[Purpose] This study was aimed at exploring relation between social interaction and maintenance of physical function for community dwelling elderly by six-year follow-up. [Subjects] This study enrolled all individuals aged from over 60 years to under 75 years living in a farming village (total population: 4,688, of whom 14.6% were farmers) neighboring a large city in the Chubu district of Japan. There were 113 males and 106 females, with a mean age of 65.72 ± 4.18 years. [Methods] We investigated the age, gender, and disease, social interaction, and physical function (mobility). The baseline study was conducted in 2002 with a follow-up in 2005 and 2008. The chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships of maintenance of physical function with age, gender, and disease, and social interaction. Analyses were performed using the computer program SAS. [Results] The results of the present study indicate that maintenance of physical function related with social interaction. After 3 years, physical function was related to social interaction related, odds ratio (OR) 1.301 (95%CI 1.047-1.615). After 6 years, social interaction, age, and gender related, OR 1.238 (1.023-1.499), 1.247 (CI 1.104-1.408), 0.318 (0.118-0.857). [Conclusion] This study was explored the relation between social interaction and maintenance of physical function for community dwelling elderly. These in conjunction with more multiple analyses deserve further study. To examine the mechanisms of maintenance of physical function need to be determined in detail.
[Purpose] This double-blind study was conducted to examine the effect of electric stimulation through micro-currents on body composition and blood lipid concentrations of overweight females after walking exercise. [Subjects] Overweight females in their 20s were randomly allocated to either an experimental group or a control group. Participants in the experimental group were given shoes generating micro-currents, while the control group wore shoes which did not generate micro-currents but were identical in appearance. [Methods] Both groups walked on a treadmill at a comfortable pace for 50 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks, and each participant's body weight, body composition, and blood lipids were examined at baseline and after 4 weeks. [Results] The results show that body weight and the waist-to hip ratio decreased significantly in the experimental group, but no significant differences were seen in blood tests. [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, we think that, along with regular walking exercise, electric stimulation through micro-currents positively affected the reduction of body weight and body composition of overweight females, helped to maintain the improvement of their health, and facilitated a better quality of life.
[Purpose] This study evaluated the efficacy of a newly designed chair, equipped with a Posture Sensing Composite Display Device (PSCD), for correcting poor trunk posture while performing computer work. [Subjects] We recruited 10 male workers who regularly used a computer for at least 8h per day. [Methods] Subjects performed computer work while sitting on the newly designed chair with or without the PSCD. Lumbopelvic kinematic data were recorded for 60 s following 10, 20, and 30 min of computer work using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] The newly designed chair equipped with the PSCD significantly reduced lumbar flexion, lateral bending, and rotation during computer work. [Conclusion] The PSCD may prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders by enabling a worker to maintain an upright posture during computer work.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the age-related changes in the attentional demand of walking in healthy elderly people by assessing auditory reaction time during walking in several age groups. [Subjects] The participants were 59 healthy elderly people with no history of falls in the previous 12 months, who were divided into 4 age groups (65-69, 70-74, 75-79, and 80-84). [Methods] In the dual-task condition, participants were asked to perform an auditory reaction time task while walking indoors; the Timed Up-and-Go Test, 10-meter walk time and Trail Making Test Part A were also measured. We compared the reaction times and the stride-to-stride time coefficients of variation between the single- and dual-task conditions. [Results] We found that mean reaction time and stride time coefficient of variation increased significantly in the dual task. However, in both task conditions, neither the reaction time nor stride-to-stride time coefficient of variation differed significantly among the age groups. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that an auditory reaction time task can affect walking as a second task in the healthy elderly, and that aging has minimal effects on the attentional demand of walking in this population.
