[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effect on body sway during quiet standing of the habitual weight carried by students in a backpack. [Subjects] Forty-six students between the ages of 8 and 14 years volunteered. [Method] The percentage of body weight (% BW) of each student’s backpack was calculated and the students were separated into three groups based on the results: Group A (0-7% BW), Group B (7.01-14% BW) and Group C (14.01-21%BW). [Results] The use of the backpack increased the area of the CoP sway, displacement and mean speed of the CoP data in the antero-posterior and medial-lateral directions in Group C. [Conclusion] Therefore, observed responses in the body posture changes caused by the weight of the backpack were similar to those reported in other studies conducted with different methodos of investigation.
[Purpose] This study compared the results of EMG and a neurometer test and examined the kinds of sensory fibers for which nerve damage may be objectively evaluated in an attempt to provide the basic materials with which to develop an evaluation method incorporating these two tests. [Subjects] The subjects were individuals who visited an EMG laboratory of a general hospital in Busan from January 2010 to December 2011 with the cardinal symptom of hand tingling and who underwent a sensory nerve conduction study and then neurometer CPT. [Method] The present study used sensory NCVs of the finger-wrist and palm-wrist segments. The A-β fiber, A-δ fiber, and C fiber thresholds were measured by sequentially applying stimulation at the frequencies of 2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz, respectively. [Result] The thresholds for nonmyelinated C fibers were higher in the abnormal group than in the normal group. [Conclusion] Testing the neurometer current perception thresholds for nonmyelinated C fibers first is useful in confirming whether a patient with a complaint of hand tingling has nerve fiber abnormalities.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to compare the effect of underwater and overground treadmill walking, which affect gait pattern and muscle strength in people with hemiparesis following a stroke. [Subjects] Twenty chronic stroke patients were included in this study. [Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups, the underwater treadmill walking (UTW) and overground treadmill walking (OTW) groups. The amount of weight the subjects exerted on the foot on the affected side, as well as the joint angle values and muscle strengths on the affected side, were measured. Intervention was performed 4 times per week, and each session lasted 30 minutes. [Results] It was shown that the weight exerted on both the entire foot and hindfoot increased more in the UTW group than in the OTW group. However, the weight put on the forefoot was not found to increase for either group. In terms of the joint angle values, the angle between the hip and the knee showed a greater increase in the UTW group than in the OTW group. In contrast, the ankle joint angle did not show significant change in either of the groups. Muscle strength showed a similar increase in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that after a stroke underwater treadmill walking has a more positive effect on gait pattern than overground treadmill walking.
[Purpose] This study was performed to investigate changes in plantar foot pressure distribution of older women during walking in shoes with different heel heights. [Subjects] Fourteen older women without foot problems participated in the study. [Methods] Heel heights of the shoes were standardized as 1 cm, 3 cm, and 5 cm. Plantar foot pressure was recorded using the F-scan system (Tekscan Inc, Boston, USA). One-way repeated ANOVA was used to compare foot data obtained at the different heel heights. [Results] Peak plantar pressure values of the dominant lower limb showed significant differences among the different heel heights during the stance phase of gait at the T2-5, M2, MF, and H regions. The contact area of the dominant limb showed significant differences among the different heights at the T2-5, M1, M2, M3, MF, H regions. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacements of the trajectory of center of pressure (TCOP) were significantly different among the different heel heights. [Conclusion] Foot pressure distributions of the older women indicate gait pattern altered with shoe heel height.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of different bridging exercises on the trunk muscles, and provides preliminary data for clinical use. [Methods] Bridging exercise with hip abduction and adduction were used to examine the muscle activation of the hip abductors, which were measured by EMG. The subjects were 45 healthy young males. [Results] During adduction there were from general bridging position in all the muscle activities except for RF. The highest muscle activities were seen in TrA, EO and AM during adduction, and in RA and GM during abduction. [Conclusion] Bridging exercise with isometric abduction of the hip joint is effective at contracting RA and GM. Stabilizer exercise, it seems possible selectively strengthening of specific particular muscles by isometric adduction or abduction of the hip joint appears possible in bridging exercises for people who need lumbar stabilization exercises
[Purpose] The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of a sling exercise on shoulder subluxation in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were thirty-four stroke patients with subluxation. They were randomly selected and divided into two groups. [Methods] The subject group (n=17) performed the sling exercise with traditional therapeutic exercise. The control group (n=17) performed only traditional therapeutic exercise. [Results] The results indicate that improvement of corrected vertical distance (cVD), and the ratio of the oblique distance of the affected and unaffected sides (rOD) was greater in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] We suggest that the sling exercise is effective at reducing the severity of hemiplegic shoulder subluxation in post-stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study examined whether abductor hallucis (AH) activity in the one-leg-standing position can be used to predict the navicular drop (ND) when it is or is not actively supporting the medial longitudinal arch. [Subjects] Forty healthy subjects without foot or ankle problems were recruited. [Methods] For all subjects, the ND was measured as the difference in navicular height between the subtalar joint resting (STJR) and subtalar joint neutral (STJN) positions while standing. AH activity was measured in both positions during one-leg standing. [Results] AH muscle activity in the STJR position was significantly negatively correlated with the ND, while AH muscle activity in the STJN position was not. Using a simple regression model, AH activity predicted the ND based on the STJR position. [Conclusion] The results suggest that AH activity is a good predictor of the ND. Therefore, intervention that activates the AH in the one-leg standing position could be used to correct the ND.