[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of endurance exercise on glutathione in mice. [Subjects] Twelve mice were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the endurance exercise group (n=6), and the control group (n=6). [Methods] The exercise group ran on a motor driven treadmill 5 days per week for 30 minutes at a speed of 24 m·min-1 for 4 weeks. The ratio of GSH to GSSG was measured as an indicator of cardiac oxidative stress. The independent t test was used for statistical analysis. [Results] The results show that the endurance exercise significantly increased the ratio of GSH to GSSG in the exercised mice compared to the sedentary mice. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the four weeks of the endurance exercise reduced oxidative stress levels in mice.
[Purpose] The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of symmetric self-performed facial muscle exercises on the facial muscle function of patients with facial palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 persons (men=12, women=14) who suffered from facial palsy and were treated by western-oriental medical treatment. [Methods] We educated patients to conduct symmetric self-performed facial muscle exercises three times per day for four weeks by themselves to facilitate neuromuscular function. We evaluated them before and after the exercise period using Yanagihara's Unweighted Grading System and the House-Brackmann Grading System. [Results] After 4 weeks' symmetric self-performed facial muscle exercises, patients showed a significant improvement in facial palsy. The control group also showed a significant improvement. According to both Yanagihara's Unweighted Grading System and the House-Brackmann Grading System, the intervention group showed a greater improvement of scores than the control group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that adding symmetric self-performed facial muscle exercises to the western-oriental medical treatment is a more effective treatment than western-oriental medical treatment alone for recovery from facial palsy.
[Purpose] This study examined the muscle activation when subjects gripped a handle with a circumference equal to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of their hand length to determine the size that can be gripped most stably relative to the hand length. [Subjects and Methods] The muscle activation of 34 subjects was measured using electromyography. To make a cylinder proportionate to the hand length, multiple pencils were combined and the circumference was measured with a tape measure. The cylinders were made with circumferences of 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, and 100 % of the hand length. [Results] The largest muscle activation was observed at handle circumferences of 50% and 75% of the hand length in the wrist extensor bundle and at 75% of the hand length in the flexor digitorum superficialis. [Conclusion] Therefore, circumferences of the middle range of hand length seems to be most appropriate for hammer handles and handles with high resistance which require large strength at industrial sites.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of isometric muscle strength measurements of the lower limbs and hips made with a hand-held dynamometer and belt by comparing them with measurements obtained by an isokinetic dynamometer. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 healthy adults (12 men, 12 women) with a mean age of 20.4 years. [Method] Measurements were made with both instruments on the flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors, external rotators and internal rotators of the hip and flexors and extensors of the knee. [Results] Measurements obtained with the hand-held dynamometer and belt were significantly lower than those obtained with the isokinetic dynamometer. Pearson's correlation coefficients for the measurements made with the two instruments ranged from 0.52 to 0.88 for all muscle groups except the hip abductors which was 0.34. In the hip abductors, the coefficient was 0.65 when forces of 450 N and higher were excluded. [Conclusion] Isometric muscle strength measurements of the lower limbs and hips obtained with a hand-held dynamometer and belt are considered to be valid except for measurement of hip abduction of subjects with high muscle strength.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of visual biofeedback on the EMG ratio of the medial and lateral vasti muscles and on the lower extremity joint angles during squat exercises performed by subjects with femoral anteversion. [Subjects] Seventeen subjects (5 men, 12 women) with femoral anteversion participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed a double-leg squat with and without visual biofeedback using a laser beam fixed to a patella strap. The peak angles of hip internal rotation and knee valgus were analyzed using a 3D motion analysis system, and the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis (VMO/VL) activity ratio was calculated using the value recorded by surface electromyography during the squat exercises. [Results] Significant decreases were found in the hip internal rotation angle and knee valgus angle, and a significant increase in the VMO/VL activity ratio was observed on the dominant side when performing a double-leg squat with visual biofeedback using a laser beam. [Conclusions] We suggest that laser-beam visual biofeedback would be used as an effective for improving VMO muscle strength and reducing the angle of hip internal rotation and knee valgus during squat exercises.