, 1 day, and 1 week after an acquisition phase were performed with 5 trials each on the dominant and non-dominant hands. The efficiency of motor learning was determined by the error value of the retention test. The effect of the retention test was determined by comparing the initial test with each of the 3 phases of the retention tests. The effect of intermanual transfer was determined by correlation coefficients between the dominant and non-dominant hands. Our results revealed that there was a strong relationship between the groups with highly efficient motor learning and correlation coefficients of error of the grip force between the dominant and non-dominant hands. We need to develop a program for more efficient motor learning using the dominant hand.
We developed of an original C-shaped, easily worn cervical collar (Kagoshima Sekijyuji collar; KS collar) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the KS collar for patients with RA. Ten healthy volunteers were examined to evaluate the range of cervical movement permitted using the electrical goniometer system with or without the KS collar. In addition, radiographic examinations were carried out to analyze the ability to restrict the motion of the cervical spine for the volunteers and 10 RA patients. The degree of satisfaction with the KS collar for RA patients was addressed using a self-administered questionnaire examining the resultant activity and pain in comparison with conventional collars. The KS collar strongly restricted cervical motion in terms of flexion, but only slightly restricted extension or lateral bending among the healthy volunteers. It was effective for stabilizing the cervical spine, and even permitted a reduction in the cervical subluxation of RA patients. The questionnaire revealed that 90% of the patients felt comfortable when using it in comparison with conventional collars. These results suggest that the KS collar is useful for patients with RA not only for bringing about spinal stability but also in terms of compliance. However, the selection and use of a cervical collar for RA patients should be determined individually.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the changes in intramuscular blood volume (IMBV) under continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) and compare them with the electric hot pack (EHP). The subjects consisted of 41 healthy adults, who received one of three interventions: CSWD (n=17), EHP (n=12), or no intervention (Controls: n=12). Analyses were done of the values obtained five minutes preceding the intervention (T1), during the intervention (T2), and after the intervention (T3). CSWD was applied with an output of 80 W. Both CSWD and EHP were applied for 10 min. Changes in IMBV of the right medial gastrocnemius muscle were evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb), and total-hemoglobin (total-Hb) were measured using NIRS. At T2 in the CSWD trial, the integration values of oxy-Hb and total-Hb were significantly increased compared with those of the controls (p<0.01), and they were significantly increased compared with those of both the controls and the EHP trial (p<0.01) at T3 of the CSWD trial. The study results verified that IMBV increases as a result of the local thermal effect of CSWD, and also suggest that CSWD is more effective at enhancing IMBV than EHP.
The aim of this study was to examine patients with post-stroke hemiplegia for space estimation disorder during visual reaching for a target. Six patients with post-stroke hemiplegia with no parietal damage were studied, as well as 6 healthy older adults and 6 healthy younger adults as a control group. A target was placed on the table in front of the subject, and then the subject was asked to verbally indicate the farthest reachable point while the target was gradually being moved further away from the subject. The difference was then obtained by measuring the distance from the subject to the indicated point. There was no significant difference in the errors between the estimated and actual values in the healthy older and younger adults. No significant difference was also observed between dominant and non-dominant hands. There were significant differences between the paretic and non-paretic side in the hemiplegic patients, as well as between the paretic side of hemiplegic patients and the dominant hand in the healthy older adults. Compared with healthy subjects, the hemiplegic patients showed a greater difference between the estimated and actual values for both the non-paretic and paretic sides, which indicates an estimation disorder during visual reaching in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia. These results are discussed based on a conversion of the visual coordinates into movement coordinates during visual reaching.
The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes and opinions about the physiotherapist-doctor relationship dyad as perceived by physiotherapists in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. The authors present an analysis of the responses of a sample of 176 physiotherapists to the Likert-type Physiotherapist-Doctor Relationship Scale. This scale consists of 17 statements in the context of the controversy concerning the appropriate relationship between physiotherapy and medicine. Findings of the study revealed that: 1) the respondents' view of the degree of the doctors' understanding of physiotherapy and mutual collaboration between physiotherapists and doctors was moderate; 2) the majority of the respondents wished to have lectures and short courses given by doctors; and 3) the relationship between physiotherapists and doctors becomes more collegial as the former gains professional experience. There was a tendency on the part of the respondents to perceive doctors as viewing physiotherapists foremost as technicians rather than professional colleagues. The results point to a need to strive for the ideal team that is structured, collegial and flexible, which can be achieved through academic and clinical education.
The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term reliability of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test among community dwelling elders (mean age = 75 years). Sixteen women and 4 men were tested 3 times (baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks) at a community senior center. The reliability across the 3 tests was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = .80). The TUG times decreased significantly (p=.02) over the first (mean = 10.1 sec), second (mean = 9.1 sec), and third (mean = 8.9 sec) tests, but between test comparisons (Bonferroni adjusted t-tests) demonstrated no significant differences between any pair of tests. The technical error of measurement was 3.2 sec between the first and second tests and 4.0 sec between the first and third tests; but it was only 0.1 sec between the second and third tests. Bland-Altman plots showed the following 95 percent limits of agreement: test 1 and test 2 (-2.9 to 4.9 sec), test 1 and test 3 (-3.1 to 5.7 sec), test 2 and test 3 (-3.4 to 3.9 sec). The results of this study corroborate those of previous studies supporting the reliability of the TUG test among cognitively intact individuals. The results, however, suggest that considerable differences may exist between tests conducted over a period of weeks. Consequently, differences of several seconds may be necessary to conclude that a real change in performance has occurred. This is particularly true between a first and second test.