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate if lactate thresholds in rats could be accurately determined from sequential blood lactate concentrations during incremental exercise tests. [Subjects] Six female Wistar rats were used in this study. [Methods] Catheters were inserted into the right external jugular veins of the rats before they performed the incremental exercise tests. To determine the lactate threshold, a graph was made from the results of the blood lactate concentrations at the different running speeds. [Results] It was possible to frequently and reliably measure blood lactate concentrations of the rats during incremental exercise tests and to determine lactate thresholds. The mean lactate concentration at the lactate threshold was 3.5 ±3.0 mmol/L, and the mean running speed was 18.0 ± 2.8 (16.1–22.8) m/min. [Conclusion] This study showed that it is possible to accurately determine the lactate threshold by taking sequential blood samples during incremental exercise tests.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a worker’s exercise program on work ability. [Subjects] The program was tested on 100 workers at 2 workplaces in Seoul. [Methods] Initially, we conducted a pre-test evaluation of the Worker’s cardio-muscular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition analysis and WAI. Then, the program was applied to the workers for 2 months. After the program had been applied, their post-test conditions were evaluated. The obtained data were analyzed by correlation analysis using a statistical software application (SPSS for Window 13.0). [Results] As a result of this study, we can see how a worker’s exercise program is associated with work ability. There were statistically significant differences in work ability (p<0.01). [Conclusion] In conclusion, a worker’s exercise program increased work ability. This suggest that it is important to manage on-going work ability through a prescribed exercise program.
[Purpose] In this study, examines the intra-rater reliability of the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) was examined with physical therapists and occupational therapists serving as the raters. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 mentally retarded children. Physical therapists rated all 12 subjects, whereas occupational therapists rated 11 of the 12 subjects. Fifteen physical and occupational therapists subjects, excluding one subject. Raters were 15 PT and OT working at T Hospital who knew the subject children well served as the raters. [Method] Each rater individually assessed the subject children using the ABC-J. One month after the initial assessment, the same rater assessed the same children again. The first and second ABC-J scores were statistically analyzed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). [Results] The ICCs (1.2) for the ABC-J scores ranged from 0.745 to 0.975, except for the inappropriate speech scores. [Conclusion] The ABC-J allows anyone to be a rater as long as he/she knows the subject well. The results showed that the assessments by the physical and occupational therapists were relatively reliable.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mirror therapy on subacute stroke patients’ brain waves and upper extremity functions. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients who experienced the onset of stroke within six months prior to this study were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=10) and a mirror therapy group (n=10). In addition to the existing rehabilitation treatment, the control group received sham therapy and the mirror therapy group received mirror therapy for 30 minutes each time, five times per week, for four weeks. Prior to and after the intervention, the changes in the subjects were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and a manual function test (MFT). [Results] Mu rhythm suppression at C3, Cz, and C4 was significant in both groups after the intervention, with a more effective result in the mirror therapy group. Mu rhythm suppression was compared between the two groups after the intervention: it significantly differed between them at C3, Cz, and C4. According to the MFT results, manual functions improved significantly in both groups, with a better enhancement in the mirror therapy group. Each group also saw significant changes in its MFT results after the intervention. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy had an effect on mu rhythm suppression, improving brain activities and positively influencing motor function recovery. It is simple to apply, and patients can perform it independently. It is also cost-effective. Therefore, it is considered to be useful as part of a rehabilitation program for subacute stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of therapist-assisted and self-induced lower-limb PNF pattern training on the activation of contralateral muscles, with the objective of discovering whether self-led PNF pattern training can be effective. [Subjects] Six male and 15 female students participated in the experiment; after being introduced to the methods, they voluntarily signed a consent form. [Method] Members of the self-led treadmill exercise group went through three sets of extension, abduction, and internal rotation-the lower-limb pattern of PNF training-according to a researcher’s spoken instructions. The other group went through three sets of the same exercises, receiving direct resistance training from a therapist. A surface EMG was used for measurement, and the average values of three measurements were used for both groups. [Result] In the treadmill group, muscular activation of the opposite-side lower limbs showed a significant difference. There were also changes in muscular activation in the PNF pattern group conducted by a therapist. It was found that muscular activation of the gastrocnemius was higher in the group that received training from a therapist, while semitendinosus activation was higher in the self-led treadmill group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, these findings suggest that PNF training on a treadmill can be effective in promoting muscular activation of the contralateral semitendinosus, while therapist-led PNF training promotes muscular activation of the gastrocnemius. Overall, lower-limb PNF pattern training of one side of the body can be an effective treatment method for promoting muscular activation of the opposite side.