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether muscle atrophy induced by ischemic reperfusion injury in rats can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants. [Subjects] Rats were randomly divided into three groups: the non-treated group, vitamin C group, and vitamin E group. [Methods] Ischemia was induced in the right lower limb a pressure of 300 mmHg for 90 minutes.Vitamin injections were administered six times from just prior to the induction of ischemia until 60 hours after the reperfusion. The relative weight ratio of the soleus muscle and the length of the soleus muscle fiber cross-section minor axes were used for the evaluation of muscle atrophy, and biochemical analyses of the creatine phosphokinase and total glutathione levels were also performed. [Results] The relative weight ratios of the soleus muscle and the lengths of the soleus muscle fiber cross-section minor axis in the vitamin C group and the vitamin E group were significantly greater than those in the non-treated group. In comparison with the non-treated group, the total glutathione level showed a tendency to be higher in the vitamin C group and was significantly higher in the vitamin E group. [Conclusion] In this study, using an experimental rat model, we confirmed that antioxidants prevent the muscle atrophy induced by ischemic reperfusion.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether muscle activity and joint movement in the lower limbs related to postural control are affected by repetitive reaching movements. [Methods] Fourteen healthy subjects attempted to reach a small target as fast as possible while standing. The target was placed at approximately the maximum reach distance. The reaching movement was repeated 50 times. Positions of each body segment were measured by three-dimensional motion analysis. Surface electromyograms (EMG) of tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GAS) were recorded. Parameters related to reaching performance and postural control were analyzed. [Results] With repetition of reaching movements, movement time and peak reaching velocity related to performance significantly increased. In addition, the onset of the EMG activity of TA appeared earlier, the integrated EMG activity of TA and GAS increased, and the maximum ankle dorsiflexion angle increased significantly. Changes in postural response were correlated with those of reaching performance. Moreover, postural response changed earlier than reaching performance. [Conclusion] Changes in postural control were induced by repeated reaching movements. These results suggest that changes in postural control associated with the central nervous system occur in advance in order to improve reaching performance.
[Purpose] We investigated the effect of the finger flexor muscles activation on the stabilizer muscle of the shoulder joint during push-up exercise using a push up grip to increase the muscle activation of the finger flexor, had a distal part. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy male adults in their 20s who normal ROM and no musculoskeletal disease of the shoulder complex and the upper limbs. [Methods] The subjects performed push-ups (vertical and transverse grips, and on flat ground) three times. The muscle activity was measured three times when performing the exercise using the push-up grip (vertical and transverse grips) and on flat ground, and the mean values were used for the analysis. To prevent the effect of muscle fatigue of the shoulder stabilizer muscles, the three different exercise positions were randomly performed. [Results] The muscle activations induced under the three different conditions were compared and the results showed that there were significant differences among the wrist flexor bundle, wrist extensor bundle, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectoralis major, deltoid, serratus anterior muscles. [Conclusion] It is possible that finger flexor and extensor muscle activation elevated to increase stability in performing the exercise on the push-up grip as it is ales stable position than the push-up plus exercise on flat ground. We assume that the distal part muscle activation affected the muscle activation of the shoulder stabilizer, proximal part, muscles.
[Purpose] The present study investigated the surface electromyographic activity of the lower leg in dynamic balance of recreational athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI) and stable ankles (control). [Methods] Twenty recreational athletes were divided into a functional ankle instability group (10 males) and a stable ankle group (10 males). Their dynamic balance was assessed with the star excursion balance test (SEBT). For all the participants, surface electromyographic (EMG) activities of 7 muscles were evaluated by a Myosystem 1400A unit during the SEBT in 8 directions. [Results] The SEBT scores of the functional ankle instability group (FAIG) were significantly lower than those of the stable ankle group (SAG) during dynamic balance in the anterior, lateral, anterolateral, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. The EMG activities of TA and PL in the anterior, anteromedial & anterolateral directions, of TP and SE in the posterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions, and of VL in the lateral direction were significantly lower in FAIG than in SAG. [Conclusion] This study showed that functional ankle stability a affected EMG activity of the lower leg in dynamic balance.