[Purpose] To determine the correlation between function, measured by the functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), measured by the child health questionnaire (CHQ-PF28) for children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to find out which child and parent factors related with each of these measures. [Subjects] One hundred fifty-five school-aged children with CP (89 boys, 66 girls) and their mothers. [Methods] Two physical therapists evaluated function and HRQOL using the WeeFIM and the CHQ-PF28 individually through interviews with the mothers of the subjects. [Results] Severer GMFCS levels were associated with lower functional ability, physical and psychosocial quality of life. The correlation between total WeeFIM score and Physical Summary Score (PHS) was r=0.48. Social cognition correlated fairly well with Psychosocial Summary Score (PSS) (r=0.26). Epilepsy was significantly related with lower PHS, PSS, WeeFIM total score and all the subscale scores. GMFCS was related with all the scales except the PSS. [Conclusion] The WeeFIM and CHQ-PF28 appear to assess related but different constructs, so there is a need to incorporate complementary measures when evaluating function and HRQOL of children with CP. Child factors such as epilepsy and GMFCS were more associated with functional status and well-being of school-aged children with CP than parental factors in Korea.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of motor imagery training on improvement of gait ability of patients with chronic stroke. The motor imagery training was performed using imagination of normal gait movement. [Subjects] Participants were randomly allocated to two groups: a motor imagery training group (n=13) and a control group (n=11). [Methods] Both groups received treadmill training for 3 session 30 minutes per week for 6 weeks. The motor imagery training group practiced additional motor imagery training. Measures were evaluated by gait ability. [Results] The outcomes significantly improved by motor imagery training were gait speed, step length of paretic side, step length of non-paretic side, stride length of paretic side, stride length of non-paretic side, single limb support period of paretic side, and double limb support period of both sides. [Conclusion] The motor imagery training improved gait ability. These results suggest that motor imagery training is feasible and suitable for individuals with stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anterior pelvic tilt taping (APTT) on the anterior inclination of the pelvis when Kinesio tape (KT) was applied to the erector spinae and the internal oblique, which are involved in anterior pelvic tilt. [Subjects] Forty asymptomatic adults (twenty-three males and seventeen females) agreed to participate in this experiment. [Methods] First, the pelvic inclination of both sides was measured with a palpation meter (PALM), as the subjects leaned the anterior aspect of their thighs against a stabilizing table, in an upright standing posture. After applying KT to the erector spinae and the internal oblique, the anterior inclination of the pelvis of both sides was measured again. [Results] The anterior inclination of the pelvis of both sides significantly increased when APTT was applied to the erector spinae and the internal oblique in both males and females. [Conclusion] These results suggest that APTT with KT, applied to the muscles involved in anterior inclination, for the purpose of tilting the posteriorly tilted pelvic anteriorly, may change pelvic inclination.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine relationship between hip muscle strength and kinematics of the knee joint during single leg squatting and dropping. [Subjects] Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. [Methods] The knee medial displacement was measured during single leg squatting and dropping using a high-speed camera. Peak isometric muscle strengths of the following muscles were measured hip abductors, hip adductors, hip external rotators, hip internal rotators, knee extensors and knee flexors. [Results] Muscle strength of hip external rotators was associated with knee medial displacement during both single leg squatting (r=-0.69) and dropping (r=-0.59), and muscle strength of knee flexors was associated with knee medial displacement during dropping (r=-0.58). [Conclusion] The present results suggest that hip muscles' strength, particularly hip external rotators' strength are closely associated with knee medial displacement.
[Purpose] This study attempts to investigated the effect of a lumbar strengthening ball exercise on the pain of patients who have chronic lower back pain and the cross-sectional area changes in their lumbar muscles. [Subjects] The research subjects were of 33 patients with chronic lower back pain who were divided into two groups: a ball exercise therapy group (BETG, n = 17) and a conservative physical therapy group (CPTG, n = 16). [Methods] A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the recovery of patients with chronic lower back pain, and computed tomography (CT) images were analyzed to examine the cross-sectional changes of their lumbar muscles. [Results] An Compared to before and after treatment, pain of the BETG and CPTG was decreased. The cross-sectional size of the lumbar muscles significantly increased in the BETG after the treatment while the CPTG did not show a significant difference between before and after the treatment. [Conclusion] We believe that ball exercise therapy is an effective intervention that can reduce the pain of patients with chronic lower back pain and strengthen their lumbar muscles.
