[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the joint angle of the lower limbs and temporospatial parameters between healthy young adults and the elderly during level walking and crossing obstacles of 10%, 20%, and 30% of the leg length. [Subjects] Nine healthy young adults and 9 healthy elderly persons were recruited for this study. [Methods] Each subject was instructed to walk barefoot along a 9-m walkway, step over an obstacle and continue walking at a self-selected pace. The obstacle height was randomly selected for each trial. [Results] When crossing obstacles, support time for the trailing limb, stride length for the leading limb and step width showed no significant differences between the two groups. The maximum hip and knee flexion in mid swing of the trailing limb showed no significant difference between the two groups as well. The other gait parameters showed significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Gait parameters showed that various strategies were used by the young adults and the elderly so as not to fall, when they crossed obstacles of different heights. In the future, a study with a larger sample size will be needed to verify our current findings.
[Purpose] This study compared the hamstring length and sciatic nerve tension between a healthy group and two homogeneous lower back pain (LBP) subgroups. [Subjects] The subjects were office workers who were recruited from the local community: 16 healthy subjects without LBP, and 31 subjects with current LBP. [Methods] The active knee extension (AKE) test was conducted to evaluate hamstring muscle length. The modified straight leg raise (SLR) test was performed to test for sciatic nerve irritation in the LBP patients. The significance of differences in the AKE and modified SLR tests among the three groups was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. [Result] The hamstring muscle length in LBP subgroup with lumbar flexion rotation syndrome was significantly longer than that in the healthy group. The sciatic nerve tension in the LBP subgroup with lumbar flexion rotation syndrome was significantly greater than that in the healthy group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the hamstring muscle length and sciatic nerve tension differed with subtypes of LBP.
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of voluntary arm movements performed at various difficulty levels on the excitability of spinal motor neurons in the contralateral arm using F-wave analysis. [Subjects] A total of 20 healthy volunteers participated in this study after giving their written informed consent. [Methods] With the subject seated on a chair, F-waves were elicited from the right abductor pollicis brevis during movement tasks performed by the left arm. The tasks were repetitive movements between two targets placed 20 cm apart on a desk. The subject was instructed to accurately touch the targets with the tip of a pen. In order to adjust the difficulty level, the size of the targets was changed as follows: 5 cm × 15 cm (width × length) for task 1, 0.5 cm × 15 cm for task 2, and 0.25 cm × 15 cm for task 3. The control task was to remain in the sitting position on the chair. [Results] The amplitude ratio of F/M significantly increased during tasks 2 and 3 compared with that during the control task. [Conclusion] Voluntary arm movements performed at a high difficulty level increase the excitability of spinal motor neurons in the contralateral arm.
[Purpose] This study investigated the best training method for chopsticks manipulation through a comparison of muscle activations of the shoulder and forearm between pincer-pinching and scissor-pinching operations. [Subjects] Thirteen participants were recruited. [Methods] They performed simulated eating tasks using two different chopstick operations. The EMG activities of the right side upper trapezius, flexor and extensor carpi radialis were measured. [Results] Electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscles was significantly lower in scissor-pinching than in pincer-pinching. The activity of the flexor carpi radialis muscle was significantly higher in scissor-pinching than in pincer-pinching. [Conclusion] We consider that persons with fine-motor impairment of the hands would be able to use chopsticks more effectively if the chopsticks operation were properly selected.
