[Purpose] The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the benefits and the basic principles of ultrasonographic examination in the evaluation of sciatic nerve injuries. [Subjects and Methods] Patients with sciatic nerve injury were evaluated using a real-time utrasonographic examination. The capabilty of ultrasonography in terms of determination of the type and the localization of injury, the position of the proximal and distal nerve segments, the presence or absence of a neuroma, and perilesional scar tissue were evaluated in all cases. [Results] Ten cases with sciatic nerve injury were evaluated with real time sonography. Perilesional scar tissue formation was found in 4 (40%) cases. Two (20%) cases had stump neuroma diagnosed by sonographic examination. The capability of ultrasonographic examination was satisfactory for all evaluation parameters. [Conclusion] Ultrasonographic examination of sciatic nerve lesions may be used for the description of the degree of injury, determination of complete or incomplete nerve sectioning, the presence of hematoma and foreign body, the continuity of nerve, determination of nerve stumps, formation of perilesional scar tissue, and the presence of neuroma.
[Background] Sex-based differences in lung function are known. [Purpose] To investigate sex-based differences in ventilatory function among Saudi adults, and to relate it to their level of physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy healthy Saudi adult subjects (35 males and 35 females) participated in this study. Measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC%, and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were made. In addition, physical activity scores (MET-minutes/week) were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). [Results] The studied parameters were significantly higher for males than for females. The female values were significantly lower even after the male values were adjusted to compensate for gender-based anatomical and physiological differences in lung capacity. The MET-minutes/week was significantly higher for males than for females, but it was not significantly correlated with the pulmonary function parameters of either gender. [Conclusions] There are sex-based differences in lung function parameters of Saudi adults, with higher values for males. This difference in lung function tests between the genders is greater than the known anatomical and physiological differences in the respiratory systems of males and females. Saudi males are more physically active than females but no significant correlation between pulmonary function parameters and physical activity score was found for either gender.
[Purpose] This study examined the effect of a Swiss ball exercise program for elderly females on physical fitness and balance ability in order to offer basic data for the development of an exercise program to improve the quality of life and promote the health of elderly females. [Subjects] Sixty-five elderly women aged over 78 participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group (n=38) performed a Swiss ball exercise program which consisted of 12 types of exercises required for balance and performance of functions twice a week for 12 weeks. Physical fitness (Sit-to-Stand, Arm Curl, Sit-and-Reach, Back Scratch) and balance ability (One-Legged Standing time, Timed Up & Go) were evaluated. [Results] There was a significant increase in the physical fitness and balance ability of the exercise group. [Conclusion] The Swiss ball exercise program had a positive effect on physical fitness and balance ability of elderly women. We consider that the ball which is easy, safe and interesting to use will encourage the elderly’s active participation in exercise.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of lumbopelvic neutralization on the angle of knee extension, lumbopelvic motion, and the electromyographic (EMG) activities of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and rectus abdominis muscles of subjects with hamstring shortness during seated knee extension. [Subjects] Twenty young subjects (14 men, 6 women) with hamstring shortness were recruited for this study. [Methods] A pressure biofeedback unit was used to monitor the lumbopelvic neutralization during seated knee extension with lumbopelvic neutralization. The EMG activity and kinematic data were measured during seated knee extension with and without lumbopelvic neutralization. Surface EMG was used for measuring the muscle activities of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and rectus abdominis muscles. The angles of knee extension, lumbar flexion, lumbar rotation, and posterior pelvic tilt were measured using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] The angles of the lumbar flexion, lumbar rotation, posterior pelvic tilt, and knee extension decreased significantly when performing seated knee extension with lumbopelvic neutralization compared to performing the same maneuver without lumbopelvic neutralization. The EMG activities of the medial and lateral hamstrings, quadriceps, and rectus abdominis decreased significantly during seated knee extension with lumbopelvic neutralization using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Conclusion] Seated knee extension exercise with lumbopelvic neutralization may be useful for minimizing compensatory lumbopelvic motion and preventing compensatory hamstrings and rectus abdominis muscle activities of subjects with hamstring shortness during seated knee extension.
