[Purpose] This study investigated the relationships among lifestyles, functional capacity and motor ability using structural equation modeling (SEM). [Subjects] The participants were 211 elderly persons (average age: 76.4 ± 8.6 years) living in K Prefecture. [Methods] The survey was conducted by interviews and motor ability test. There were 22 items for lifestyles, 13 items for functional capacity and 3 items for physical performance in the survey. In the SEM analysis, we employed a multiple basic model. [Results] The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of the final model was 0.09 and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) was 59.4 in the peripheral models. The degree of association between lifestyles and motor ability, and functional capacity was 0.99. [Conclusion] This study defined a pilot model for factors influencing lifestyles. Although it remains necessary to conducts further analyses with more valid measurements and constructs.
[Purpose] We sought to clarify factors leading to the elimination of a fear of falling.[Subjects] Forty females with femoral bone fracture were the subjects of our study.[Methods] The fall efficacy and motor and psychological functions of the 40 patients following fracture of the proximal femur due to a fall were measured weekly from week 1 to week 4. These subjects were then divided into two groups.[Results] There were differences between the 2 groups of subjects in terms of MFES scores and state anxiety during week 2, 3, and 4. Comparison of the groups of subjects between week 1 and week 4 indicated that both groups of subjects had improved motor function and that subjects with no fear had improved MFES scores.[Conclusion] These findings reveal that improved motor function can be expected even if the individual has the fear, but the fear will not be lost through improvement of motor function alone. Additionally, subjects with no fear tended to have greater fall efficacy. The results suggest the need for steps to improve fall efficacy in order to eliminate the fear.
[Purpose] This study determined the best adjustable cushion for the maintenance of normal sitting balance by stroke patients in wheelchairs from among air cushions, gel cushions, and spongy cushions. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke participants and 20 age-matched control participants were recruited. The enrolled participants were evaluated using the Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC) and The Force Sensitive Application System was used to assess weight shift and symmetry in wheelchair sitting and with the various cushion types: air cushion, gel cushion, and spongy cushion. [Results] No significant differences in symmetry index (SI) were detected according to cushion type between the lesion sides. The SI of FAC 3-point patients was higher than those of FAC 4-point patients in post hoc tests. FAC 3-point patients had a significantly higher SI than 4-point patients in the wheelchair seat tests. FAC-3 point patients had a significantly higher SI than 4-and 5-point patients on the spongy seat on the wheelchair. The stroke group had a higher SI than the normal control group in simple wheelchair sitting. [Conclusion] The findings of the present study demonstrate that stroke patients can maintain a more symmetrical sitting posture on various cushions than is possible when simply sitting in a wheelchair seat.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the changes of the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the serum of obese middle school students after bicycle ergometer training. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 middle school students who had more than 21 % body fat were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned into one of two groups (exercise=10, control=10). The exercise group performed bicycle ergometer exercise three days per week for 40 minutes for eight weeks. Student's t-test was used to compare differences between the two groups. [Results] There was a significant decrease in TC in exercise group compared to the control. There was a significant decrease in TG in exercise group compared to the control. There was a significant increase in HDL-C and a significant decrease in LDC-C after the bicycle ergometer exercise program. [Conclusion] The results indicate that 8 weeks of bicycle exercise may improve the obesity of middle school students. Therefore, it is recommended that a physical training program is needed for youth to provide them with a healthy life.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic markers, including leptin, in healthy young adults. [Subjects] The subjects were 51 healthy young men (mean age, 21.6 years; range, 18-31 years). [Methods] Ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake were measured on a cycle ergometer. The metabolic markers, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and leptin, were also measured, as well as and body composition, body height, body weight, percentage fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference. Blood pressure levels were recorded at rest. [Results] Our results show that lower cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly associated with higher storage of fat, lipid markers of developing atherosclerosis, and circulating leptin levels. Higher circulating leptin levels were also associated with metabolic risk markers such as obesity and insulin resistance. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that appropriate cardiorespiratory fitness may improve circulating metabolic markers even in healthy young men. It is therefore important that all persons should have high cardiorespiratory fitness from an early period of life for the effective prevention of cardiovascular disease.