[Purpose] This study examined the effect of exercise on intermediate filament expression in rat gastrocnemius muscles. [Subjects] After administering a crush injury to the sciatic nerve of male Sprague-Dawley rats, the rats were divided into experiment and control groups. [Methods] The experiment and control groups were made to exercise for 60 minutes daily for 5 days per week. Rats were sacrificed at 12 days, 19 days, 26 days and 61 days after sciatic nerve crush injury. Frozen sections of the gastrocnemius muscle were prepared. Immunohistochemical staining for desmin and vimentin, and enzyme histochemistry for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR) were used to visualize degeneration of skeletal muscles. [Results] Desmin was expressed during muscle degeneration and regeneration, whereas vimentin was expressed only during muscle regeneration. Muscle fibers in the experimental group were normal at 61 days after injury. In the NADH-TR reaction, the control group showed aggregated diformazan but the experimental group showed normal evenly distributed diformazan granules. At reinnervation, target fibers were found by the NADH-TR reaction in animals sacrificed 26 days after injury. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that running is an effective exercise for inducing the expression of intermediate filaments during regeneration of skeletal muscles.
[Purpose] Small changes in equilibrium while walking or standing up can lead to loss of balance for elderly people, who have relatively low activity levels compared to normal adults. This paper examined the effect of ankle joint mobilization on the ankle joint range of motion (ROM) and maintenance of equilibrium in elderly women who have decreased ankle joint mobility. [Subjects] We divided the study subjects into 2 groups: ankle joint mobilization group (AJMG) (n=20) and control group (CG) (n=20). [Methods] The AJMG received 20-minute Maitland joint mobilization sessions three times a week for four weeks. The ROM of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion and equilibrium maintenance during quiet standing were measured before and after the mobilization procedure. [Results] There was a significant improvement in the ankle joint ROM and ability to maintain equilibrium among the AJMG members before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] The Ankle ROM and ability to maintain equilibrium in elderly women improved after ankle joint mobilization.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to estimate the reliability of two protocols for measuring chest wall dimensions in the transverse plane in individuals (18 males, 12 females) aged 2 years 6 months to 58 years (mean age 34.7 ± 17.6) with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities (SMID). [Subjects and Methods] For diagnosing pneumonia in individuals with SMID, 30 X-ray computed tomograms were taken at the level of the xiphisternal junction, scanned, and saved on a personal computer. Five therapists examined these images. Anteroposterior (AP) and laterolateral (LL) diameters were measured using two protocols. The largest AP and LL diameters were measured along the gravity line (protocol 1) and along the line where the middle point of the sternum connects with the spinous process of the vertebra (protocol 2). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to estimate the intrarater and interrater reliability of each protocol. [Results] ICCs were >0.85 in protocols 1 and 2 for all measurements, showing these protocols are highly reliable for measuring chest wall dimensions in the transverse plane. [Conclusions] Measurements using these protocols are easy and cheap, and can be performed retrospectively, providing an effective way for evaluating chest wall deformity in individuals with SMID.
[Purpose] This study aimed to find the effect of spinal stabilization with visual feedback on the mobility of stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one chronic stroke patients over 6 months since the onset of stroke were the subjects of this study. The experimental group performed a spinal stabilization exercise program for 30 minutes per day, 5 times per week, for a total of 8 weeks. The control group received conventional physiotherapy. The temporal and spatial gait parameters were measured using GAIT Rite (CIR System Inc, USA) instruments. [Results] There were significant differences between before and after the intervention in all spatiotemporal gait parameters of the experimental group, except the step length asymmetry ratio and the single support time asymmetry ratio. However, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups when the pre- and post-intervention differences of the experimental group and the control group were compared. [Conclusion] This results of this study show that spinal stabilization with visual feedback is an effective intervention method for improving the mobility of chronic stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study aimed to find the effect of spinal stabilization with visual feedback on the balance of stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one chronic stroke patients participated in the study. The experimental group underwent a spinal stabilization exercise program 30 minutes per day, 5 times per week, for a total of 8 weeks. The control group received conventional physiotherapy. The Berg balance scale, and the Timed up and go and Functional reach tests were performed to assess subjects's balance. [Results] There were significant differences between before and after the intervention in all balance parameters of the experimental group, but the control group showed no significant differences. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups for the Timed up-and-go test. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that spinal stabilization with visual feedback is an effective intervention for improving the balance of chronic stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study investigated the potential of quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis for dementia diagnosis by examining the correlation between each frequency band of EEG using a sample of normal and demented elderly women. [Subjects] Thirty-three elderly women (17 normal, 16 demented) without history of brain disease were participated in this study. [Methods] EEGs of the subjects were measured continuously for 5 minutes while subjects' eyes were closed. The AT index was defined as the ratio of the theta wave to the SMR wave; the AC index was defined as the ratio of the low beta wave to alpha wave; and the ST index was defined as the ratio of the high beta wave to the alpha wave. The differences in brain activity between normal and demented elderly women were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the SPSSWIN (ver. 12.0) program. [Results] All areas showed a lower AT index among normal elderly women compared to demented elderly women. In the P4 area, the AC index and the ST index were significantly higher in normal than in demented elderly women, indicating there is a difference in brain activity between normal and demented elderly women. [Conclusion] These results show that quantitative EEG analysis can be used for dementia diagnosis.