[Purpose] This study compared muscle activities between jogging and walking. [Subjects] Subjects were 12 healthy, young students. Tested muscles were the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, hip adductors, lateral head of the gastrocnemius, and soleus of the left leg. [Method] Subjects performed jogging and walking successively on a treadmill at a speed of 4.5 km/h. Subjects’ myogenic potentials were measured after 10 minutesÅf walking or jogging for 30 seconds. The order of walking and jogging was chosen at random. The flexion angle of the knee at initial contact, mid stance, and toe off were measured. [Results] Both the average and maximum activities of the soleus and vastus medialis in jogging were significantly higher than those in walking. The knee flexion angle in jogging was greater than that in walking. [Conclusion] The activity of the soleus was not affected by knee flexion. We consider this is the reason why the soleus activity was higher than that of the gastrocnemius. In jogging, the knee was more flexed than in walking, indicating the vastus medialis was doing more work than the vastus lateralis.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of a conventional quadriceps setting exercise (CQS) and a modified quadriceps setting exercise (MQS) on the strength of the quadriceps femoris, hamstring and gluteus maximus muscles, and the walking ability of elderly persons with osteoarthritis (OA) during their early rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). [Subjects] The subject of this study were 44 elderly women aged 65 or over who were scheduled to undergo TKA on one knee and who voluntarily consented to participate in this experiment after listening to its purpose and method. We divided the subjects into an experimental group (n=22) who performed MQS and a control group (n=22) who performed CQS. [Methods] We measured subjectsÅf muscle strength and conducted the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) before surgery, 2 weeks after surgery, and 4 weeks after surgery. [Results] Changes in the strength of the hamstring and gluteus maximus muscles were significantly different between the two groups. [Conclusion] MQS may enhance the strength of the hamstring as well as gluteus maximus muscles and is considered an appropriate exercise for the elderly in their early rehabilitation after TKA.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathological changes in knee joint components after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen adult, nine-week-old female Wistar rats were used in this study. Nine experimental rats underwent a spinal cord transection at the level of Th8-9 and the other nine control rats were raised normally. The animals were assessed at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Formalin fixed sections from knee joints were morphologically examined after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alterations of knee joint components were evaluated at four regions: the synovial membrane within the posterior articular capsule region, the cartilage apposite the femur, the cartilage apposite the tibia, and the fat pad under the patellar ligament region. [Results] Dilatation and congestion of the microvasculature and lymphoid infiltration were observed in the synovial membrane in the SCI group. These findings are similar to those found in early osteoarthritis. The surface layer of the articular cartilage in the SCI group showed fibrous proliferation. [Conclusion] The histopathological changes appear not to be progressive and may be related to spasticity of the hindlimb or a disorder in the autonomic function.
[Purpose] The effects of exercise and food consumption on the oxidative stress regulation system were studied using 45 male ICR mice. [Subjects and Methods] The mice were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (CO group) and a group consuming a reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (H2CoQ10: QH) (QH group). Both groups were made to run on a treadmill for animals (TM) twice and the changes in their running time were measured. For the oxidative stress regulation system, plasma oxidative stresses (d-ROM test) and plasma anti-oxidant potential (BAP test) were measured before and after treadmill running with analytical equipment for reactive oxygen and free radicals, and then the BAP/d-ROM ratio was calculated. [Results] The measurements and calculations showed a significant increase in the running time of the QH group. With respect to the oxidative stress regulation system, no significant change was observed in the BAP/d-ROM ratio. [Conclusion] These results showed that a single consumption of QH produced an effect on exercise, but had no effect on the oxidative stress regulation system.