[Purpose] Investigation of intra- and inter- measurer errors employing a scapular position measurement method using a tape measure designed by us. [Methods] Two measurers, a physical therapist (RPT) and a student on a physical therapist training course (PTS), measured the scapular position relative to the spine twice using a tape measure, and intra- and inter- measurer measurement errors were investigated. For statistical analysis, Bland-Altman analysis was employed. The limits of agreement (LOA) were determined when a systematic error was present, and the 95% confidence interval of the minimal detectable change (MDC95) was calculated when no systematic error was detected. The significance level was chosen as 5%. [Results] Regarding intra- measurer measurement error, the mean value of the second measurement was greater than that of the first. Regarding inter- measurer error, the mean value measured by PTS was lower than that measured by RPT. [Conclusion] The mean of the first measurement was greater than that of the second measurement as the intra- measurer measurement error of this measurement method, and the mean measured by PTS was lower than that measured by RPT, showing a fixed error. By sufficiently practicing the measurement and applying markers to the bone index points, the measurement error may become small enough to be clinically acceptable.
[Purpose] It has been reported that chronic low-back pain (CLBP) patients exhibit asymmetric atrophy of the lumbar multifidus muscle. However, studies focusing on the abdominal muscles have not yet been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine abdominal muscle thickness and symmetry in CLBP patients and healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 50 healthy subjects (30.2 ± 6.1 years) and 50 CLBP patients (31.5 ± 8.7 years). The thicknesses of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) were measured by ultrasonography. We calculated the mean thicknesses of both sides. In addition, we calculated the asymmetry ratio as a percentage of the difference between the sides. The differences in muscle thickness between the CLBP patients and healthy subjects were analyzed using the t-test. [Results] We found that the TrA thickness was significantly smaller in CLBP patients (3.7 ± 0.8 mm) than in healthy subjects (4.2 ± 1.2 mm). Similarly, the TrA asymmetry ratio was significantly different between the healthy subjects (8.4 ± 7.5%) and CLBP patients (16.4 ± 12.1%). [Conclusion] The TrA muscle of CLBP patients was thinner and more asymmetric than that of healthy subjects.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 3-dimensional exercise with visual feedback on stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-two patients with hemiplegia were randomly allocated to either a 3D exercise group (3DG) consisting of 11 members or a weight shifting exercise group (WSG), also of 11 members. [Methods] The 3DG received neurophysiological treatment and performed 3D exercise and the WSG received neurophysiological treatment and performed weight shifting exercise, 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale and 10m walking time were used to evaluate the patientsÅf balance and walking abilities. [Results] Balance and gait abilities of patients improved in both the 3DG and the WSG. A comparison of the two groups found that the 3DG showed a greater improvement in balance ability than the WSG. [Conclusion] 3- dimensional exercise with visual feedback is effective at improving the balance and gait of stroke patients.
[Purpose] A bridging exercise is most commonly used for people with weakness of the back and hip extensor muscles. However, little is known about the effect of voluntary control of the pelvic tilt on electromyographic (EMG) activities of the trunk and hip extensor muscles during bridging exercises. [Subjects] Sixteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] Bipolar electrodes were attached to the lumbar extensor muscle (L3), gluteus maximus, and medial hamstring. Subjects performed 3 bridging exercises with: discretionary control of the pelvis (position D), backward tilt of the pelvis (position B), and forward tilt of the pelvis (position F). While the subjects performed each bridging exercise, EMG signals were measured. [Results] The gluteus maximus showed significantly higher muscle activity in position B than in the other positions. We observed significantly increased activity of the lumbar extensor muscle (L3) in position F compared to the other positions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study should be considered when prescribing variations of the bridging exercise, as part of a lumbopelvic rehabilitation program.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different bridging exercise methods, varied by the position of the lower limbs, on the muscular activity of the neck, trunk, thigh and lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 14 males in their twenties. [Methods] The muscular activities of the longissimus capitis and sternocleidomastoid in the neck, the erector spinae and rectus abdominis in the trunk, the rectus femoris and lateral hamstring in the thigh, and the tibialis anterior and lateral head of the gastrocnemius in the lower leg were measured using a surface electromyography. [Results] The comparison of the muscular activities showed significant differences in the longissimus capitis, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius muscles among the bridging exercise methods. [Conclusion] Action and activity of muscle groups varies according to the position of the lower limbs during the bridging exercise.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of aquatic exercise using Taekwondo Poomsae motions on the peak torque and stability of elderly women's knee joints. [Subjects] The study subjects were conducted with 23 elderly women who were divided into an Aquatic Exercise Group (AEG, n=12) and a Control Group (CG, n=11). [Methods] The knee joint peak torque was assessed using an ISOMED 2000 (D&R GmbH, Germany) and the stability was analyzed using a Balance System SD (BIODEX, U.S.A). [Results] Based on the results of the analysis of changes in knee joint peak torque and stability, the AEG showed significant improvement in all items of knee joint peak torque (RFF, RFE, LFF, LFE) and stability (O, A/P, M/L) after the intervention compared to before the intervention, while the CG did not show any significant changes. [Conclusion] Aquatic exercises using Taekwondo Poomsae motions can be utilized as a new exercise program to help reinforce elderly womenÅfs muscular function and enhance their stability.