[Purpose] This study focused on the effects of Manual Resistance Training (MRT) performed by elderly people for their lower extremities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 53 elderly persons. The isometric strength of the right knee-extensor of the subjects in the intervention group was assessed after MRT once a week for 12 weeks followed by MRT, twice a week for 12 more weeks. Subjects in the control group only received the muscle strength measurement and did not perform MRT. [Results] From the baseline, the muscle strength of the intervention group significantly increased by 13.2% after 12 weeks, and 29% after 24 weeks. A significant difference was observed between the muscle strength of the intervention group and that of the control group. Those with greater muscle strength experienced relatively low muscle strength augmentation, compared with those with less muscle strength. [Conclusion]MRT resulted in improvements in muscle strength, similar to the results reported for a prior intervention with a resistance training method. The intensity of the MRT was inferred to be more than 70% of 1-repetition maximum. MRT may have less impact if it is performed by people with relatively high muscle strength.
[Purpose] An investigation of the blood flow velocity in the femoral vein was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of elastic stockings, and intermittent pneumatic compression, [Subjects] Subjects were 16 healthy males with no past history of vascular lesions. [Methods] A comparative investigation was carried out of the blood flow velocity of the femoral vein, which was measured at rest under three different conditions - at rest, wearing elastic stockings, and with an intermittent pneumatic compression device. [Results] The blood flow velocities in the femoral vein were 30.7 ± 5.2 cm/sec, 29.1 ± 6.6 cm/sec, and 50.4 ± 19.3 cm/sec for at rest, wearing elastic stockings and with the application of intermittent pneumatic compression respectively. No significant differences were observed among any of the conditions. [Conclusion] There were no differences observed in blood-flow velocity between wearing the elastic stockings and the application of intermittent pneumatic compression.This study clarified the effect of passive methods on blood flow velocity in the femoral vein.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance and stabilization complex exercise on the strength and cross-sectional area of lumbar muscles of typical adults in their twenties. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 14 male adults in their twenties were chosen and randomly assigned to either the resistance exercise group (REG, n=7) or the resistance and stabilization exercise group (RSEG, n=7). They then exercised for 50 minutes three times a week for 8 weeks. [Methods] Pegasus was used to measure the strength of the lumbar muscles of the normal adults and computed tomography (CT) images were taken and compared to examine the changing cross-sectional areas of the lumbar muscles. [Results] Both groups showed a significant increase in the strength of their lumbar muscles. For the cross-sectional area of the lumbar muscles, only the superficial stabilizer muscle of the REG group showed a significant increase, whereas both the superficial stabilizer and the deep stabilizer muscles of the RSEG group showed a significant increase. [Conclusion] The resistance and stabilization complex exercise for the lumbar muscles had positive effects on both the strength of the lumbar muscles as well as on the cross-sectional areas of the superficial stabilizer and deep stabilizer muscles. Therefore, resistance and stabilization complex exercise appears to be an effective exercise program for the prevention of lower back pain.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of expert therapists' conception of physical therapy knowledge and to examine the application of therapeutic knowledge in clinical reasoning.[Methods] Open and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 expert physical therapists working in South Korea. The interviewed therapists had over 7 years of experience in physical therapy with over 5 years being devoted to one specialty. The interviews were thoroughly examined and reviewed, and then the data portions related to clinical reasoning were collected separately and analyzed qualitatively. [Result] Physical therapy knowledge was found to be generally applied across the entire treatment process from the interpretation and integration of given data, inferential identification and treatment of patients' problem to the consultation and education services to patients, the clinical interaction with colleagues, physicians, and other medical practitioners.[Conclusion] The results of the present study have implications for clinical practice, physical therapy education, and further research.