[Purpose] To analyze the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) applied to the abdominal muscles of patients with COPD. [Subjects] A total of 22 patients in group A, mean age of 68.2 ± 6.4 years and in group B, 71.2 ± 10.1 years. [Methods] Randomized clinical trial. Patients with COPD were randomly an evenly divided into two groups: group A (NMES + conventional therapy) and group B (conventional physiotherapy) and respiratory muscle strength was measured by pressure manometry before and after the end of the experimental protocols. [Results] Maximum inspiratory pressure before and after the intervention of group A was -64 (44–74) cm H2O, respectively, and -68 (56–96) cmH2O, and in group B, -52 (46–92) cm H2O and -60 (50–72) cmH2O. Maximum expiratory pressure of group A was 84 (72–92) cmH2O and 112 (94–120), respectively, and in group B, 76 (60–100) cmH2O and 84 (60–108) cmH2O. [Conclusion] The results indicate that expiratory muscle training with Russian current together with conventional physical therapy during hospitalization improves the respiratory muscle strength of patients with COPD.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a workers’ cognition enhancement program on work ability. [Subjects] The program was tested on 128 workers in 3 workplaces in Seoul. [Methods] We evaluated a pre-test of cognition and work ability. The program for 2 months. After the program, a post-test was administered and evaluated. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis using the statistical software application SPSS (for Windows 13.0). We used a statistical significance level of 0.05. [Results] The worker’s cognition enhancement program was found to be positively associated with work ability. There were statistically significant differences in work ability, but there were statistically significant differences in cognition level, sex or age. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the workers’ cognition enhancement program increased work ability and suggested the need for continuous cognition management in order to prevent declines in occupational capacity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this research was to examine the biomechanical effects of arm swing limitation on knee joint gait. [Subjects] Subjects were 10 healthy males (mean age, 22 ± 0.8 years; mean height, 173.9 ± 5.9 cm; mean weight, 67.0 ± 6.4 kg). [Methods] Knee abduction normally shows a bimodal curve. The top of the primary curve was defined as val_m1 and that of the secondary curve was defined as val_m2. Knee abduction moment, knee extension moment, GRF range, trunk rotation range, and arm swing range were then calculated at val_m1 and val_m2. Measurements were performed without arm swing limitation on a 10-m walkway (no limitation condition), and with the subjects’ arms folded in front of their chests (limitation condition). [Results] Val_m1 was 10.9 ± 2.4% of the gait cycle. Val_m1 (65.3 ± 13.1 Nm) under the limitation condition was significantly lower than that (70.0 ± 13.0 Nm) under the no limitation condition (p<0.01). In addition, the knee extension moment (71.7 ± 21.1 Nm) under the limitation condition was significantly higher than that (62.6 ± 20.4 Nm) under the no limitation condition at val_m1 (p<0.01). [Conclusion] Arm swing limitation decreases knee abduction moment, but increases knee extension moment.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to study manual dexterity levels provided by the type of compression garment and compression bandages of patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). [Methods] Twenty-six BCRL patients formed experimental group and 32 healthy volunteers who were matched to the experimental subjects were in the control group. Grip strength and manual dexterity were tested under the three conditions (the no compression condition, the garment condition, and the bandage condition) using the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT), the Box and Block Test (B&BT) and a hand-held Jamar dynamometer. [Results] The comparison showed significant differences of grip strength between the experimental group and the control group under the bandage condition. Both groups’ performance abilities decreased as the thickness of the compression materials increased. The correlations between the grip strength and dexterity scores tended to be low to moderate, ranging from 0.407 (Box and Block Test) to - 0.550 (Nine-Hole Peg Test) under the bandage condition. [Conclusion] The result of this study suggest that the grip strength and manual dexterity scores in patients with BCRL are influenced by the characteristics of the compression type. A wider choice of compression materials would improve on hand function in activities of daily living.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dual-task performance on postural sway of patients with stroke who had previously experienced falls. [Subjects] Fifty-six patients with stroke who were receiving physical therapy were recruited on a voluntary basis from a rehabilitation unit. They were allocated to 2 groups according to their experience of falls: stroke with falls (n=26) during past 1 year and stroke without falls (n=30). [Methods] This study had a cross-sectional design. We measured the anteroposterior and mediolateral postural sway velocity during a single-task condition (postural control) and a dual-task condition (backward counting with postural control) using a force plate. [Results] The anteroposterior and mediolateral postural sway velocities under single- and dual-task conditions were significantly higher in the stroke with falls group. Furthermore, the anteroposterior and mediolateral postural sway velocity significantly increased under the dual-task condition in both the groups. [Conclusion] Experience of falls was found to increase the postural sway velocity of stroke patients. These results may be useful in balance training for the prevention of falls by stroke patients.