[Purpose] This study determined the differences in the brain activation between healthy elderly women (75.89 ± 6.44 years of age) and healthy adult women (22.11 ± 2.04 years). [Subjects] Twenty-seven healthy elderly women who could independent daily living with no history of brain diseases such as stroke or schizophrenia and 27 healthy adult women who are studying at S university in Busan were as participants in this study. [Methods] Examinations used twenty electrodes attached to the head to capture electrical brain signals during brain activated states such as the awaked state and the data were compared between the two groups of women. The AT index is the ratio of theta waves and SMR waves. The AC index is the ratio of alpha waves to low beta waves. The ST index is the ratio of high beta waves to alpha waves. The Mann-Whitney test was conducted to examine changes in EEG. [Results] Fp1, Fp2, Fz, F3, F4, F7, F8, and Pz areas indicate a significantly lower AT index in the healthy elderly women than in the healthy adult women. The Fp1, Fp2, Fz, F3, F4, F7, F8, Pz, P3, and P4 areas all showed a significantly higher AC index in the healthy elderly women, they who also had a significantly higher ST index than the healthy adult women in the Fz, F3, F4, F8, Pz, P3, and P4 areas. [Conclusion] We showed that the brain of the healthy elderly women lacks rest for processing information which is received during eyes open. We also demonstrated the capability of the quantitative EEG in the examination of cognitive impairments.
[Purpose] We investigated a rat model of full-thickness articular cartilage defect without joint open surgery and histopathologically analyzed the time course of the tissue repair. [Subjects] A total of 40 male Wistar rats aged 9 weeks were used. [Method] Full-thickness defects of the articular cartilage were created over the capsule at the loading portion in the medial condyle of the femur. Ten rats each were randomly allocated to 4 groups, which were evaluated at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. At the end of each period, knee joints were examined histopathologically. [Results] Full-thickness articular cartilage defects were created uniformly in our model. The defects were spontaneously resurfaced with hyaline-like tissue at 4 weeks postoperatively, but some articular cartilage remnants with aseptic necrosis and cloning of chondrocytes were found in the repair tissue. From 8 weeks to 12 weeks after surgery, the hyaline tissue was maintained, and the aseptic necrosis and cloning were observed in the partially repair tissue. [Conclusion] We have developed a rat model producing identically sized full-thickness defects of the articular cartilage.