[Purpose] This study examined physical factors associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in women. We hypothesized that, women with UI would show decreased thickness of the transverse abdominal muscle (TA) during maximal co-contraction of both TA and the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) compared with women with no history of UI. [Subjects] The subjects were seventy-one women who were divided into two groups: the UI group and the No-UI group. [Methods] We evaluated the thickness of TA and obliquus internus muscle (OI) using ultrasound, and measured hand-grip strength. The thickness of TA was measured while subjects performed 5 tasks: (1) at rest, (2) maximal contraction of TA, (3) maximal contraction of PFM, (4) maximal co-contraction of both TA and PFM, and (5) bridging motion. [Results] The No-UI group had many subjects who had thicknesses of TA which the UI group had in the tasks 2, 3 and 4. In logistic regression analysis with UI as the dependent variable, the thickness of TA during maximal co-contraction was identified as an independent factor, and the cut-off value of the thickness of TA was 5.00 mm as determined by the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic (ROC) curve. [Conclusion] We demonstrated that the thickness of TA in maximal co-contraction of both TA and PFM is reliable and useful for evaluating the risk of UI in women.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine physical factors associated with falls by the elderly. We hypothesized that elderly people who had experienced at least one fall in the past 12 months would show a delayed response in the probe reaction time (P-RT) during rhythmic stabilization (RS) compared with elderly people with no history of falls. [Subjects] The subjects were 81 elderly people (37 males, 44 females) , and the subjects were divided into two groups: a Fall group and a No-fall group. [Methods] The simple reaction time (SRT), the P-RT during RS, the maximal resistance force of RS (Max. RF) , the resistance force of RS during P-RT (RF during P-RT) , the trail marking test part-A (TMT-A), and the timed up and go test (TUG) were evaluated. [Results] The Fall group showed longer SRT and P-RT times than the No-fall group and its RF during P-RT was decreased. In logistic regression analysis with fall as the dependent variable, the P-RT was identified as a significant factor, and the cut-off value of the P-RT was 639 ms as evaluated by the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic (ROC) curve. [Conclusion] We found that P-RT is both reliable and useful for the evaluation of the fall risk of the elderly.
[Purpose] The activations of the shoulder muscle and forearm muscle were analyzed at different chair heights with reference to the user’s elbow joint flexion angle to provide fundamental kinematic data for the fabrication of wheelchairs suitable for the elderly and the disabled with spinal damage. [Subjects] Participants who met the criteria for this study (n=12). [Methods] Muscular activity was measured during propulsion of a wheelchair with chair heights corresponding to elbow flexion angles of 0, 30, 60 and 90 degrees. To eliminate the effect of muscular fatigue, that might have been caused during wheelchair propulsion. [Results] The biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi muscle activation showed significant differences. [Conclusion] On the basis of the results of this study, we consider that excessive load on the shoulder muscles should be reduced by producing wheelchairs with adjustable chair heights and by using a wheelchair with consideration for an individual’s body size. Future studies should be conducted on the somatic muscle activation at different on chair heights and on the appropriate chair height for various external environments such as a slopeway.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the electromechanical (EMG) reaction time (RT) of the human rectus femoris after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 17 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 7 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the EMG-RT, the premotor time (PMT) and the motor time (MT) during knee extension movement before, immediately after, and 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the intervention. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the control group. For the NJF group, there were significant differences in EMG-RT and PMT between pre- and post-intervention, and 10 and 30 minutes after exercise, and there was significant difference in MT between pre- and post-intervention. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens not only PMT but also MT, which indicates that NJF is effective for both premotor and motor processes.
[Purpose] This study analyzed toe exercises using surface electromyograms. [Subject and Methods ] The subjects were 26 feet of 16 participants, whose mean age was 25.7 ± 7.2 years old. The participants did three toe exercises, which were isometric contractions (about 5 sec) of the first toe flexor, 2nd-to-5th toe flexors and 3rd-to-5th toe flexors. An electrode was attached to four muscles: the longus peroneal, supinator muscles, and the medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. [Results] In the first toe flexor exercise, the peroneus longus muscle activity increased significantiy more than the other muscles. In 2nd-to-5th toe flexor and 3rd-to-5th toe flexor exercise, the supinator muscle activity increased significantly compared to the peroneus longus muscle, and the peroneus longus muscle activity decreased significantly compared to the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. [Conclusion] The first toe flexor exercise affected the long peroneal muscle as well as the flexor hallucis longus. On the other hand, the 2nd-to-5th toe flexor and 3rd-to-5th toe flexor produced the opposite result to that of the first toe exercise.