[Purpose] To determine inter-rater and intra-rater reliability using video recordings, and the concurrent validity of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects] The subjects who were assessed were 71 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 46 boys, 25 girls) who were divided into three age groups according to the GMFCS guidelines; 0-2 years, 2-4 years, and 4-6 years. [Methods] Eleven pediatric physical therapists rated 71 video recordings of children with CP to test inter-rater reliability. Two of them rescored the same video recordings to test intra-rater reliability at an interval of one month. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing GMFCS levels with the subscale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) such as self-care, mobility, and social ability. [Results] By age group, inter-rater reliability was high (ICC = 0.994, 0.993, and 0.996 respectively). Intra-rater reliability was also high (ICC = 0.972-0.996), and correlation was higher between GMFCS level and the mobility domain of PEDI than between GMFCS level and non-motor domains of PEDI. [Conclusion] This study confirmed the reliability and validity of the GMFCS, supporting its use in clinical practice and research.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish an optimal load setting method for a 9-second modified-Wingate Anaerobic Test (m-WAnT) and to examine the reliability and validity of the test. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients and 18 of them were examined as to the test's validity. [Methods] The m-WAnT was performed twice on two different days to calculate the Mean Power (MP). In order to derive an optimal load setting expression, multiple regression analysis was performed using the optimal load (a value roughly 10% higher than the torque value achieved at the time-point of 6 seconds) as the dependent variable and 6 items as the independent variables. The Five-Repetition Sit-to-Stand Test (FRSST) and Maximum Walking Speed (MWS) were measured and their correlations with were examined the MP. [Results] The ICC (1,1) of the MP of the first and second values of MP was 0.982 (95% CI, 0.961-0.991). The result of multiple regression analysis showed that the unaffected side and affected side LEPT were significantly related and the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.812. MP significantly correlated with FRSST and MWS of the 18 subjects. [Conclusion] This study confirmed the reliability and validity of m-WAnT and derived the optimal load setting equation as well.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi (TC) based exercise on dynamic postural control when people with mild or moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) initiate gait. [Subjects] Ten people with PD, who ranged in age from 70 to 84 years, volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention of TC exercise. [Methods] Participants with PD were tested pre- and post-intervention in a task in which they were instructed to initiate gait from the position of quiet stance. Participants with PD were trained with TC exercise that emphasizes a shift in weight bearing from bilateral to unilateral support, challenging postural stability, three times per week over a period of 12 weeks. Differences between pre- and post-test in COP displacement in the anteroposterior (A-P) and mediolateral (M-L) directions were assessed using two force plates. [Results] After practicing the TC exercise, participants with PD significantly increased A-P and M-L displacement of the COP. [Conclusion] TC exercise increased COP displacement in the A-P and M-L directions, thereby improving participants' ability to generate momentum to initiate gait and maintain lateral stability. The findings of this study support the use of TC exercise as an effective and safe rehabilitation strategy for some individuals with PD.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of electrical stimulation on blood lactate after anaerobic muscle fatigue was induced in Taekwondo athletes. [Subjects] Twenty-four male collegiate Taekwondo athletes voluntarily participated in this study (from June 7, 2010 to June 18, 2010, a total of 2 weeks). Subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 8: a) Electrical stimulation group (ES) which received electrical muscle stimulation; b) the massage group which received massage; and the control group which took a rest after induction of anaerobic muscle fatigue. [Methods] This study was a double-blind randomized controlled trial. It was conducted at the sports science research laboratory of Kyungwoon University, Gumi, Korea. Muscle fatigue was induced via anaerobic exercise. Blood samples were collected when the athletes were in a relaxed state, immediately after anaerobic exercise, 15 minutes after anaerobic exercise, and 25 