[Purpose] To determine the associations between peak knee valgus moment and lower extremity joint angles at initial contact and at peak knee valgus moment during side-step cutting and to investigate their associations with gender. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects and twenty basketball players participated in this study. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics of hip, knee and ankle joints were recorded during a side-step cutting protocol by six video cameras and a forceplate. Associations between peak knee valgus moment and three-dimensional hip, knee and ankle joint angles were analyzed using Pearson's product moment correlation. [Results] Peak knee valgus moment was significantly associated with increased hip flexion, knee flexion, ankle inversion and ankle external rotation at initial contact and at peak knee valgus moment. With regard to gender, significant associations between peak knee valgus moment and hip, knee and ankle joint angles were found only in females. [Conclusion] The results provided data on lower extremity joint posture related to peak knee valgus moment during side-step cutting and indicate that females are more sensitive to increased peak knee valgus moment while performing side-step cutting.
[Purpose] In this paper we examine the changes in and the actual state of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) education in physical therapy (PT) training schools in the 2003 and 2008 academic years. [Subjects and Methods] The questionnaire was sent to 163 schools in 2003 and 233 schools in 2008. The contents of PNF course were compared between the two surveys. [Results] PNF courses were present in 90.7% of PT schools in 2003 and 87.7% in 2008. In 2008, it was a compulsory subject in 81.0% of PT schools. There has been an increase in the number of courses entitled "PNF" or similar. In terms of content, there was a trend toward a decrease in schools teaching special techniques and clinical application. [Conclusion] There is variation in PNF course hours and course content across PT schools, and it appears that graduates do not attain the same level of knowledge and technique through their college education. Therefore, postgraduate education seems desirable, not only in PNF, but also in activities in various branches of PT.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an eight-week exercise program on body composition, blood lipids, and hormone levels of 16 obese adult males. [Subjects and Methods] After an experimental group (n=8) and a control group (n=8) were organized, subject were examined: then, the experimental group performed endurance exercises for 8 weeks. At the end of the eight weeks, the two groups were examined again for weight, % body fat, and body fat mass via a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). A blood sample was collected the day before the exercise program. Right after the exercise program, 5 ml of blood was collected and then centrifuged for 10 min at 3000 rpm. The centrifuged samples were stored at -73°C and sent to Green Cross for analysis; TC, TG, leptin, and insulin were analyzed. [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant decrease in % body fat and body fat mass as well as significant reductions in TC and TG and leptin concentrations. There was also a decrease in the exercise group's insulin concentration but is was not significant. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of exercise therapy increased energy consumption resulting in favorable changes in the body composition, blood lipid metabolism, and hormone levels in obese adult males.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of various backpack loads on the cervical flexion relaxation ratio as a quantitative neurological measure. [Subjects] Fourteen subjects with no neck pain participated in the study. [Methods] Surface electromyograms of the C4 paraspinal muscles were measured bilaterally, while subjects performed cervical flexion extension, and normalized in three phases. Cervical FRR data of three different backpack loads were analyzed. The FRR was calculated as the muscle activation during the cervical extension phase divided by the muscle activation during the relaxation phase. [Result] The FRR in the unloaded condition was 2.44 on the right and 2.37 on the left; for the backpack weighing 10% BM, the FRR were 1.91 and 1.89, respectively, and for the 20% BM backpack, FRR were 1.56 and 1.53, respectively. [Conclusion] A heavier backpack increased the potential for neck pain. The FRR is a functional examination that can be used to quantitatively assess the potential for developing cervical pain and the results of intervention.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the severity and the persistence of low back pain (LBP) in care workers and its influence on their health-related quality of life (QOL). [Subjects] The subjects were one hundred and fifty eight female care workers who worked for three health care service facilities for the aged in Japan. [Methods] The investigation was carried out by questionnaire survey. Subjects were asked if they had LBP at the time of the survey. If they had LBP subjects were further asked to describe how long their LBP had lasted. We evaluated the degree of LBP and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related QOL. [Results] The participants were classified into two groups: a H-LBP group that reported a high degree of LBP and an L-LBP group that reported a low degree of LBP. In addition, the participants who had LBP at the time of survey were classified into two groups: an Acute group in which LBP had continued for less than 3 months and a Chronic group in which LBP had continued for more than 3 months. The scores for all dimensions of SF-36 in the L-LBP group were significantly lower than in the H-LBP group. The Chronic group had a significantly higher degree of LBP and lower "Bodily Pain" than the Acute group. [Conclusion] It is clear that the presence or the severity of workers' LBP influenced not only their pain and physical functions but also their social and psychological QOL .