[Purpose] The important role of physical therapists in house adaptation has been reported in studies in the fields of architecture, care and welfare. However, to date few studies regarding this have been conducted by physical or occupational therapists. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of physical therapists in house adaptation. [Subjects] The target study group was 714 physical therapists belonging to the Physical Therapist Society of Gunma Prefecture (fiscal 2009). [Methods] The subjects were asked to complete a survey questionnaire to identify their present activities in, and awareness of, house adaptation. The study was conducted over a two-month period from June 2009, within which time 37.4% responded. [Results] Of the therapists who responded, 70.1% had experience with house adaptation. In house adaptation, physical therapists emphasized the importance of activities of daily living (ADL) in various areas of the house. [Conclusion] Although collaboration between physical and occupational therapists in house adaptation has tended to increase, the difference in the roles of these two specialists needs to be examined in future studies.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of pain severity and walking ability of elderly people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were twenty elderly people with knee OA (7 males, 13 females), and the subjects were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. Participants in the control group received the conventional rehabilitation treatment. The changes in pain severity were assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the changes in walking ability were assessed with walking velocity, step length, and cadence. [Results] The NJF group showed significant increases in walking velocity, step length and decreased cadence. VAS was significantly decreased in both groups. [Conclusion] Our results show that NJF treatment not only decreased pain severity, but also improved the walking ability of elderly subjects with knee osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare functional fitness and walking speed with cognitive function of facility-dwelling older woman. [Subject and Methods] The subjects were 273 female residents of an elderly housing facility, aged 65 to 96 years old. The participantsÅf cognitive function, walking speed and functional fitness were measured. The cognitive functions were measured with the MMSE questionnaire and walking speed was assessed by the 10 meter-walking time. The Senior Functional Fitness Test (SFFT) was used to measure upper and lower strength, aerobic endurance, upper and lower flexibility, agility and dynamic balance. The Senior Function Fitness Test includes six assessments: 30-Second Chair-to-Stand, Arm Curl, Chair Sit-and-Reach, Back Scratch, 8 Foot Up-and-Go, and Minute Step. [Results] The severe (decreased of cognitive function) group showed a significant decrease in all the items of functional fitness measured relative to the normal group, except for upper flexibility. Walking speed indicated significantly reduced cognitive function, and showed very significant correlations with upper and lower limb strength, aerobic endurance and agility. [Conclusion] This study showed that cognitive function is correlated to functional fitness in elderly women. Particularly, cognitive function is a factor that influences the reduction in muscle strength, flexibility, and endurance of the lower extremities. This indicates that reduced cognition function has a negative effect on walking speed and functional fitness of facility-dwelling elderly women.
[Purpose] The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) according to the treatment position (standing and supine) on patients after stroke. [Subjects] Nine (men=6, women=3) patients who had suffered from stroke were recruited. They were all in their subacute stage. [Methods] Participants were divided into 2 groups according to the position for treatment by FES (standing group and supine group). The duration of FES in both groups was 30 minutes, 6 times a week for 8 weeks. The subjects were evaluated every 2 weeks for 8 weeks using the timed up-and-go test (TUG), Berg balance test (BBT) and FES intensity to induce maximum muscle contraction. [Results] The standing group showed greater improvements in balance ability than the supine group as assessed by TUG and BBT. The time of TUG was significantly reduced from 30.25 ± 5.0 to 20.73 ± 3.9 in the standing group and from 31.99 ± 3.6 to 26.40 ± 4.5 in the supine group after 8 weeks. The scores of BBT significantly increased from 28.0 ± 8.8 to 45.6 ± 5.9 in the standing group and from 26.25 ± 5.9 to 37.5 ± 3.7 in the supine group after 8 weeks. The FES intensity significantly changed from 48.4 ± 12.4 mA to 36.8 ± 11.9 mA in the standing group and from 48.8 ± 13.5 mA to 43.75 ± 11.8 mA in the supine group after 8 weeks. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the standing position is more beneficial to the recovery of balance ability after stroke than the supine position.