[Purpose] Post-activation potentiation is the increase in muscle twitch force in response to electrical stimulation after a conditioning contraction (CC) of maximum or near-maximum intensity. It is controversial whether muscular force during low-level voluntary contractions increases after maximum contraction. This study investigated the changes in electromyographic activity after CC. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. In the first experiment, a supramaximal electrical pulse was applied to the tibial nerve, and the isometric twitch force of plantar flexion was measured. After maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), i.e., CC, the twitch force elicited by electrical stimulation was monitored. In the second experiment, the surface electromyogram were recorded at an intensity of 20% MVC before and after CC. [Results] Results indicated the twitch force significantly increased by 30% within 30 s after CC. In the second experiment, the electromyographic activity significantly decreased by 16% for the gastrocnemius muscle but did not change for the soleus. Correlation coefficients between changes in the twitch force and electromyographic activity at 20%MVC were -0.54 for the gastrocnemius muscle and 0.04 for the soleus muscle. [Conclusion] Post-activation potentiation might work for daily physical activities compensating for reduced force output of the fatigued muscle.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between the results of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and academic and clinical training achievements, which may be significant in terms of the establishment of standards for the evaluation of therapists’ clinical performance. [Subjects] The study surveyed 46 physical and 43 occupational therapists who enrolled at our university in April 2007 and graduated from it in March 2011. [Methods] The OSCE results and academic and clinical training achievements were scored to examine the relationship between them by calculating Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients. [Results] A significant correlation was observed between academic achievements and between clinical training achievements, while the correlation between the OSCE results was shown to be high or low. The correlation between the OSCE results and academic achievements was significant until the third grade (OSCE Level 2) and non-significant in the fourth grade (OSCE Level 3) requiring application. The correlation between the OSCE results and clinical training achievements showed a tendency to be low. [Conclusion] These results suggest the necessity of reconsidering the adoption of an OSCE system focusing on consistency between the contents of clinical training and academic education.
[Purpose] This study examined the influence of range of motion of the ankle joints on elderly people’s balance ability. [Methods] We conducted a four-week experiment using 60 out of the 89 elderly people who used B senior health facility, as subjects. TETRAX stability, synchronization were conducted to measure balance ability. We examined correlations between TETRAX balance and ankle joint ROM. Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for the statistical analyses. [Results] There were significant correlations between measurement items of TETRAX stability and synchronization and movement of the ankle joint. [Conclusion] It was found that as had plate was stable in measurement using ankle joint ROM and TETRAX after closing eyes, balance was maintained with Dorsi Flexion.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Probe Reaction Time (P-RT) and fatigue in normal young adults induced by climbing up and down stairs. This study examined how P-RT changes depending on the degree of fatigue. [Subjects] Twelve healthy subjects (4 males, 8 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects were asked to climb up and down stairs while the P-RT and the heart rate (HR) were measured. The speed of climbing up and down stairs was decided by the subjects. [Results] The general ANOVA was significant and showed that P-RT after climbing up and down several times was different from that of the first time. Furthermore, the HR and P-RT were correlated. [Conclusion] The result of this research show that when someone is tired by climbing stairs, their P-RT is likely to be longer.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of longus colli muscle massage on the cervical extension range of motion of adults. [Subjects] A total of 60 subjects were divided into two different group; 30 were assigned to the experimental group, and the other 30 to the control group. [Methods] The experimental group received massage of the longus colli muscle, which is a deep neck flexor, whereas the control group received massage of the superficial neck muscles. The experimental and control groups were both measured for cervical flexion, extension, left rotation, right rotation, left lateral flexion, and right lateral flexion range of motion (ROM). [Results] The measurements after the experiment showed the experimental group had a statistically significant increase in all the directions. Meanwhile, the control group exhibited a statistically significant increase in all directions except for rotation to the left. For the two groups, independent sample t-tests before the experiment, after the experiment, and on the differences between the pre-test and post-test values showed a statistically significant difference only in cervical extension. [Conclusion] This experiment demonstrated that massage of the longus colli muscle, known as a deep neck flexor, were more effective than massages of superficial neck muscles. Based on this result, we recommend longus colli massage in clinical practice in for enhancing patients’ cervical extension ROM.
[Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the health-promoting behaviors of physical therapy students, and compare the behaviors among students in different year of study. [Subjects and Methods] The Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II questionnaire was distributed to 720 undergraduate students attending public physical therapy schools to evaluate their health-promoting behaviors (health responsibility, physical activity, nutritional habits, spiritual growth, interpersonal relations, and stress management). An analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test was used to determine differences in the behaviors among students in 4 different years of study. [Results] The students scored highest on the interpersonal relations (3.28 ± 0.47) and lowest on the physical activity (2.29 ± 0.51) subscales. Comparisons of the behaviors among students in the 4 study years revealed that the first year students had the lowest score of nutritional habits, while third and fourth year students had significant lower scores than the first and second year students on the stress management subscale. [Conclusion] Physical therapy students seem to have good health-promoting behaviors in the dimensions of psychosocial well-being (spiritual growth, interpersonal relations, and stress management). These findings could be useful for the school administrators to structure curriculums as well as healthier environments, and develop activities for encouraging physical therapy students to adopt healthy lifestyles.
[Purpose] To determine the therapeutic effects of core stabilization exercise in the treatment of patients with clinical lumbar instability. [Methods] Twenty subjects with clinical lumbar instability were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. The treatment group received 10 weeks of core stabilization exercise (CSE), while the control group (CG) received 10 weeks of hydrocollator therapy and trunk stretching exercises. Pain intensity of the instability catch sign (ICS), functional disability, and trunk muscle activation patterns were measured before and at one day after 10 weeks of intervention. [Results] Both groups showed a significant reduction in pain intensity of ICS and reduced functional disability after 10 weeks of intervention; however, a significant improvement in the ratio activation of the transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscle relative to the rectus abdominis was only seen in CSE. In the comparison between groups, CSE showed significantly greater improvement in reduction of pain intensity during the ICS, significantly reduced functional disability, and significantly increased deep abdominal muscle activation after 10 weeks of intervention compared to CG. [Conclusion] The 10 weeks of CSE provided better therapeutic effects for pain intensity of ICS, reduced functional disability, and facilitated deep abdominal muscle activation of patients with clinical lumbar instability.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to research the difference in wrist flexion of right-handed and left-handed persons during writing. [Subjects] This subjects were 25 persons (left handers 12/ right hander 13) and the study was conducted from 06/01/2011 to 10/31/2011. [Methods] A Motion analysis system (Zebris) was used to determine the degree of wrist flexion of right-handers and left-handers. The during writing data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis and the independent sample t-test. We used a statistical significance level of 0.5. [Results] Left-handers wrote with the wrist flexion of 2.92 (±9.42) degrees. Right-handers wrote with wrist extension of 8.42 (±2.80) degrees. The degree of wrist flexion during writing was significantly higher for left-handers than right-handers. [Conclusion] When a left-handed person writes, the degree of wrist flexion is greater than that of a right-handed person. To protect the wrist from excessive flexion and to maintain wrist stability, it is necessary to use an instrument that is designed for left-handed persons.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate trunk repositioning errors after PNF exercise, or stabilizing exercise for low back pain. [Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to a PNF exercise group or a stabilizing exercise group. The PNF exercise group voluntarily participated in PNF programs for the low back stability 4 times a week for 6 weeks. The stabilizing exercise group took part in stabilizing exercises 4 times a week for 6 weeks. Outcome measures were subjective pain measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and trunk repositioning error (RE). [Results] The VAS score was significantly reduced by the intervention in the PNF and stabilizing groups, but the difference in VAS scores between the groups was not significant. The RE of the PNF and stabilizing groups was significantly reduced by the intervention and of the difference in the RE score between the groups was also significant. [Conclusion] Based on these results, we conclude that PNF exercise and stabilizing exercise both reduce subjective pain and RE. Therefore PNF exercise and stabilizing exercise are useful for improving the low back stability of low back pain patients. Accordingly we consider that PNF exercise will be beneficial for low back pain.