[Purpose] The present study investigated whether moving the front extremity forward over the center of mass at the moment of initial contact or moving the rear extremity backward at the moment of preswing affects the elongation of step length. [Subjects and Methods] Step length can be subdivided into touch down distance (TD), release distance (RD) and displacement during the double stance phase (DD). The subjects were 6 healthy men. The target walking speeds were 1.3 m/s, 1.9 m/s, and 2.5 m/s. Walking was recorded using three high-speed cameras. [Results] Step length increased linearly with walking speed, showing a significant relationship (r=0.74). TD increased as walking speed rose from 1.3 m/s to 1.9 m/s, then decreased after 1.9 m/s. No significant correlations were found between step length and TD. RD demonstrated a significant positive correlation with step length (r=0.50) and also showed significant positive correlations with external pelvic rotation angle (r=0.56), hip extension angle (r=0.61), and ankle plantar flexion angle (r=0.50) at the moment of foot release. [Conclusion] These results indicate that moving the rear extremity backward at the moment of foot release can thus be reasonably be expected to cause elongation of step length.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of passive stretching (STR) and strain counter-strain (SCS) techniques in subjects with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) as measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), displacement pain threshold (DPT), active range of motion (AROM), and patients perception of change (PPC). [Subjects] Twenty volunteers with active MPS in the upper trapezius muscle participated in the study. [Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to either a STR or SCS treatment group. Evaluations were performed at before, immediately, one hour, and one day after treatment. [Results] No significant difference between groups were found. However, there was a significant improvement of VAS an hour after SCS treatment. The improvement seemed to be maintained after treatment. The STR group showed a significant decrease of DPT between immediately and a day after treatment, indicating less tissue compliance. [Conclusion] The SCS treatment helps relieve the pain one hour after treatment in subjects with active MPS.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) feedback during the abdominal hollowing exercise (AHE) in three different positions by monitoring the changes in the thicknesses of the abdominal muscles. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 42 healthy male adults who listened to an explanation of the study method and purpose and agreed to participate in the experiments. They were divided into an experimental group of 21 subjects who received RUSI feedback and a control group of 21 subjects who did not receive RUSI feedback. [Methods] The thickness of the abdominal muscles was measured during rest and AHE in three positions. The thickness changes between rest and AHE were compared between the two groups. [Results] The difference in internal abdominal oblique (IO) thickness changes between the groups were significant. The differences in external abdominal oblique (EO) thickness changes were only significant among the positions. A post hoc analysis of the differences in EO thickness changes among the positions found significant differences between the crook lying and four-point kneeling positions. The transversus abdominis (TrA) thickness changes showed significant interaction between group and position. [Conclusion] RUSI feedback assists the independent activities of TrA by decreasing the thickness changes of global muscles such as IO and EO. Furthermore, crook lying is a more effective position in AH training with RUSI feedback than the other two positions as it increases TrA thickness changes while minimizing those of EO.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) applied to fatigued muscles on postural imbalance and decline in muscle strength following fatigue of the gastrocnemius. [Subjects] Eighteen subjects with muscle fatigue were allocated to either a sensory threshold group or a 2~3 times sensory threshold group and the study followed a randomized single-blind cross-over design. [Methods] Muscle fatigue of the gastrocnemius was induced by repeated exercise. After inducing fatigue, TENS was applied to the fatigued muscle. The postural sway length (PSL), postural sway velocity (PSV) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured before and after the induction of fatigue, and during the application of TENS to the fatigued muscles. [Results] Muscle fatigue increased postural imbalance as expressed by length and velocity of body sway and decreased muscle strength, while TENS improved the postural imbalance and partially reversed the muscle strength decline induced by muscle fatigue. [Conclusion] Muscle fatigue is an important factor in postural balance control and muscle voluntary contraction, and TENS can be effective at relieving muscle fatigue.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic environment on the balance of stroke patients compared to a land environment. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-six subjects participated in this study. They were divided into a land exercise (LE) group (13 males, 10 females) and an aquatic exercise (AE) group (12 males, 11 females). Exercises were conducted six times a week for six weeks. Balance was assessed through parameters of sway of the center of pressure. [Results] The exercises improved the balance abilities of both groups with eyes open. With eyes closed, balance ability improved more in the AE group, and AE was more important than vision for improving the balance ability of stroke patients. [Conclusion] This study found that stroke patients had better balance in an aquatic environment than in a land environment.