[Purpose] This study examined the influence of signals from ankle joint afferent fibers on the reflexive plantae muscle activity during standing subjects. [Subject] Ten male healthy adults participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects stood with their eyes closed on a movable platform that was moved backward. Vibrators (about 90 Hz) were applied to the medial and lateral malleolus of both legs. The vibrators were turned off in the control condition. In the malleolus vibration (MV) condition, vibration stimulus was applied for one minute before the beginning of trials and was continued during the trials (about six minutes). The short (SLR) and medium latency reflex (MLR) of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle (FDB) electromyogram (EMG) responses of the left leg during the platform translations were measured under the control and MV conditions. [Results] The latencies of the FDB SLR and MLR during MV condition were observed to increase significantly in comparison to the control. The integration EMG response values (iEMG) of the SLR and MLR significantly decreased during MV condition. [Conclusion] Excessive afferent signals from the ankle articular mechanoreceptors may participate in the reduction of the reflexive FDB SLR and MLR activities during standing postural perturbation due to changes in the excitability of inhibitory interneurons.
[Purpose] The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation using a mechanical in-exsufflator and feedback respiratory training on cervical cord injury (SCI) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight patients were selected through a random sampling method and divided into two groups: an experimental group (n=19) and a control group (n=19). The intervention was conducted five times per week over a four-week period. [Results] In the respiratory training group, there were significance improvements in the ratio (%VC) of the predicted value, forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and unassisted peak cough flow (UPCF) after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pulmonary rehabilitation using a mechanical in-exsufflator and feedback respiratory training is effective at increasing the lung function, as well as augmenting the strength of cough capacity. This may reduce the respiratory system?related complications of cervical cord injury patients.
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of electromechanical (EMG) reaction times (RT) of the human teres major after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 17 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 7 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. The EMG-RT, the premotor time (PMT) and the motor time (MT) during shoulder internal rotation movement were measured before exercise, right after exercise, and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes after exercise. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the control group. For the NJF group, there were significant differences in EMG-RT and MT between pre- and post- exercise, and 10?20 minutes after exercise, and there were significant differences in PMT between pre- and post- intervention, and 10 minutes after the intervention. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens not only PMT but also MT, which implies that NJF is effective for both premotor and motor processes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate changes in subjects with chronic lower back pain following lower back pain exercises and direct stretching of the tensor fasciae latae, the hamstring and the adductor magnus. [Subjects] The subjects were nine sufferers of chronic lower back pain (five female, four male) as well as eight healthy adults (six male, two female) as the control group. [Method] Exercise therapy with proven effectiveness was performed as the control intervention and direct stretching of the tensor fasciae latae, the hamstring and the adductor magnus was performed as the experimental intervention in a randomised controlled trial. Six items of evaluation pain measured on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Finger Floor Distance (FFD), maximum pelvic anterior inclination, maximum pelvic posterior inclination, pelvic range of motion and posterior lumbar flexibility (PLF) The results were compared using StudentÅfs were measured before and after the intervention. The six items of evaluation were carried out in a random order. A t-test was used and a significance level was set at below 5%. [Results] A significant improvement in VAS, FFD, maximum pelvic anterior inclination, maximum pelvic posterior inclination, pelvic range of motion and PLF were observed in the chronic lower back pain group after the experimental intervention. However, the only improvement observed after the experimental intervention in the control group was in FFD. There were no significant changes in either group after control intervention. [Conclusion] This study has suggested that direct stretching of the tensor fasciae latae, the hamstring and the adductor magnus may have an immediate effect on chronic lower back pain.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate which of cortical areas are precisely involved in performing the two-point discrimination task (TPD), using functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI). [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy right-handed subjects were recruited. During fMRI scanning, tactile sensory stimulation of one- or two-points was conducted on the dominant thumb with a two-point discriminator. At that time, The subject pressed a corresponding button when perceived one point or two points, corresponding to the two types of delivered tactile stimulation. [Results] In group analysis, the averaged cortical maps showed that the left and right primary sensory cortices and inferior parietal cortices were activated. In the bilateral primary sensory cortex, the peak intensities were 7.34 and 5.14, in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. In addition, the left and right inferior parietal cortices were activated, and the peak intensities were 4.30 and 6.18, respectively. [Conclusion] Our results revealed that the performance of a TPD task is likely to require the higher order sensory discriminative modality which is processed by the cortical cognitive function. In addition, the neural processing of TPD was specifically associated with bilateral activity in the inferior parietal cortex.