[Purpose] Traction-based therapies are non-invasive and probably cost-effective and have received interest recently. This study was conducted to compare two training programs, traction and stretching exercises, in rehabilitation of moderate scoliotic patients. [Subjects] Forty patients who were 15 to 25 years of age and had moderate scoliosis (Cobb’s angle of 20 to 40 degrees) were randomized to either a stretching exercises group (n=20) or mechanical traction group (n=20). [Methods] All the patients were informed about the testing and training procedure and were allocated randomly into two groups. Both the groups received a common physical therapy program of 3 sessions a week for 3 months. In addition, the stretching exercises group received stretching of muscles on the concave side with postural instructions for activities of daily living. The mechanical traction group received mechanical traction of the lumbar spine with postural instructions for activities of daily living. The outcome measures used were anteroposterior view of loading X-ray to detect any change in the Cobb’s angle of the lower spine, tape measurement to detect forward flexion of the trunk by using fingertip-to-floor test (FFT), and the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain measurement. [Results] There was more significant improvement of the Cobb’s angle in the stretching exercises group than in the mechanical traction group. There was no significant difference in VAS and FFT values between the groups. [Conclusion] Stretching exercises led to significant improvement in the Cobb’s angle and resulted in improvement of scoliotic curves in moderate scoliotic patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality treadmill training on balance and balance self-efficacy in stroke patients with a history of falling. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients with a history of falling were allocated into 2 groups: a virtual reality treadmill training group (experimental group, n=11), and control group (n = 10). [Methods] We measured patients’ balance function and balance self-efficacy before and after 3 weeks of virtual reality treadmill training. [Results] Balance and balance self-efficacy were significantly higher in the experimental group. Furthermore, balance and balance self-efficacy significantly increased after 3 weeks in both groups compared with the baseline values. [Conclusion] Virtual reality treadmill training significantly improves balance and balance self-efficacy in stroke patients who are able to participate in physical balance training.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bone mineral content and bone mineral density in swimmers. [Subjects] This study assessed bone mineral density and bone mineral content in the dominant and nondominant arms of 30 people, including 15 swimmers and 15 control group students from a girls’ high school, by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were determined in the ulna and a radius (1/3 part, middle, ultradistal) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4500 (Hologic, Bddford, MA, USA). The data were subjected to statistical analyses of the data. Statistical significance was accepted for values of p less than 0.05. [Results] There was a significant difference in the bone density of the dominant arms the each group. However, there was a significant difference in the mass of the bone mineral in dominant arms between groups. There was also a significant difference in the mass of the bone mineral in nondominant arms between groups. [Conclusion] The bone mineral content and density of the swimming groups were higher than those of the control group. The distinctly high bone mineral content and density of the dominant arms in the for swimmers, who utilized their muscle contractibility and heavily exercised, will help the formation of bone mineral content and density.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the segmental and total ranges of cervical flexion with two different starting positions: flexion from a neutral position (Flexion) and flexion from a position of forward inclination of the upper cervical spine (Finc-Flex). [Subjects and Method] Ten healthy volunteers (10 men, 26–43 years of age) were recruited. The consenting volunteers were referred for radiographs. Three lateral radiographs were taken in a neutral position, Flexion, and Finc-Flex. Differences in segmental and total sagittal rotation angles between Flexion and Finc-Flex were analyzed. Within-group differences were assessed using the paired t-test. [Results] A significant difference was noted in the segmental range of flexion at C0/C1 and C2/C3, but there was no difference in the total range of flexion. Segmental ranges of flexion at C0/C1 (-3.10) and C2/C3 (4.80) in Finc-Flex were significantly greater than at C0/1 (-4.70) and C2/3 (2.90) in Flexion. [Conclusion] The two different starting positions of the head in flexion influenced the segmental range of flexion at C0/C1 and C2/C3 in different ways. The results of this study do not support the belief that cervical flexion starting from a position of forward inclination in the upper cervical spine actively restricts total cervical range of flexion.