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low-frequency combined functional training over a 3-month period on lower extremity muscle strength and gait performance in community-dwelling people with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia. [Subjects] The subjects were 23 individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia, utilizing the services of an adult day-care facility. [Methods] All subjects performed functional training programs consisting of stretching, strengthening, postural balance training, and gait training once or twice a week for 3 months. Leg muscle strength measured using a leg press machine at one repetition maximum (1RM), comfortable gait speed (CGS), maximal gait speed (MGS), and the difference between MGS and CGS (ΔGS) were assessed before and after intervention. [Results] Comparison of each outcome before and after intervention revealed significant increases in 1RM, CGS, MGS, and ΔGS. The change rate of ΔGS was correlated only with that of MGS. [Conclusion] Three-month combined functional training was effective at enhancing lower extremity muscle strength and gait performance, and ΔGS was increased by enhancement of MGS in community-dwelling people with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia.
[Purpose] To clarify the motor development of healthy infants, we conducted a longitudinal observation survey of healthy Japanese infants. [Subjects] Healthy infants participated in this study (9 males and 5 females age 5-13 months old, birth weight: 2, 474-3, 964 g). Infants belonged to three daycare centers. [Method] An examiner visited the infants at a daycare center monthly, and examined their motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). [Results] Eleven infants, out of 14, showed higher AIMS than the average at some ages in months and lower AIMS than the average at some ages. [Conclusion] The longitudinal survey confirmed that infants have certain periods when they become capable of new movements and other periods when their development stagnates. It also confirmed that the supine sleep position has no influence on infants' motor development acquisition. This suggests that the impact of physiological motor development must be considered when infants receiving PT become capable of new movement.
[Purpose] We conducted a noncontrolled intervention study in community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke hemiplegia as subjects to examine the effectiveness of a 6 month low-frequency combined functional training program on enhancing factors related to physical performance, such as leg muscle strength, postural balance, and gait function. We also examined whether medium-term changes in physical performance correlated with time from stroke onset or degree of hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two individuals with chronic stroke hemiplegia who were using an adult day-care facility were enrolled in a combined functional training program consisting of stretching, muscle strengthening, postural balance training, and gait training once or twice a week for 6 months. The main outcomes measured were indices of physical performance - such as leg muscle strength (measured at about 1 repetition maximum [1RM] on a leg press machine), the functional reach test, the timed "up and go" test, comfortable gait speed, and maximum gait speed - and the Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS). [Results] After 6 months of intervention, significant improvements were observed in all of the above-mentioned outcome measures of physical performance. No significant correlations were found between the percentage changes of physical performances after the intervention and time from stroke onset or BRS. [Conclusion] The 6 month low-frequency combined functional training program at an adult day-care facility results in medium-term improvements in leg muscle strength, postural balance and gait performance in community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke hemiplegia.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to walking capacity (WC) reflecting neurogenic intermittent claudication (IC). [Subjects and Methods] We selected 56 female patients (69.6 ± 8.0 years) with Lumber Spinal Canal Stenosis (LCS) with IC. We measured WC on a flat floor, and demonstrated that 3 factors predict the relationship with IC as follows: trunk forward bending in the standing position (finger-floor distance), muscle strength during active straight leg raising (ASLR) on the symptomatic side, and the degree of subjective pain soon after standing upright for 30 s. [Results] WC and muscle strength in ASLR were not affected by age. WC was correlated with ASLR strength. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the motion of ASLR leads to canal or foraminal stenosis, and that this test will be useful for patients with LCS.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of taping on wrist extensor force reproduction (FR) and wrist joint position reproduction (JPR) sense in subjects with and without lateral epicondylitis. [Subjects] Thirty workers in an automobile-parts manufacturing company participated: fifteen workers who had experienced pain with lateral epicondylitis and fifteen workers who had no history of lateral epicondylitis. [Methods] Taping was applied on the proximal forearm, starting from the medial, and tracking laterally. This was repeated two or three times.The FR error and JPR error of both groups (with and without lateral epicondylitis) were measured with and without taping. [Results] Without taping, the FR and JPR errors of the lateral epicondylitis group were significantly higher than those of the without lateral epicondylitis group.With taping, the FR error of the lateral epicondylitis group was significantly decreased from 1.24 kg to 0.49 kg. With taping, the JPR error of the lateral epicondylitis group was significantly decreased from 3.31 to 2.13 degrees. [Conclusion] The lateral epicondylitis group had significantly higher FR and JPR errors. Taping significantly improved force reproduction and joint position reproduction error.