Although functional recovery in skeletal muscle after partial denervation has been an object of study for a long time, little agreement has been reached regarding the effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle after partial denervation. The present study examined the effects of exercise training after partial denervation. We developed a rat model for partial denervation of the soleus muscle by resecting the fifth lumbar vertebral nerve on one side. The central side of the fifth lumbar vertebral nerve was ligated to inhibit regeneration of the resected nerve. Animals were exercised on a treadmill for 2 or 6 weeks. We measured muscle mass, muscle fiber-type ratio and cross-sectional area of muscle fibers in the soleus muscle after transection of the tibial nerve. Muscle mass and muscle fiber-type ratios were unchanged. Partially denervated tibial nerves displayed local degeneration up to 6 weeks. Muscle fiber area was significantly higher for exercised soleus muscle after partial denervation than for spontaneous recovery at 2 weeks. At 6 weeks, spontaneously recovered muscles had returned to control levels, while exercised muscle displayed increased growth compared with control muscle. Mechanical stimulation appears to prevent muscle atrophy in the soleus muscle after partial denervation. These results suggest that exercise therapy after partial denervation is effective.
The objective of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the disabilities of school-aged children with cerebral palsy and the family needs of their mothers, with the aim of making suggestions for future implementation of interventions for the mothers. The disabilities of the children were determined according to the Barthel Index, whereas family needs of the mothers were assesse by "The Family Needs Survey". The findings of the present study indicated that the children's disabilities were related to the family needs of the mothers, particularly two of the six latent variables comprising "The Family Needs Survey", e.g. "Needs for Support" and "Community Services". The present study also showed that every latent variable comprising the family needs indicated to a certain degree some needs. In order to provide for these needs, a counseling system and intervention strategies by specialists need to be devised and implemented for mothers of school-aged children with cerebral palsy, regardless of the severity of the disabilities.
The present study examined the localization of hepatocyte growth factor in rat skeletal muscle, and investigated whether levels of hepatocyte growth factor differ between skeletal muscles. Levels of hepatocyte growth factor in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Localization of hepatocyte growth factor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the soleus muscle was visualized using immunofluorescence analysis. Level of hepatocyte growth factor was 3.2 ± 1.4 ng/g tissue in the soleus muscle and 3.4 ± 0.4 ng/g tissue in the tibialis anterior muscle. No significant differences were identified between muscles with differential contractile characteristics. Existence of hepatocyte growth factor was observed in cytoplasm of small cells conterminous to muscle fibers. Cells in a similar position displayed reactivity to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suggesting that they represented activated skeletal muscle satellite cells. Hepatocyte growth factor is produced in normal rat skeletal muscle by activated skeletal muscle satellite cells.
This study was performed to determine the current situation and future prospects regarding the information, techniques, and educational methods of Interprofessional Education (IPE) that are needed throughout the world. The authors contacted a number of schools with physical therapy faculties that have introduced IPE into their curricula as well as credits designated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT). The IPE-related credits under the present curriculum were reviewed. In Japan, only 5 of 36 physical therapy faculties have adopted IPE into their curricula. In Japan, ninety-three credits are designated by MEXT in schools that train physical therapists. The Designated Regulation of Education of Japanese Physical Therapists was revised in 1989, and IPE-related clauses were added. This takes into account the social needs of physical therapists and recognizes the need for interprofessional knowledge. Furthermore, other clauses were added to train competent therapists: clauses regarding increased human understanding, sympathy for patients, understanding and cooperation in human relationships, understanding of patients' families, and understanding of support education methods. These are all part of the "joint education for training physical therapists," which is a small part of the curriculum.
The relationship between urinary incontinence and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among Japanese women is reviewed. The prevalence of COPD is increasing because of the aging population and the high rate of cigarette consumption. The prevalence of COPD in Japan was 16.4% for males and 5% for females aged 40 years and above in 2000. COPD is a progressive disease, which can have periods of relative stability but readily regresses. Its characteristic symptoms include cough, sputum production, dyspnoea and frequently urinary incontinence. The persistent cough of COPD increases intra-abdominal pressure and results in increased rates of urinary incontinence especially for female patients. The prevalence of urinary incontinence among Japanese women with chronic lung disease varies between 30.4% and 68%, which is higher than those of the general population (25-56.9%) and outpatient clients attending gynaecology clinics (27-31%). However, there is no published report specifically on the prevalence of urinary incontinence among Japanese women with COPD. As COPD is one of the causes of urinary incontinence, the obvious prevention strategy is tobacco control and early detection using screening tests. Urinary incontinence should be identified and dealt with in order to improve the quality of life for COPD patients.