[Purpose] We evaluated awareness of the community-based rehabilitation (CBR) with a focus on public health centers (PHCs) to provide basic data for the future direction of services. [Subjects and Methods] Research was carried out from March to July 2010 at 5 hospitals and 4 welfare agencies in Seoul that were selected using a random number table. Data were collected in face- to- face interviews of 184 disabled people. [Results] Awareness of CBR was low, with 78% of subjects unaware of its existence. Demand was the highest for rehabilitation therapy (4.40 point). The percentage of persons who had never visited PHCs was high (50.9%). The frequency of visits to PHCs for rehabilitation therapy was the lowest (3.9%) among all the community facilities. Logistic regression analysis showed demands for visiting examinations, guidance on rehabilitation facilities and house remodeling were statistically significant as well as convenience, age, education, frequency of visits to PHCs and awareness. [Conclusion] The findings suggest low awareness of CBR in PHCs despite a marked demand for rehabilitation therapy. More active promotion should be undertaken to increase the awareness of potential users. Also, further research into the reasons for low awareness and suitable promotion methods should be undertaken in order to provide the best and most accessible services.
[Purpose] Several exercises aim to strengthen the abductor hallucis (AbdH) of the foot arch which acts as a shock absorber. The purpose of the present study was to compare various exercises designed to strengthen the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) by selectively recruiting the AbdH in order to identify the most effective exercise method. [Subjects] Six males and six females participated in this study. [Methods] We selected and compared 5 exercises, which are known to be effective exercises. [Result] The exercise giving the highest EMG activation was EX 2 (64.43% MVIC). The second highest activation was found in EX 4 (40.50% MVIC). EMG values in EX 1 (40.12% MVIC), EX 4 and EX 5 (34.34% MVIC) were higher than in EX 3 (18.59% MVIC). EX 3 gave the lowest EMG activation of the 5 exercises. [Conclusion] The MLA plays an important role in gait and energy efficiency. Therefore, new exercises should be designed and existing exercises should be extended to incorporate new movements.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the intratester reliability of an instrument developed by us for assessing the alignment of the lateral malleolus of the fibula and medial malleolus of the tibia using digital calipers. [Subjects] Eight healthy men without any leg symptoms (29.9 ± 5.8 years) participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects were measured by placing the instrument on their left and right ankles. The distances determined by three-dimensional measurements (width, length, height) from the center of the heel to the bottom edge of the lateral malleolus and the bottom edge of the medial malleolus were measured to 0.1 millimeters. The intratester reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard errors of measurement (SEM). [Results] Excellent intratester reliability was confirmed. The ICCs ranged from 0.87 to 0.97 with SEMs between 0.76 and 2.93. [Conclusion] The results confirm that our device has excellent reliability when assessing the alignment of the lateral and medial malleolus. Furthermore, the simple design of the device and its easy method of use render our evaluation method useful for physical therapy clinical settings.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate changes during walking in plantar pressure distribution on both the affected and unaffected sides of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). [Subjects] Sixty subjects were included in this study, including 30 patients with chronic low back pain and 30 healthy individuals as the control group. [Methods] The plantar foot pressure and the trajectory of the center of pressure (COP) of both groups were measured using the F-scan System while they walked at a comfortable speed. The F-scan system was used to determine the plantar pressures of both feet with data captured during three strides. [Results] Plantar pressure distribution differences between the left and right sides of the back pain group showed greater increases in anteroposterior (AP) displacement of COP than the control group. [Conclusion] Patients with chronic low back pain walked with a shorter AP displacement of COP, perhaps due to a compensatory action in trying to avoid pain. The foot pressure distributions in the back pain group provide evidence of alterations of the gait pattern in patients with chronic low back pain.