minutes after anaerobic exercise. [Results] Repeated measures ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in lactic acid concentration in the blood with time in the three groups, as well as among the three groups. The lactic acid concentrations in the blood was highest immediately after exercise, decreased significantly 15 min after exercise, and further decreased 25 min after exercise. Scheffe's post-hoc test revealed statistically significant differences between the massage group and the control group, and between the ES group and the control group, whereas no statistically significant difference was found between the massage group and the ES group. [Conclusion] Electrical stimulation was shown to enhance muscle fatigue recovery caused by anaerobic exercise by Taekwondo athletes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower extremity muscle mass, leg extension strength and muscle power of hemiplegic stroke patients and to examine the differences in walking independence levels (dependent and independent groups) between each variable. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 hemiplegic patients at the first onset. [Methods] The affected and unaffected thigh muscle mass (TM), lower leg muscle mass, and lower extremity muscle mass (LEM) were measured by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. The leg extension peak torque (LEPT) and mean power (MP) were measured using a recumbent ergometer. Values obtained by dividing the affected and unaffected LEPTs by each LEM (LEPT/LEM) and the MP by total LEM (TLEM) of the affected and unaffected lower extremities (MP/TLEM) were calculated. [Results] The affected TM was significant lower than the unaffected side. The affected and unaffected TM was significantly correlated with the LEPT of each side. The affected TM, affected and unaffected LEPT, LEPT/LEM, MP and MP/TLEM of the dependent group were significantly lower than their respective values in the independent group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a decrease in muscle mass in hemiplegic patients decreases anaerobic exercise capacity through weaker leg extension strength or muscle power.
[Purpose] In order to promote the return to home of stroke patients, a study based on admission and discharge FIM scores was conducted to identify the ADL-related factors influencing the discharge destination. [Subjects] A total of 256 stroke patients (141 males and 115 females) who stayed in hospital for more than a month were considered. Cases of recurrence or complications were excluded. [Methods] The patients' functional status was evaluated on admission and every month until discharge using the FIM scale. Patients discharged to home or care facilities were divided into three groups according to their total motor-FIM scores: good recovery, moderate recovery, or poor recovery. By comparison of admission and discharge FIM scores, the determinants of discharge to home were examined. [Results] In a multivariate logistic regression analysis considering the discharge destination of patients in the poor-recovery group as the response variable, three factors were identified as the determinants: toileting, length of stay, and age. [Conclusion] The results show improvement of toileting, length of stay, and age are the determinants of return to home after stroke. Further studies will be performed from diverse viewpoints such as the background of discharge to home.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the current status of physical therapy accident prevention education, and discover how safety education should be addressed at schools. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 208 people holding positions in schools with a physical therapy program. [Methods] This study was conducted through an anonymous self-administered postal questionnaire. The details of the survey covered six categories including curriculum and collaboration with clinical training institutes. [Results] Regarding current curriculum, 77.3% of schools had a description relating to physical therapy accident prevention in their aims and objectives for clinical training and 54.7% indicated a need to improve teaching content so that it is arranged consistently. Regarding collaboration with clinical training institutes, 7.6% undertook collaborative initiatives in accident prevention education, 34% had opportunities for discussion, and 68.6% had arrangements in place for dealing with accidents. [Conclusion] It is evident that physical therapy schools are lagging behind in medical safety education. With regard to the future of safety education, there are expectations for the establishment of attainment objectives for graduation and consistency in teaching under a specific view, suggesting that awareness of physical therapy accident prevention education will rise.
