[Purpose] It is known that peripheral noxious events provoke sensitization of the peripheral and spinal nervous systems and influence neural transmissions to the brain. In this study, we aimed to examine how brain activation is affected when provoked by electrical stimulation and by prior sensitization with peripheral application of a painful agent (capsaicin). [Subjects] Six normal adult volunteers were enrolled in this study. [Methods] Pain intensity of participants was reported using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Utilizing magnetoencephalography (MEG), changes in the brain's areas and levels of activation were observed by measuring magnetic field alterations. [Results] Locations of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) changed depending on changes of VAS. The moment (Q) value of the ECDs before the capsaicin cream application was 12.2 ± 6.5 nAm. After applying the capsaicin cream to the left forearm, the Q value increased. The present results suggest that an underlying hyper-responsive condition (neural sensitization) provoked by peripheral capsaicin may cause such changes. Importantly, this study revealed that cortical responses altered in the absence of participant perception of altered pain sensation. [Conclusions] Our findings suggest that alteration of cortical activity may occur when therapeutic electrical stimulations are used after prior pain sensitization.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to validate the characteristic of an exercise program consisting of simple exercise methods under the instruction of physiotherapists for general elderly people living in a community (general elderly group) and a frail elderly group. [Subjects] The general elderly group consisted of 44 persons (74.2 ± 4.38 years old: 6 men, 38 women) and the frail elderly group, 30 persons (80.6 ± 6.12 years old: 10 men, 20 women). [Methods] The measurement items were weight, body fat percentage, grip strength, knee extensor strength, sitting trunk flexion, one leg standing, functional reach test, timed "up and go" test, 10-m walking time, TMIG Index of Competence, MOS Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey, and the Life-Space Assessment. In each group, group and individual exercises were provided by physiotherapists. All the exercises were easy to perform. [Results] Knee extensor strength of the frail elderly group improved to almost the same level of the general elderly group. There were significant improvements in balance, gait ability, social and psychological attitudes in both groups. [Conclusion] We think that muscle strengthening exercises without exercise tools as resistance under the instruction of physiotherapists would be effective for improving the muscle strength of frail elderly persons.
[Purpose] This study investigated the relationships among lifestyles, functional capacity, and motor ability that influence self-reliance over a period of 2 years. [Subjects] The subjects were 53 elderly people (average age: 76.4 years) living on A Island,who were independent in ADL in the baseline survey conducted in 2005. [Methods] The survey was conducted by interviews and motor ability test. There were 22 items for lifestyles, 13 items for functional capacity and 3 items for physical performance in the survey. The present study was undertaken in order to identify predictors of lifestyles at follow-up carried out 2 years later. [Results] Grip strength, intellectual activity, and social role were lower than those in 2005. In the relationship between lifestyles and functional capacity, subjective view of health (SVH) showed a significant correlations social lifestyles and instrumental activities, social role, all lifestyles and subjective view of health. In considering these outcomes and the differences between decrease and maintenance of lifestyle groups at baseline, those which could influence psychological lifestyles, were examined. [Conclusion] These results suggest that efforts to maintain lifestyle, and functional capacity might be useful for maintaining active self-reliance in the elderly.
[Purpose and Methods] A postal survey was conducted to investigate professional role and autonomy of 500 Japanese physiotherapists in conjunction with their implications concerning identity and work as a professional. The questionnaire's content centred on role expectation and role conflict of the physiotherapist. [Results] The respondents considered physiotherapy practice to be specific in its objectives and varied rather than monotonous, but ill defined in its role. Half of the respondents believed that the physician primarily expected them to be an active member of the healthcare team, and one third of them expected to receive their referrals from the physician. The majority of physiotherapists were independent in their treatment methods and regarded their work as being important to others, but felt restricted in their selection of clients; little conflict arose in working relationships with medical practitioners and other healthcare workers, and they experienced a certain degree of autonomy. Only a small number of respondents carried out any systematic self-evaluation of treatment, so little objective feedback was acquired on the outcome of their work, a professional procedure that is essential to treatment quality, a physiotherapist's motivation, job satisfaction, and autonomy. [Conclusion] Physiotherapy still lacks definition as a discipline and requires autonomy if it is to be recognised as a profession.