[Purpose] Pusher syndrome, which is a disorder of postural balance that occurs in hemiparetic stroke patients, is characterized by a particular tendency to strongly push toward the hemiparetic side. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stroke patients with pusher syndrome have ideomotor apraxic behavior. [Subjects] Fifteen stroke patients with pusher syndrome and 31 stroke patients without pusher syndrome were recruited. [Methods] All subjects were tested with two tests assessing ideomotor apraxia of movements of the upper and lower limbs. Each test included 12 items of movements, which required the subjects to reproduce movements by imitation after presentation. [Results] Patients with pusher syndrome had significantly lower ideomotor apraxia scores in all of the upper and lower limbs than patients without pusher syndrome. A significant difference was observed between the two groups in the existence of neglect. [Conclusion] We found that patients with pusher syndrome had more severe apraxic disorder in all of the upper and lower limbs than patients without pusher syndrome. Pusher syndrome may be attributable to disabilities in motor planning and execution, which are required to compensate for the partial damage to the postural control system.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined exercise training with aerobic and functional strengthening exercises on balance ability of hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 patients with chronic stroke who were attending a rehabilitation center. [Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to two groups: a combined exercise training group (n=11) and a conventional exercise group (n=10). Both groups did 60 minutes exercise per day, 5 times a week for four weeks. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in static and dynamic balances, and the combined exercise showed greater improvement in dynamic balance. [Conclusion] The result of this study suggests that combined exercise training with functional strengthening exercise and aerobic exercise was effective at improve static and dynamic balance ability, and was more effective than conventional exercise at improving dynamic balance. This suggests that combined exercise training can be prescribed for stroke patients to reduce their risk of falls and lead to independent ADL.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of lumbar resistance and stabilization complex exercises on upper/lower extremity muscle strength and endurance of the general adult population. [Subjects] Fourteen male adults in their 20s participated. Seven persons each were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise group (REG) or a resistance and stabilization exercise group (RSEG). Exercise programs were implemented three times a week for 50 minutes for eight weeks. [Methods] The Biodex System 3 Pro was used to measure the upper/lower extremity muscle strength and endurance of the REG and RSEG prior to the intervention and at four and eight weeks following the commencement of the intervention. The results were then compared and analyzed. [Results] With regards to changes in upper/lower extremity muscle strength and endurance, both groups showed significant increases during the experimental period. The two groups also exhibited differences in muscle strength during upper/lower extremity flexion and differences in muscle endurance during upper extremity extension and lower extremity flexion. [Conclusion] Lumbar resistance and stabilization complex exercises positively affected both upper and lower extremity muscle strength and endurance. In particular, the RSEG showed larger effects than the REG. Therefore, the resistance and stabilization complex training exercises appear to be more effective for rehabilitation of the upper/lower extremities.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate how long and short ankle destabilization devices affect the muscle activities of ankle muscles during ankle stabilization against inversion. [Subjects] Eight healthy people (3 males and 5 females) were instructed to walk on the floor. [Methods] The EMG activities of the tibialis anterior, the peroneus longus, the gastrocnemius lateral, the gastrocnemius medial, and the tibialis posterior were measured. [Results] Differences in TA and PL between unbalance and braking were statistically significant for the long ankle destabilization device. The difference in TA between unbalance and braking was statistically significant for the short ankle destabilization device. [Conclusions] The results suggest that the ankle destabilization device may be beneficial in rehabilitation programs especially for the training of walking.
[Purpose] Ability in activities of daily living of psychiatric patients is decreased because of postural control and voluntary movement disorders, and the quality of life of inpatients is also decreased. As preliminary research for evaluating standing balance of psychiatric patients, the purpose of this study was to investigate reach distance and movement strategy while subjects performed the functional reach test. [Subjects] Thirty-eight psychiatric patients and 38 healthy elderly control volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] Reach distance and movement strategy patterns were measured while subjects performed the functional reach test. [Results] The reach distance of the psychiatric patients was significantly shorter than that of the controls. The hip strategy was most often used by both patients and controls. Patients were more likely to select the ankle movement strategy than controls. [Conclusion] Based on the above findings, we speculate that the hip strategy is the ideal movement strategy for safely extending the reach distance of both psychiatric patients and controls. However, psychiatric patients were more likely to select the ankle movement strategy than controls.