[Purpose] Though geriatric care hospitals are continuously increasing due to the expansion of the elderly population, studies of hospital-acquired infections in their physical therapy rooms are currently lacking. This study examined the isolation frequency and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from physical therapy rooms of geriatric care hospitals. [Methods] Specimens were collected from physical therapy rooms of geriatric care hospitals The isolates were examined by morphological and biochemical tests, 16S rRNA analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. [Results] Among Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii was the major pathogen in the physical therapy rooms, followed by Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaenae and Klebsiella oxytoca in order of frequency of occurrence. Among non-fermenting Gram-negative rods, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, and among Gram-positive cocci, Enterococcus feacalis and Staphylococcus sp. were detected in order of frequency of occurrence. Gram-positive bacilli and fungus were also detected. A. baumannii isolates showed strong resistance to cephalothin and ampicillin. Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed strong resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin and cefoxitin. Staphylococcus spp isolates were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Stapylococcus spp (MR-CNS). [Conclusion] The results suggest the possible appearance of multidrug-resistant bacteria. To control nosocomial infections in physical therapy rooms of geriatric care hospitals and to prevent multidrug-resistant bacteria, continuous investigation and hygiene control are required.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare plantar pressure distributions of the affected side of stroke patients during walking with canes of three different cane lengths. [Subjects] Thirty-four stroke patients participated in this study. [Method] The three different lengths of cane were: to the top of the greater trochanter, 5 cm above the greater trochanter, and 10 cm above the greater trochanter. The measured parameters were foot contact area, length, width, pressure, and the center of pressure trajectory during the stance phase, from heel-strike to toe-off. [Results] Our data revealed significant increments in the contact width and pressure of the hind foot at the cane length of 10 cm above the greater trochanter. Anterior/posterior center of pressure trajectory also significantly increased at cane lengths of 5 and 10 cm of above the greater trochanter. [Conclusion] The plantar pressure distribution for cane lengths above the greater trochanter were clinically beneficial and more effective at increasing weight shifting to the affected hind foot and harmonizing paralyzed heel strike with better displacement of pressure.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the position of the distal fibula in subjects with sub-acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) and to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of swelling and fibular position. [Subjects] The subjects participating in this study were ten patients with unilateral sub-acute LAS (the isolated anterior talofibular ligament injury: LAS group) and ten healthy persons (control group). [Methods] We measured subject’s fibular position and the amount of ankle swelling. The fibular position was measured as the distance between the lowest point of the lateral malleolus and the vertical line through the posterior margin of the calcaneus. Swelling was measured by the figure-of eight methods. [Results] The fibular position within the LAS group was significantly more anterior in the sprained ankles (43.7 ± 8.3 mm) than in the contralateral uninjured ankles (38.8 ± 7.6 mm). Additionally, sprained ankles were significantly more anterior than the side-matched ankle of the controls (37.4±4.2 mm). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient revealed a positive correlation between fibular position and swelling (r=0.688). [Conclusion] The ankles with more swelling had a more anteriorly positioned fibula. This positional fault may be acutely maintained by the swelling.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of birth history and delivery method on vaginal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC). [Subjects] Thirty healthy female volunteers (26∼39 years of age) were selected for the research. Their delivery histories were: nulliparous 10, vaginal delivery 10 and cesarean delivery 10. None of the participants had a history of incontinence. [Methods] Abdominal muscle activities and vaginal pressure were recorded in the crook-lying position. During pelvic floor muscle contraction. [Results] Pelvic floor muscle contractions induces significantly different vaginal pressures between subjects with nulliparous and vaginal delivery histories (p<0.05), but no significant difference in vaginal pressure was induced between the vaginal delivery group and cesarean delivery group. [Conclusion] Pelvic floor muscle contraction induced no significant differences in electromyography in each group
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of a Pelvic Floor Muscle exercise program by comparing muscle activities at different ages, using biofeedback to regulate vaginal pressure. [Subjects] Two groups of female participants without medical history of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction were evaluated. The mean age of Group I was 33.5 years and that of Group II 49.69 years. [Methods] Participants were instructed to perform the pelvic floor muscle exercise. Biofeedback was given for vaginal pressure of the pelvic floor muscles, and we measured the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles by electromyogram at 5 different levels of vaginal pressure. [Results] In Group II, as the vaginal pressure increased, the internal oblique values showed significant differences. When the vaginal pressure was 20 cmH2O, 30 cmH2O, and Maximum, the muscle activities of Group II increased significantly more than in Group I. [Conclusion] When the pelvic floor muscles were contracted, Group I showed greater differences in the internal oblique muscle activity than Group II.