[Purpose] This study investigated physical activity by gender and age groups among Japanese adults aged 55 to 75 years. [Subjects] A total of 575 eligible participants (355 men and 220 women) aged 55 to 75 years were recruited from 10 prefectures in 2006. [Methods] Information on physical activity was obtained by face-to-face interviews using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. [Results] Overall, 80% of subjects participated in weekly physical activities, and the mean total physical activity was similar (p = 0.836) between men (1805 metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) min/week) and women (1695 MET min/week). However, physical activity levels were found to be different between age groups 55-59, 60-64, 65-69 and 70-75 years (p = 0.007), with those aged 55-59 years (1131 MET min/week) below the government recommended level of 60 minutes of physical activity per day or 1380 MET min/week. [Conclusion] Adults aged 55-59 years should be targeted for physical activity promotion. Moreover, physical activity guidelines should be developed for older adults in order to maintain their health and well being.
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of external supports on the degree of knee flexion. [Subjects] Twenty volunteers (40 knees) were recruited to the study. [Methods] Active knee flexion was measured using a goniometer with the patient in the supine position. After measuring the knee flexion with the leg naked, the same procedure was repeated after application of an elastic stocking, an elastic bandage or a Jones bandage. [Results] The Jones bandage appeared to inhibit the knee flexion angle by 16.8%. This value was 2.7% for the elastic stockings and 4.2% for the elastic bandage. [Conclusion] These results may be used in the modification of the rehabilitation regime after total knee replacement.
[Purpose] We investigated the change of the movement of the Center of the Gravity (COG) while walking in the recovery process after surgery. [Subjects] The subjects were 9 women who had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 11 healthy women as controls. [Methods] Kinetic analyses were conducted using force platforms and a three-dimensional motion analyzer. [Results] At 4 weeks postsurgery, gait velocity was slow, and showed an asymmetric and large COG displacement with dynamic properties requiring inefficient heavy work mainly undertaken by the non-operated lower extremity. The COG displacement width and the work done were significantly reduced during one gait cycle with increased gait velocity at postoperative 6 months, and bilateral symmetry for the work in the push-off period was enhanced. Although significant differences were no longer found in many parameters when compared with the control group, elongated time in double-limb support persisted, and the lateral displacement width of COG, displacement volume, and the total internal work done during one gait cycle showed somewhat low values. [Conclusion] These findings can be interpreted as a strategy to gain overall stability while compensating for the functional disturbance such as limited hip motion and decreased muscle strength around the hip joint by restraining the COG displacement.
[Purpose] Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common and long-term disease for which no definitive treatment has been established. The purpose of this trial was to examine the effects of continuous ultrasound on the treatment of patients with chronic maxillary and frontal sinusitis. [Subjects] Thirty adults with chronic rhinosinusitis (24 men, 6 women; age range, 18-65 yrs; mean, 35.8 yrs) participated in the study. [Methods] An interventional trial, pretest posttest study design was used. Subjects underwent treatment for 10 sessions, three days per week. Patients were examined before and after treatment. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to participants to assess changes in symptoms at 1 month posttreatment. Therapeutic continuous ultrasound was applied through the cheeks and the forehead for the maxillary and frontal sinuses, respectively. The primary outcome was the `percent improvement'. [Results] The patients had a significant improvement post-treatment (mean, 74.37%). Following treatment, the severity of all symptoms showed significant improvement (p<0.05). The beneficial effects of treatment were reported up to one month after treatment ended, in terms of recurrence of the disease (72% of patients). [Conclusion] This study showed that continuous ultrasound may be used as an effective modality for physiotherapy of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a strength training program using a shoulder horn and lightweight dumbbells on the shoulder external rotators. [Subjects] Twenty healthy adults were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (shoulder horn and dumbbell training) or a control group (dumbbell training). [Methods] Subjects were pre- and post-tested in maximal external rotation torque of the shoulder at 60°/sec and 180°/sec using an isokinetic dynamometer. The experimental group lifted dumbbells with the shoulder at 90° abduction and the elbow at 90° flexion using the shoulder horn. The control group lifted dumbbells with the shoulder at 90°abduction and the elbow at 90° flexion. Both groups received training three times per week for three weeks. Performance was assessed by recording the mean peak torque value. [Results] The experimental group exhibited a significant gain on the right side at 60°/sec (p<0.05). The overall gain of mean peak torque in the experimental group was 148% greater than that of the control group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the combined use of a shoulder horn and dumbbells in strength training is more effective than the use of dumbbells alone.