[Purpose] The purpose of study was to verify various strategies for the prevention of injury in normal adults and to identify the risk factors of body injury by the biomechanical analysis of drop landing with selected external loads that are commonly experienced in daily living causing load on the foot, ankle and the entire body as well as an increase in impulse. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 14 normal adults. [Methods] Measurements were carried out while the participants drop-landed from the heights of 20, 40 and 60 cm. [Results] The muscle activation of the individual muscles until the posture was stabilized significantly increased in the abductor hallucis, medial gastrocnemius, biceps femoris and vastus lateralis as the drop height increased. In addition, the movement of the individual joints to correct the posture while landing showed that the flexion angles of the hip joint and knee joint increased as the drop height increased. [Conclusion] We found that there was a great change in the muscle activation at the drop height of 40 cm and the flexion angle also changed at the drop height of 40 cm, indicating that 40 cm may be the drop height at which the strategy for the postural balance of humans changes while landing.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of six weeks strength training with elastic bands on different measures of strength manifestations, fatigue and functionality of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. [Subjects] Sixteen MS patients (average age 44 years; range 33-56) with a diagnosis confirmed by a neurologist volunteered as subjects. They had mild to moderate disability and participated three times a week in a six-week elastic band strength training program. [Methods] Elastic band training progression was based on training volume using elastic bands of resistance of approximately 40% of a patient's previously measured maximal voluntary contraction. Outcome assessments included: maximal voluntary contraction with surface electromyography of the right and left legs, average and peak power with different submaximal loads of each leg, fatigue perception and functionality by the Timed Up-and-Go test. [Results] After the six-week strength training with elastic bands, average power with low load (98 N), peak power with very low load (49 N) and functionality had improved significantly. [Conclusion] A short and light training program using elastic bands can improve muscle function without injury and can be a good therapy for improving functionality of multiple sclerosis patients.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate whether Kinesio taping (KT) exerts influence on the motor nerve conduction velocity. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen healthy participants (male 9, female 8) with no pathology or past history of a peripheral and central neuropathy who were working at the Jinju Seran hospital voluntarily participated in this study. Their mean age was 34.3 years (range=25-52 years), their mean height was 167.1 cm (range=158-177 cm), and their mean weight was 56.9 kg (range=45-73 kg). All participants received bipolar percutaneous stimulation by orthodromic conduction delivered by a EP/EMG system (MEB-9200, Nihon Kohden, Japan) with a pulse duration of under 1 ms. Ulnar and median nerves were stimulated with 20 mA and the radial nerve was stimulated with 30mA. The motor nerve conduction velocity was measured with and without the application of KT. [Results] Statistically, there were no significant differences between with and without KT in the latency, amplitude, and motor nerve conduction velocity of the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that Kinesio taping neither increases nor decreases motor nerve conduction velocity.
[Purpose] This study attempted to clarify the relationship between low back pain and changes in the abdominal and thoracolumbar fascias that are caused by contraction of the transversus abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 51 men with a mean age of 22.9 ± 4.0 years. [Methods] A medical history was obtained from all subjects through interviews and each person was assigned to one of 3 groups in relation to experience of low back pain. Subjects' abdominal girth at the umbilical level was measured from the anterior, antero-lateral and posterior parts and recorded using an ultrasound US diagnostic device during rest and contraction of the transversus abdominis. [Results] Contraction of the transversus abdominis was confirmed by observing the US image, while the subjects were urged to make a conscious effort to contract the muscle. In the group of those who had been treated for low back pain, the distance covered by the movement of the abdominal fascia and that of the tip of the transversus abdominis (musculotendinous junction) was reduced in spite of contraction occurring at a uniform level. [Conclusion] The results indicate that there is a correlation between the mobility of the abdominal and thoracolumbar fascias and a history of low back pain. This suggests that analysis of the movement of each fascia, measuring the distance covered by the movements of the abdominal fascia and the tip of transversus abdominis(TA) instead of measuring the muscle thickness of TA alone, would be effective for providing an understanding of the etiology of low back pain and the segmental stability of the spine.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of task-oriented training and neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) on the sitting posture of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 10 children with spastic diplegia and cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Methods] The control group (n=5) received NDT and the experimental group (n=5) received the task oriented approach to improve sitting balance control, 5 times per week for 6 weeks. Sitting posture was assessed the gross motor functional measure (GMFM), and electromyography (EMG) pre and post intervention. [Results] GMFM and right rectus abdominis activities showed no significant differences in either treatment. The activity strength of the left rectus abdominis, right and left erector muscles significantly increased in both groups. With regard to the difference in the GMFM and EMG between the experiment and control groups, there was no difference. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the method of task-oriented training and neurodevelopmental treatment for muscle vitalization both improved the sitting posture of children with cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the item-level psychometrics of a Korean translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) using Rasch analysis. [Methods] GMFM data for 206 children (mean age: 4.9 years) with cerebral palsy were collected in Korea. Focusing on the psychometric properties of the item measures, person measures, and rating scale categories, Rasch analysis was performed. Principal components analysis in combination with fit statistics was used to verify the unidimensional construct of GMFM. [Results] The original 4-point rating scale revealed that it was not being used in the expected fashion and could be improved by collapsing into a 3-point version. Eighty-eight items showed a logical item difficulty hierarchy. Furthermore this revision instrument appears to have good internal construct validity showing a person separation reliability of 0.99. The GMFM has a person separation index of 10.67 which indicates that the instrument separates the sample into approximately 15 statistically significant strata. [Conclusion] The rescaled version of the GMFM shows outstanding item-level psychometric qualities. This study suggests that the Korean version of the GMFM produces valid measures of gross motor ability in children with CP and furthermore appears to be sensitive in differentiating children with different gross motor abilities.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the structure of activities of daily living and their characteristics based on the relationship with their difficulty levels and the gaps between the actual activity level achieved in daily living (performance ADL) and the potential activity level that can be performed under supervision (capability ADL). [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 255 stroke patients. [Methods] Performance ADL and capability ADL were evaluated using the functional independence measure, and the scores were converted to an interval scale by Rasch analysis to compare item difficulty and gaps. [Results] Scores of performance ADL were lower than those of capability ADL. The gaps between capability ADL and performance ADL on admission had not decreased at the time of discharge. ADL items could be categorized into three difficulty levels of high, moderate and low by interval scales. Some ADL items tended to develop gaps, while others did not. The correlation between difficulty level and the gap was extremely low, and ADL items of higher difficulty did not always have greater gaps. [Conclusion] We confirmed that the improvement of capability ADL precedes that of performance ADL in the process of ADL improvement.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activation of trunk muscles during end-inspiration of abdominal breathing among four different back exercise positions to investigate potential effects on the activation of trunk muscles. [Subjects] Sixty healthy male adults volunteered to participate in the study. [Methods] Each subject was instructed regarding abdominal breathing and the study procedure. While the maximal voluntary contraction and end-inspiration of abdominal breathing of individual muscles were being performed, the activity of the muscles was measured using surface electromyography. The activity of the muscles while performing end-inspiration of abdominal breathing was normalized to the percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC). [Results] Right and left erector spinae and external oblique showed significant differences among the positions between before and after end-inspiration of abdominal breathing(EIAB). The prone-on-elbows position demonstrated the greatest increase post-EIAB. [Conclusion] End-inspiration of abdominal breathing appears to be effective in the four different positions for activating the erector spinae and external oblique trunk muscles, but not rectus abdominis.
[Purpose] To determine the effects of a home-based walking program on lower extremity muscle strength of hemodialysis patients. [Methods] Twenty-six hemodialysis patients were divided into a training and a control group. Lower extremity muscle strength was measured using a back and leg dynamometer prior to and at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of the study period in both groups. The training group performed the home-based walking program, an individually prescribed walking program which progressively increased in duration by incrementing the number of steps by 10% every two weeks. Subjects in the control group were asked to keep to their routine activities, as much as possible, during the study period. [Results] Lower extremity muscle strength in the training group remarkably increased from 52 kg at baseline to 68 kg at the 12th week (4th week = 58 kg, 8th week = 63 kg), whereas no change in the control group was found (baseline = 51 kg, 4th week = 52 kg, 8th week = 51 kg, 12th week = 48 kg). [Conclusion] A home-based walking exercise program improved lower extremity muscle strength of hemodialysis patients. Patients who have stable medical conditions should be encouraged to participate in this home-based walking exercise program to improve their abilities to perform activities of daily living.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of muscle strength training and muscle endurance training on muscle deoxygenation level and endurance performance. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy young men were randomly assigned to a muscle strength training (STR: n = 6) group, muscle endurance training (END: n = 6) group, or a control (CON: n = 7) group. The training intensity for STR was 60°/sec × 10 repetitions × 5 sets/day and that for END was 240°/sec × 50% fatigue repetitions × 2 sets/day, 3 days/week, for 6 weeks. All subjects performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) to measure maximum oxygen uptake, exercise time and muscle deoxygenation level of vastus lateralis, and underwent muscle strength and muscle endurance measurements pre- and post-training. [Results] In the STR group, muscle strength tended to increase, while muscle endurance significantly increased in the END group. Muscle deoxygenation level was significantly increased in both training groups. Maximum oxygen uptake did not change; however, in the END group alone, exercise time was significantly prolonged. [Conclusion] These results suggest that muscle endurance training is more effective at increasing endurance performance than muscle strength training.