[Purpose] Salat is the prayer practiced by Muslims and it involves several physical motions, namely standing, bowing and prostrating, which can be considered as a form of slow moderate exercise. The purpose of this research was to investigate the activities of the upper body muscles and the body composition during Salat’s prostration and the child’s pose. [Subjects] Eight healthy male and female university students were recruited for this study. [Methods] The body composition of each subject was first measured. The subjects were then asked to perform Salat’s prostration motion followed by the child’s pose posture. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, scapula muscle, and pectoralis major muscles. The signals were converted to root mean square values. The Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test was conducted to investigate the significance of differences in EMG mean values and body composition in both postures. [Results] The findings show that all the muscles were activated in both postures with the triceps brachii recording the highest value. For the triceps brachii, the prostration posture gave higher values. However, no significant difference was found in the body composition. [Conclusion] The prostration posture produces musculoskeletal effects similar to the child’s pose.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of different support surfaces on muscle activity when healthy adults performed a the back bridging exercise. [Subjects] Twenty healthy adults participated in the present study. [Methods] The subjects performed a back bridging exercise on different support surfaces (mat, balance pad, air cushion, and Swiss ball). Surface electrodes were used to record the electromyographic signal amplitudes of trunk muscles (erector spinae, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, and rectus abdominis) and lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, semitendinosus, and soleus). The EMG data were normalized as a percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction, and were analyzed using 1 × 4 repeated measures analysis of variance. [Results] We found that the activities of the vastus medialis, semitendinosus, and soleus increased significantly when the exercise was performed on a Swiss ball, compared to their values during performance on a mat or a balance pad. No such difference was found for the gluteus maximus. [Conclusion] When the back bridging exercise was performed for stabilization, the changes in support surface did not affect the activity of the trunk muscles.
[Purpose] This study investigated hand function and activities of daily living (ADL) changes in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) using modified constraint induced movement therapy (mCIMT). [Subjects] Twenty children with CP were randomly allocated into mCIMT (n = 10) and control (CON) (n = 10) groups. [Methods] Two expert physical therapists provided the mCIMT and CON groups with traditional rehabilitation therapy in 30-minute sessions, semi-weekly, for 10 weeks. The mCIMT training was provided only to mCIMT group semiweekly for 10 weeks at 60 minutes per session. The CON group received traditional therapy only. Before and after the 10 weeks of intervention, hand function and ADL evaluations were performed, and the obtained data were analyzed. [Results] The mCIMT and CON groups showed significant differences in hand dexterity and grip strength on the affected side and ADL self-care subtest scores. [Conclusion] The results are not generalizable to all children with CP because of the small number of subjects. Detailed and diverse investigations should be performed by considering the number and characteristics of subjects and the limitations influencing the mCIMT training period.
[Purpose] We analyzed F-waves obtained during walking and stepping in place by healthy subjects to investigate changes in upper extremity spinal motor neuron excitability. [Subjects] Twenty-six healthy subjects were evaluated before, during, and after walking and stepping in place. [Methods] We recorded F-waves from the Abductor Pollicis Brevis muscle of the upper extremity before, during and after walking and stepping in place. [Results] F-wave persistence significantly increased during walking compared to persistence before and after walking. There was no significant change in F/M amplitude ratio and F-wave latency values during walking when compared to before and after walking. All parameters of F-waves demonstrated a statistically significant increase during stepping in place when compared to before and after stepping in place. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that upper extremity spinal motor neurons excitability increases during stepping in place, but only the firing frequency of the upper extremity α motor neuron increases during walking. Our findings suggest that seemingly similar movements such as walking and stepping in place are neurophysiologically distinct. Therefore, caution is required when working with neurologically impaired individuals, and it is important to be aware of the impact of each exercise.
[Purpose] The present study examined how exercise rehabilitation, extension exercise rehabilitation, and stabilization exercise rehabilitation programs for 8 weeks affected the lumbar region of elderly patients who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery. [Methods] Sixty participants were divided into 3 groups. The participants’ lumbar extensor muscle strength was evaluated at 7 angles (72°, 60°, 48°, 36°, 24°, 12°, and 0°) from flexion to extension by MedX after 8 weeks; and pain, disability, and maximum muscle strength were also measured. [Results] Extension exercise rehabilitation significantly decreased disability compared with the other exercise methods. On the other hand, stabilization exercise rehabilitation significantly increased lumbar deep muscle strength and endurance compared with the other exercise methods. When strength was compared using MedX, extension exercise rehabilitation increased strength significantly more than the other methods at the lumbar flexion angles of 12° and 0°. [Conclusion] The three exercise programs decreased pain and disability, and increased lumbar deep muscle strength of the posterior lumbar interbody fusion patients. Therefore, these methods help patients attain pain-free lives.