[Purpose] This placebo-controlled study investigated the therapeutic
effects of low-level laser treatment (LLLT) on the transverse carpal
ligament in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic
CTS patients were recruited and were randomly assigned to two groups.
The laser group (n = 45) received laser treatment (10 Hz, 60 mW,
9.7 J/cm2, 830 nm), and the placebo group (n = 42) received
sham laser treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS), Boston Questionnaire
scale, neurological symptoms and nerve conduction study (NCS) were
conducted before, immediately after and 5 weeks after the treatment. [Results]
After LLLT, there was statistically significant decrease in VAS
in the laser group (p<0.05). Especially, the effect of LLLT
on pain alleviation in the mild CTS group continued after five weeks. Regarding
the Boston Questionnaire scale neurological symptoms and NCS, only
mild CTS patients in the laser group showed statistically significant
improvements after treatment (p<0.05). [Conclusions] LLLT with
830 nm diode lasers on the transverse carpal ligament had verifiable
therapeutic effects for mild CTS patients.
[Purpose] Although the potential use of mobile devices as new e-learning tools has been reported in various educational fields, there are not enough e-learning resources for mobile devices in physical or occupational therapy education. This article describes the results of development and students' use of a resource for physical and occupational therapy education. [Methods] We developed an e-learning resource for mobile devices as part of a kinesiology course. It was designed to help students acquire knowledge of the musculoskeletal system. The e-learning resource was provided to second-year physical and occupational therapy undergraduate students (n = 41) for 6 weeks of a 15-week course in kinesiology. After 6 weeks, the situation of use, students' levels of satisfaction, and comments were surveyed by questionnaire. [Results] The e-learning resource was text-based, and had many quizzes and tests. Approximately 70% of the students who had mobile devices used the resource on these devices at least once. Of these students, more than 80% were satisfied with it. The students used the resource on mobile devices at various locations. [Conclusion] Our e-learning resource for mobile devices could be used as a support tool to provide knowledge about the musculoskeletal system.
[Purpose] To examine how the following factors would influence discharge to home: the family's view about the discharge destination at the time of the stroke patient's admission, the social background including the presence and sex of spouse and the number of family members, and the age of the patient. [Subjects] A total of 189 subjects with first time stroke were divided into 3 groups according to their families' views about discharge destination as follows: discharge to home group (96 subjects), discharge to facilities group (52 subjects), and undecided group (41 subjects). Each group was further divided into 2 sub-groups: discharge to home and discharge to facilities. [Methods] A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, considering the discharge destination as the response variables, and admission and discharge FIM scores of 18 items as explanatory variable. Also, in order to observe the influence of social background, comparisons by the presence and sex of spouse, by the number of family members, and by age were conducted. [Results] In a multivariate logistic regression analysis for all subjects at discharge, "eating" and "problem solving" were selected. In a comparison by age, a significant difference was recognized between those aged up to 79 years and those aged 80 years and older on the probability of discharge home. [Conclusion] The result suggests that eating and cognitive function play important roles in determining the discharge destination of stroke patients.