[Purpose] The present study investigated the effect of upper limb skilled reach training in an experimental rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). [Subjects and Methods] Forty five male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ICH. Then, animals were randomly selected for the control (CON), ipsilateral (IST), and contralateral (CST) groups and skilled reach training was conducted for 2 or 4 weeks after brain injury. Motor behavioral tests, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining analysis for evaluation of growth associated protein (GAP)-43 was used to assess synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. In addition, synaptic plasticity-related mRNA expressions were detected via RT-PCR. [Results] ICH-induced decrease of GAP-43 protein and synaptic plasticity-related mRNA expressions were recovered by skilled reach training in the IST and CST groups. Moreover, decreased ischemic volume and progressive neurobehavioral outcomes were observed in both the IST and CST groups. [Conclusion] In the rat model of ICH, skilled reach training promoted synaptic plasticity and cognitive function via increased GAP-43 protein and synaptic plasticity-related mRNA expressions.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether high frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (HF-TENS) influences spasticity and motor function recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). [Subjects] Thirty six male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were received contusive SCI at T10 level. One week after SCI, 20 rats with SCI showed increased spasticity. Rats with spasticity after SCI were randomly assigned into two groups: the HF-TENS group (n=10) and the control group (n=10). [Methods] HF-TENS stimulation (100 Hz, 200 μs) was applied to anterior tubercle of the tibia near the knee joint and ankle joint in front of the achilles tendon. To test the effects of HF-TENS on spasticity and motor function recovery, we assessed BBB, combined behavioral score and Modified Ashworth scale for 9 days, at 1 hour after HF-TENS application on hindlimb. [Results] Rats with HF-TENS showed a significant decrease in spasticity 7 days after the HF-TENS application and a prominent improvement in functional outcome 5 days after the HF-TENS application compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that HF-TENS may help relieve spasticity and improve recovery of motor function after SCI.
[Purpose] To analyze the electrophysiological characteristics of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN), also known as DPN, and to determine sensitive indicators of the disease using sensory nerve conduction studies (SNCSs). [Methods] SNCSs of the median, ulnar, and sural nerve were performed on 120 patients diagnosed with DSPN and compared with those of 77 healthy controls. We performed analysis to detect abnormal conduction velocities and the distal amplitude of the compound nerve action potential (CNAP). In addition, we determined the optimal cut-off values for the diagnosis of DSPN. [Results] More severe abnormal nerve conduction was found in the lower limbs than in the upper limbs. The severity of the abnormal nerve conduction was more apparent in the distal CNAP amplitude than in the conduction velocity. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that SNCSs of the lower limb nerve seem to be more sensitive at detecting DSPN than SNCSs of the upper limb. In particular, the sural nerve is the best indicator for the early detection of DSPN.
[Purpose] This study surveyed work accidents in order to prepare for an aging of society. [Subjects] We surveyed 785 workers at 493 workplaces in the area of Seoul. [Methods] An anonymous survey was done. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows for frequency, cross-tabulation, logistic regression, and correlation. [Results] The results demonstrate the necessity of the prevention of human errors at all levels, the implementation of the recognition of dangerous factors, the reduction of subconscious risky behaviors, and fast and rational decision processes for work performance. However, it is difficult to prevent 100% of human errors. [Conclusion] It is necessary to establish a work environment that considers humansÅf physical and cognitive characteristics to prevent human errors from developing into accidents, and to have a program that enhances work abilities in preparation for the aging of society. Such a program would enhance physical abilities as well as cognitive abilities.