[Purpose] This study investigated whether afferent signals from ankle articular receptors affect the reflexive activity of the soleus muscle of participants while standing upright. [Methods] The subjects, 14 male healthy adults, stood in an upright position on an electric tilting table. Vibrations (about 90 Hz) were applied to the medial and lateral malleolus of the pivot leg (left leg of all subjects), and for the control condition the vibrators were turned off. The maximum M, H and medium latency reflex amplitudes and latencies were extracted from collected M, H and medium latency reflex (MLR) waves under both conditions. The mean amplitudes and latencies of maximum H and MLR were normalized using each subject’s maximum M and height, respectively. [Results] The amplitudes and latencies of maximum H and MLR significantly decreased and were delayed under the malleolus vibration condition compared to the control condition. [Conclusion] We conclude that disynaptic inhibition of group I and II afferent fibers from the ankle joint provoke a decrease in the excitation of the α motoneurons of the soleus. It seems that a supraspinal center hardly regulates the excitability of the α motoneurons of the soleus or group II interneurons when the subject can predict how to maintain standing stability.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of shoulder external rotation and trunk extension exercises on standing posture improvement using the turning around motion of patients with Parkinson’s disease. [Methods] Sixteen patients with Parkinson’s disease performed shoulder external rotation and trunk extension exercises in three sets of ten times a set, three days a week, for twelve weeks. To measure turning around, the ink footprint method was used. The number of steps and the time taken were measured every week from before until the end of the study. [Results] The number of steps and time taken on each week over the twelve weeks significantly decreased compared with their values before the exercise. [Conclusion] Standing posture improvement exercises can partially help patients with Parkinson’s disease perform the turning around motion in activities of daily living.
[Purpose] There is a large variance in published maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) data. We propose video instruction as a method of instruction for undergoing MIP testing. Two types of instruction were compared: video-watching instruction (VW), in which participants watched a recorded demonstration of the MIP measurement procedure; and personal explanation instruction (PE), a traditional in-person demonstration provided by the researcher. We conducted a cross-over design experiment with a 12-week washout period, and counterbalanced the order in which the 2 methods were trialed. [Methods] Participants (n = 40, mean age 21.0 ± 2.5 y) were randomly assigned to either the VW or the PE group. Twelve weeks after receiving instruction, half of the participants from each group were retested for their MIP after receiving the alternate instruction method. [Results] We found no between-participants or within-participants differences in MIP between the VW and PE instruction methods, indicating that the participants performed equally well in the measurement. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated that MIP measurements after both instruction methods had good reproducibility. [Conclusions] Video instruction provides consistency in delivering instruction, reduces labor, and provides reliability in delivering MIP. These benefits will allow larger, multiple-site studies to be conducted.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the strength and endurance between open and closed kinematic chain exercises after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects] Sixty-two subjects actively participating in rehabilitation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction for the last 3 month were chosen. Twenty-six subjects were excluded and consequently, the data of 36 subjects were analyzed. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups for open or closed kinematic chain exercise. [Methods] Open or closed kinematic chain exercises were performed under direct supervision of 3 physical therapists for 30 minutes per session, 3 times a week for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, isokinetic strength, endurance, and squat strength were tested. [Results] In the comparison of the before and after exercise results, all variables showed significant differences. Open kinematic chain exercises resulted in a significantly greater gain in isokinetic strength and endurance of the extensor muscles than the closed kinematic chain exercises. [Conclusion] Open kinematic chain exercise is helpful for the development of strength and endurance of the knee extensor mechanism after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and can be used effectively in a rehabilitation program.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the architectural properties of muscles on ultrasonographic images of chronic stroke patients taken during different muscle activities. [Methods] Thirty chronic stroke patients were equally divided into three groups according to their Modified Ashworth Scale grade (1 to 3). Ultrasonographic equipment was used to measure structural properties of their skeletal muscles (muscle thickness, muscle pennation angle, and length of muscle fascicles). [Results] Muscle thickness, pennation angle, and fascicle length significantly decreased both at rest and during MVIC (Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction) as muscle spasticity increased. Each group’s muscle pennation angle markedly increased during MVIC compared to at rest. Each group’s muscle thickness and fascicle length decreased during MVIC compared to at rest. [Conclusion] Changes in structural properties of the skeletal muscles influenced architectural properties of the muscles on ultrasonographic images. Our results indicate that understanding the structural properties of the skeletal muscles of chronic stroke patients needs to take into consideration the ultrasonographic architectural properties of the muscles.
