[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to predict the Probe Reaction Time (P-RT) of the lower extremity from the upper extremity. [Subjects] Ten healthy young people (7 males, 3 females) with a mean age of 27.0 ± 7.5 years participated in this study. [Methods] Walking and tapping with the non-dominant hand in synchrony with beats of a metronome at 1 Hz and 4 Hz were tested for the subjects. P-RT of movements were measured continuously 10 times. The speed of walking was self-determined by the subjects. [Results] The results showed significant correlations between walking and tapping with the non-dominant hand at 1 Hz (r=0.87, p<0.05) and 4 Hz (r=0.95, p<0.05). [Conclusion] Regression analysis showed a high correlation so P-RT of the upper extremity predicts P-RT of the lower extremity. Therefore P-RT of the upper extremity can be considered as a substitute for the lower extremity. This will be useful in the clinical field, especially for patients who are not able to walk or stand, and weak people.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to prepare an experimental model for estimating the shear force for a person sitting in a comfortable posture while leaning against a backrest, and then to verify its validity. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 healthy adult men without leg and trunk diseases (age: 21.6 ± 0.8 years; height: 172.5 ± 5.3 [cm]; and body weight: 63.4 ± 6.4 [kg]). [Methods] Using the model, the shear force applied to the gluteal region in a sitting posture was estimated, and at the same time, the shear force was measured using a force plate. The model's validity was assessed by comparing the estimated and measured values in terms of correlation coefficients. [Results] The average estimated shear force was 36.6 ± 11.8 [N], and the average reaction force in the posterior direction as part of the anteroposterior components of the floor reaction force (shear force in the anterior direction) was 35.9 ± 15.8 [N]. No significant difference existed (p=0.797), and the correlation coefficient was 0.897 (p<0.0001), thus exhibiting a strong positive correlation. [Conclusion] This result shows that the validity of the present experimental model is high, and the model is useful in clinical settings because shear force in a comfortable sitting posture can be relatively easily estimated without a special device.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine changes in neuronal expression of c-Fos protein in the medulla oblongata after unilateral phrenicotomy in Wistar rats. [Subjects and Methods] After left side phrenicotomy, rats were maintained for 4 weeks (test experiments), then transcardially perfused with fixatives. Brain sections were prepared, and c-Fos protein induced in neurons in the medulla oblongata was immunohistochemically stained by the ABC method. Control rats were maintained for the same period after sham operation, and the brain sections were similarly processed as in the test experiments. [Results] The number of c-Fos immunoreactive (c-Fos-ir) neurons in the medulla oblongata was counted and their spatial distributions were mapped. In both sides of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) and the left side of dorsal respiratory group (DRG), numbers of c-Fos-ir neurons were significantly increased in phrenicotomy rats compared to the control rats (P<0.05). In the right side of the DRG, the number of c-Fos-ir neurons also increased but without statistical significance. Numbers of c-Fos-ir neurons in the VRG were greater than that in the DRG. [Conclusion] The present results suggest that phrenicotomy may result in an increase in the activity of medullary respiratory neurons during the recovery of respiration after the phrenicotomy. The specific activation of the neurons in the VRG and DRG during unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis could underlie the changes in regulation of the respiratory control center following unilateral phrenicotomy.
[Purpose] To investigate the reliability and validity of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) in Japan, and to determine whether the AIMS score obtained by pediatric physical therapists with different levels of experience differed. [Subjects] The subjects who were assessed were 40 healthy infants (23 males, 17 females) whose parents gave their written consent to participation in this study. [Methods] 40 healthy children were videotaped and evaluated using the AIMS by three physical therapists who were providing physical therapy for the children on weekdays and three physical therapists who were providing physical therapy for the children once per week. The AIMS and the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) were administered to confirm criterion-related validity. [Results] Reliability of the AIMS was good to high (ICC = .86∼.99), and the correlation between the AIMS and the KSPD was high (r = .97∼.98). Physical therapists with little experience in pediatric physical therapy could perform an assessment. [Conclusion] Both the reliability and the validity of the AIMS were high. Level of pediatric expertise did not affect a rater's reliability.
[Purpose] In this study, we investigated the effect of exercise using a horse-riding simulator on the physical ability of frail seniors. [Subjects] The subjects consisted of 21 frail seniors living in the vicinity of a day care facility, which they used more than twice each week. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group, in addition to their normal exercise routine at the day care facility, participated in exercise using a horse-riding simulator. The control group continued their normal exercise regime at the facility with no additional exercise. The duration of our research was 12 weeks. [Results] The levels of physical ability of the exercise group were significantly increased after the implementation period relative to the pre-study levels. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the pre- and post-study levels of the physical ability of the control group. In addition, even in the exercise group, no significant difference in the levels of more complicated movement abilities relative to those of pre-study abilities was observed. [Conclusion] Although the level of physical ability of some frail seniors was increased by exercise using the horse-riding simulator, the exercise did not realize a sufficient increase in the levels of all movement abilities.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in sit-to-walk (STW) motion between young adults (YG) and an elderly persons (EG). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven subjects (9 in YG and 18 in EG) were instructed to perform STW and to walk 3 m at a comfortable speed and at maximal speed. Data were obtained using a 3D motion capture system for kinematic data, and two force plates for kinetic data. [Results] The time required for STW was similar for both groups at both comfortable and maximal speeds, but the forward velocity of the center of gravity of the whole body (COG-WB) was higher for YG, and upward COG-WB at the time of the first heel contact was faster for YG. Ground reaction force analyses showed many differences between the groups. For YG, COG-WB moved forward and the first swing side was longer than for EG. [Conclusion] Forward and lateral COG-WB movements before the toe-off generate a progressive force. We suggest that YG subjects may have sufficient muscle power in their lower extremity to bear the progressive force, or that EG subjects may have learned anticipatory postural control which has shorter forward movement due to aging and declining physical function.