[Purpose] There are numerous reports about anxiety and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the literature. However, the incidence of and the factors that affect anxiety and depression differ depending on cultural backgrounds and assessment methods. In Japan, there is insufficient understanding of the mental and psychological conditions of COPD patients. To examine the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in inpatients and outpatients with COPD and to evaluate the factors affecting anxiety and depression. [Method] Mental and psychological assessments based on medical information, family composition, educational history, occupational history, respiratory function tests and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were conducted with 156 patients with COPD as subject. [Results] The comorbidity of anxiety in all patients with COPD was 26%; moreover, the comorbidity of depression in these patients was 44%. Among inpatients, 42% displayed anxiety and 69% exhibited depression, whereas among outpatients, 18% displayed anxiety and 32% demonstrated depression. Factors causing anxiety included of living alone and hospitalization. Factors causing depression included of hospitalization, low BMI and low education level. [Conclusion] The data suggest that the causes of anxiety and depression in patients with COPD are affected by individual background. Consideration of the factors that cause these effects is important.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effect of treatment with an 830-nm, 450-mW GaAlAs laser on changes of the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius (UT) muscles of seated workers, in comparison with a placebo GaAlAs laser. [Subjects] Twenty-four seated workers (10 males, 14 females) with UT pain agreed to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects were given treatment either with a placebo GaAlAs laser or an active GaAlAs laser according to a double-blinded, randomized procedure. [Results] The placebo group did not show significant changes in PPT after 1 min, 2 min and 5 min of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). The active group did not show significant changes in pressure-pain threshold (PPT) after 1 min and 2 min of LLLT. However, significant changes in PPT were apparent after 5 min of LLLT. [Conclusion] We suggest that a higher energy, such as 1929 J/cm2, may be necessary to produce an immediate effect on PPT when treating the MTrP of the UT with an 830-nm, 450-mW GaAlAs laser.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pelvic adjustment using the Gonstead technique on the stability of elderly men. [Subjects] In this study, 20 elderly men were divided into a pelvic adjustment group (PAG, n = 10) and a control group (CG, n = 10). [Methods] Using a Balance Performance Monitor (SMS Health care, England), the sway area, sway path length, and sway maximum (max) velocity of the center of the body were measured to assess the stability of the subjects. [Results] Changes in the variables of stability were analyzed, and based on the results, the PAG showed significant improvement in all items (the sway area, sway path length and sway max velocity of the center of the body) after the intervention of the pelvic adjustment compared to before while the CG did not show any significant improvement. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment using the Gonstead technique can be used to improve the stability of elderly men.
[Purpose] The purpose of our study was to analyze the influence of passive and active neck flexion on spinal curvatures during bridging exercises. [Subjects and Methods] In experiment 1, thirteen healthy male subjects were instructed to elevate their pelvises until the greater trochanter was in line with the acromion and the epicondylus lateralis femoris at 3 different positions of passive neck flexion: with the head placed on a flat surface, with the head on a 6-cm block and with the head on a 12-cm block. In experiment 2, eleven healthy male subjects were then asked to elevate the pelvis with maximal voluntary exertion in the following 4 different positions of active neck flexion: with the head rested on a flat surface, with the head held slightly above a flat surface, with the head held slightly above a 6-cm block, and with the head held slightly above a 12-cm block. While the subjects performed each bridging exercise, electromyography (EMG) and curvatures of the spine were measured. [Results] No significant differences were observed in the EMG activities of the muscles, but passive neck flexion significantly decreased lumbar lordosis during a bridging exercise with the head placed on a 12-cm block. Elevating the head slightly above a 12-cm block induces moderate contraction of the rectus abdominis and decreases the activity of the lumbar extensors, which significantly decreases lumbar lordosis during bridging. [Conclusion] The neck flexion should be considered when prescribing variations of a bridging exercise.
[Purpose] In this paper, we present a survey of some recently developed techniques in the field of automatic rehabilitation systems assisted by electromyography (EMG) biosensors and their application in physically disabled patients. We also include a discussion about the implementation of several hardware and software models for rehabilitation to make the full process dynamics. [Methods] A systematic search for articles published from 2000 to March 2011 was conducted in the IEEE, Springer Link, Pub Med and ACM digital library databases. The search plan was developed using different terms referring to rehabilitation, EMG sensors and automatic systems as well as we used number of keywords related to the subject of our survey along with their synonyms. The entire survey was performed in the automatic rehabilitation lab (Biomedical Engineering) of the Universiti Malaysia Perils (UniMAP) from December 2010 to March 2011. [Result] A total of 22 articles were analyzed in our study. Of these, 17 articles were about EMG-aided recovery systems developed for the impaired human body. Finally, we confirmed that all of the EMG-supported rehabilitation systems are noninvasive, assisted by a computer or robot and most of them are real-time processes. [Conclusion] Obviously, it is difficult to complete a survey within a single article of all possible?EMG- generated rehabilitation systems. However, we expect that the references cited will cover the main theoretical and practical issues, guiding the researcher in interesting research and suggesting promising EMG-aided rehabilitation techniques that have yet to be explored.