[Purpose] A community-based education program has been conducted since 2009 at The School of Health Sciences, Gunma University. This study investigated how the off-campus program affected physical therapy students using text analysis methods. [Methods] The subjects were 60 physical therapy students, who participated in the off-campus classes. Each student submitted a self-assessment worksheet after participation. Using text analysis methods, the 60 worksheets were broken down into words. The extracted words were carefully selected in terms of meaning or content. Regarding the remaining terms, word relations to other words were analyzed by cluster analysis. [Results] Eighteen extracted words were divided into five clusters. From cluster 1, students were surprised at the differences from working in a hospital. Clusters 2 and 3 showed positive emotions, and cluster 4 showed the importance of communication or interaction with the residents. [Conclusion] Off-campus classes had a good effect on the students, allowing them to understand different types of learning and gain a positive impression about community-based experience and interactions with community residents. It will be necessary to combine the experience of off-campus classes with actual learning or study through in-campus classes, as well as to examine study outcomes targeting the community.
[Purpose] This study examined how the non-invasive method of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and the invasive method of trigger point injection (TPI) affected subjects with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) in the trapezius muscle in terms of alleviation pain and enhancement of bodily functions, and proposes a more effective treatment method. [Subjects] Thirty-one patients with MPS in the trapezius muscle were divided into three groups: an ESWT group (n=10), a TPI group (n=13), and a control group (n=8). [Methods] The degree of pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). Pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured at trigger points in the trapezius muscle using a pressure algometer, and the Constant-Murley scale (CMS) was used for functional evaluation. [Results] All three groups showed statistically significant improvements in terms of VAS following treatment. For the pressure pain threshold, only the TPI group showed a statistically significant improvement. CMS showed statistically significant improvements in all three groups, following the treatment. A comparison of the effects of the different treatment methods revealed no significant differences among the groups in terms of VAS and PPT, but CMS showed significant differences between the control and treatment groups. However, between the ESWT group and the TPI group, no significant difference was found in any category. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the non-invasive method of ESWT is as effective as the invasive method of TPI in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.
[Purpose] Time-to-boundary (TTB) measures estimate the time it would take for center of pressure (COP) to reach the boundary of the base of support if COP were to continue on its trajectory at its instantaneous velocity. This study aimed to determine the reliability of TTB measures obtained from healthy young adults during single-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen young adults (11 male, 2 female) performed three, 30-second trials of single-leg standing on a force plate. Ground reaction forces were recorded at a sampling frequency of 50 Hz and the data from 10 to 20 seconds were analyzed. TTB measures were absolute minimum, mean of minimum and SD of minimum in the ML and AP directions. Traditional COP measures were mean velocity, SD of COP, range of COP in the ML and AP directions and root mean square area. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2.1) of TTB measures were ranged from 0.50 to 0.69 and those of the COP measures ranged from 0.17 to 0.64. [Conclusion] The reliabilities of TTB measures were slightly better than those of the traditional COP measures. Acceptable reliability of all TTB measures can be achieved when 3 trials are averaged during the same testing day.
[Purpose] This study compared trunk muscle activities hip adduction and hip abduction during bridging exercises. [Subjects] Nine healthy individuals (5 males, 4 females) participated. [Methods] The subjects performed bridging under three conditions: with the hip in a neutral position, with hip adduction, with hip abduction. Surface electromyography was used to measure the electrical activities of the rectus abdominis, the external oblique, the multifidus, and the gluteus maximus muscles. Normalized EMG activities were compared using repeated one-way ANOVA. [Results] The EMG activities of all the muscles during bridging with hip adduction and abduction were significantly increased compared to the neutral hip position. Also, MF muscle activity was significantly higher during bridging with hip adduction than during bridging with hip abduction. GM muscle activity was significantly higher during bridging with hip abduction than during bridging with hip adduction. [Conclusion] The bridging exercise with hip adduction enhanced MF, and the bridging exercise with hip abduction enhanced GM.