[Purpose] We have proposed in a previous paper a novel indicator of smoothness using the power spectrum entropy of acceleration time-series during movement. In this paper, we describe this indicator's ability to distinguish between fallers' and non-fallers' gait in community dwelling elderly. This novel indicator is simple to use and can directly evaluate gait. [Subjects] Two hundred and fifty-one subjects (age = 71.0 7.7) were categorized fallers (39) and non-fallers (191) based on their histories (21 were unknown). [Methods] Grip strength, walking speed and the functional reach test, were used as convenient indicators, and the entropy of spectrum of acceleration during gait were measured and compared between fallers and non-fallers. [Results] Significant differences were found in the entropy of the fastest gait as well as in the other indices (p<.05). We also examined the correlation between entropy and grip strength (Spearman's ρ = -.35, p<.01). Correlations of entropy with the other indices were also low. [Conclusion] These results imply that entropy provides useful information, not found in the other indices, on body function in relation to falling.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the manner in which young adults step over an obstacle or initiate gait while performing a secondary Stroop task, which requires direct attention. [Subjects] Ten healthy young adults (5 male and 5 female) participated in the study. [Methods] Subjects first completed a Stroop task while standing (baseline) and then initiated gait or stepped over an obstacle as fast as possible with or without a secondary Stroop task. Response times to the secondary task and the gait parameters were measured. [Results] The response time to the secondary Stroop task in the stepping task was longest followed by gait initiation (GI) and standing (p<0.01). The values of bilateral step time and left stance time for stepping with the secondary task were significantly longer than stepping and GI without the secondary task (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between tasks in bilateral step and stride length. [Conclusion] This study suggests that even healthy and physically fit young adults have to modify gait parameters in situations where they are engaged in concurrent tasks because of their reduced ability to attend to multiple tasks simultaneously.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of magnetic infrared laser (MIL) radiation on the xylene-induced acute inflammation. [Subjects] The subject animals were male ICR mice. [Methods] Mice were once irradiated (60s) by MIL at 1.33, 2.66 or 6.65 J/cm2 of MIL, or treated with indomethacin or dexamethasone. Then xylene (0.03 ml) was topically applied to the anterior surface of the right ear to induced inflammation 1 h after irradiation with MIL. The changes in ear weights, histological profiles and histomorphometrical measurements of the ear were conducted upon sacrifice. All animals were sacrificed 2 h after xylene application. Results of MIL irradiation were compared to those of indomethacin and dexamethasone (15 mg/kg injected once intraperitoneally). [Results] Xylene application resulted in marked increases in xylene-insulted ear weights compared to that of the intact control. Thus, the differences between intact and insulted ears were also significantly increased. The histological characteristics of acute inflammation, such as severe vasodilation and edematous changes of skin, were detected in xylene-treated control ears with marked increase in the thickness of the ear tissues. However, these xylene-induced acute inflammatory changes were significantly and dose-dependently decreased by MIL irradiation. [Conclusion] We conclude that MIL therapy has a favorable effect in the reduction of the acute inflammatory responses induced by xylene application in mice.
[Purpose] Agility includes three factors: rapidity of reaction, rapidity of directional change, and velocity of muscle contraction. We proposed the Ten-Step Test (TST) as a new performance test for agility. In our previous study, the criterion-related validity of TST was evaluated by comparing TST with a timed supine-to-stand test which reflects motion speed. However, timed supine-to-stand doesn't include rapidity of reaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the criterion-related validity of TST using motor reaction time (MRT). [Subjects] One hundred fifty-two community-dwelling adults were recruited. [Methods] TST requires the subjects to place one foot at a time, ten times on a block 10 cm in height while standing. TST was conducted twice, and the quickest time of the two trials was used for analysis. MRT was measured as the time between a touch on the malleous and the response of the ankle dorsi-flexion in a sitting position. For evaluating the relationship between TST and MRT, the conformity of the regression formulae of aging changes and correlation coefficients were analyzed. TST was also compared with the Functional Reach Test (FRT) and muscle strength of the knee. [Results] Both TST and MRT showed a quadratic rather than a linear relationship with age. The single correlation coefficient between TST and MRT was 0.59. [Conclusion] Age-related changes of TST and MRT showed a similar curve. These curves showed a significant increase after the age of 50, and the correlation coefficient between TST and MRT was high. The findings suggest that TST includes a factor related to motor reaction.