[Purpose] Therapeutic exercise for chronic low back pain is one of the most important conservative treatments. Recently, lumbar stabilization exercise focused on deep trunk muscles has attracted considerable attention. This study investigated the effectiveness of lumbar stabilization exercises for treating CLBP. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 patients with CLBP. CLBP was defined as pain that persisted for more than 3 months. [Methods] The therapeutic exercises involved the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (hereafter referred to as "drawing-in") and prone kneeling (hereafter referred to as "hand-knee"). The exercises were performed during a 3-month intervention period. Pain was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (hereafter referred to as "VAS"), while quality-of-life (hereafter referred to as "QOL") was estimated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Examination Questionnaire (hereafter referred to as "JOABPEQ"). Pain and QOL were assessed prior to the intervention (T0), and at one (T1), three (T3), and six months (T6) after the intervention. The Steel-Dwass test was used to investigate differences between values prior to and after performance of the therapeutic exercise regime. Significance was defined as p<0.05. [Results] The median low back pain value was significantly improved at T3 and T6 compared to T0. At T1, patients reported significant improvement in the lumbar functions score in comparison with T0. This change was still observed at T3 and T6. At T3, scores of all items had significantly increased. At T6, the changes in low back pain score and walking ability score were no longer significant, however their tendencies remained. [Conclusions] These results suggest that performance of lumbar stabilization exercises is an effective method for improving comfort and QOL of patients with CLBP.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the peak plantar foot pressure and the pathway of the center of pressure (COP) between normal and flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen subjects (10 normal feet, 9 flat feet) participated in this study. Plantar foot pressure was recorded by the Matscan system (Tekscan, Boston, USA) while walking upright. Plantar foot surface was divided into seven regions for pressure measurement: two toe regions, three forefoot regions, one midfoot region, and one heel region. The independent t-test was used to compare plantar foot pressures between normal adults and patients with flat feet. The pathway of COP in normal and flat feet was observed macroscopically. [Results] The plantar foot pressures of the 4th-5th metatarsal head and heel regions in the flat feet group were less than those of the normal feet group. The pathway of COP of normal feet group had a tendency to shift medially in the forefoot but the pathway of COP in the flat feet group had a tendency to be straight in the forefoot. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the plantar foot pressure of a flat foot was lower than that of a normal foot and the pathway of COP of a flat foot may be different from that of a normal foot. We believe that reduction of the longitudinal arch of foot in flat feet explains these results.
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention, including shoulder control and strengthening exercises, on the shoulder function of persons with shoulder impingement. [Subjects] The subjects were patients who visited our hospital due to shoulder impingement syndrome and they were randomly allocated to two groups: a shoulder control and strengthening exercises group (n=17) and a conservative therapy group (n=18). [Methods] Both groups received conservative therapy for 3 sessions (45 minutes per week) for 4 weeks. The shoulder control and strengthening exercises group practiced additional motor control and strengthening exercises for 30 minutes. Values of the pain, function, isokinetic strength and the range of motion were compared with those of the conservative therapy group. [Results] There were significant differences in the amount of change of the pain, function, isokinetic strength and range of motion between the two groups (p<0.05); however as a measure of isokinetic strength, the peak torque of the internal rotators at 60°/sec did not show a significant difference. [Conclusion] The motor control and strengthening exercise program training improved pain, function, strength and the range of motion. These results suggest that a motor control and strengthening exercise program is feasible and suitable for individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of microcurrents on inflammatory reactions induced by ultraviolet irradiation. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 22 subjects and two inflammatory reaction regions were induced on the lumbar region of each subject with ultraviolet irradiation. Microcurrents were applied to one region at a frequency of 5 pps, an intensity of 50 μA, and alternation of no microcurrents were applied to the other region polarity. The irradiated regions were analyzed by at 1 sec intervals; the digital image analysis and the quantitative sensory test. [Results] Changes in chromatic red and luminance there were statistically significant showed over time and between regions. The comparison of wound contraction in the two regions there was a statistically significant difference. Analysis of changes in pain threshold showed no statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] This study found that microcurrents increased wound contraction and reduced the inflammatory reaction activities such as erythema and pigmentation. Thus, we consider that microcurrents help to accelerate the inflammatory reaction induced by ultraviolet irradiation, enhance recovery and foster an anti-inflammatory reaction.
Vol./Page: J. Phys. Ther. Sci., Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 455-464, 2010
Title: A Review of Abdominal Muscle Stimulation for Patients with Spinal Cord Injury
Authors: Ganesan Kathiresan, Kenneth Huntor, Peter H Fraser, Senthilkumar Jeyaraman
(Biomedical Research Center, Central Manchester University Hospital NHS Foundation, UK, School of Allied Health, Masterskill University College, Malaysia)
This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Physical Therapy Science. This review article is a near identical copy of a paper that has previously appeared in Journal of Automatic Control (H. Gollee et al., J Automatic Control 2008 18 (2): 85-92). In accordance with policies and procedures governing academic publication we concluded that the above-mentioned article published in J. Phys. Ther. Sci. be retracted. We apologize to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission and reviewing process.