[Purpose] This study examined the influences of different hip positions on electromyographic (EMG) activity of the hip abductor and the quadratus lumborum muscles during lateral step-up exercises. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy subjects (ten men and five women) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed lateral step-up exercises in hip-neutral, internal rotation, and external rotation positions. EMG activity of the gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae, and the quadratus lumborum muscles was measured using surface electromyography during the exercises. EMG activity of each muscle in the three hip positions during lateral step-up exercises was analyzed using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] EMG activity of the gluteus medius muscle was significantly increased in the hip-neutral and internal rotation positions compared with the external rotation position during lateral step-up exercises (p<0.05). Significantly increased EMG activity of the tensor fascia latae muscle was observed in the hip internal rotation position compared with other hip positions. There was no significant difference in the activity of the quadratus lumborum among the three hip positions during lateral step-up exercises (p>0.05). [Conclusion] These findings indicate that maintaining the hip-neutral position could be used as an effective method to increase the activity of the gluteus medius during lateral step-up exercise.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to develop a clinical upper extremity model to analyze joint motion in comparison with joint angles measured by a universal goniometer. [Subjects] Active movements of the right upper extremities of ten healthy volunteers were measured with both a universal goniometer and a Vicon 512 motion analyzer, and joint angles were calculated using Euler angles. [Methods] The range of error was established between joint angles measured by the universal goniometer and the Vicon 512. Validity and reliability for our clinical model were established using Pearson’s correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), respectively. [Results] The mean error of 34 joint angles was less than 10°. The error was > 10° for 135° and maximum shoulder abduction. Pearson’s correlation was > 0.9 between the goniometer and the Vicon 512. For the universal goniometer, intra-rater ICC reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.96, and inter-rater ICC reliability ranged from 0.61 to 0.95. [Conclusions] We found that our clinical model was both valid and reliable for all upper extremity joints. This model can serve as a comprehensive tool for clinical upper extremity motion analysis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze lower limb angles and the loading rate during the drop-landing motion of a normal foot and flatfoot and ultimately to offer basic data for flatfoot exercise therapy. [Subjects] For this study, 18 adults from Cheonan with no musculoskeletal lesions were collected as a sample. The sample was divided into normal foot (n=9) and flatfoot (n=9) groups. Each group performed a drop-landing motion on a force plate with markers attached to the anterior superior iliac spine, the greater trochanter of the hip, the lateral epicondyle of the knee, the lateral malleolus, and the fifth metatarsal head. The motion was measured in 3D. The data for the angle of the hip joint, knee joint, and ankle joint during the drop-landing motion and the loading rate and maximum vertical reaction force at the force plate were measured. [Results] There were significant differences in the maximum vertical reaction force and loading rate during the drop-landing motion between the normal foot and flatfoot. There was a significant difference in the right ankle joint in terms of the variation in the lower limb angles. [Conclusion] It was difficult for the flatfoot to disperse the loading rate during the drop-landing motion, and it showed an increase in the lower limb bending angle. It was considered that proper pose control for the absorption of loads and strengthening of the lower limb were definitely needed for a flatfoot.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show the changes in the center of force in gluteal region and pelvic tilt angle after continuous visual display terminal work. [Subjects] Ten male computer workers were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed computer work for 1 hour, and the pelvic tilt angles before and after the 1 hour of work were measured using a palpation meter. A Body Pressure Measurement Mat of a TekScan system was used to measure the center of force at the gluteal region seat interface of the chair before and after 1 hour of computer work. [Results] The results showed that the left and right posterior pelvic tilt angles were significantly increased after work. The distance to the center of force in the gluteal region also showed significantly posterior movement. [Conclusion] These results indicate that continuous computer work may cause structural changes of the spine and pelvis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the gait parameters of stroke patients with added mass to the wrist during walking. [Subjects] For this study, we recruited 16 stroke survivors as voluntary participants. [Methods] We measured the gait parameters under 3 conditions (without added mass, with a 1.0 kg load, and with a 1.8 kg load). [Results] The gait parameters of velocity, cadence, and stride length on the affected side were significantly increased under the 1.0 kg condition, and the no load and 1.8 kg conditions resulted in no significant change. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that applying the optimal load to the less affected upper limb may benefit people with hemiplegic gait and could improve the efficiency of gait performance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of lower limb muscle activation according to various forms of color information during walking. [Methods] This study was performed on 20 healthy adults. Lower limb muscles were measured with an MP 36 system(Biopac System Inc., Goleta, CA, USA). Subjects were randomly assigned to four groups according to the method of applying various forms of color information. The incoming color information was classified into four color conditions: yellow, red, green, blue. Each color was applied for 10 minutes for color adaptation. [Results] No significant difference was found for the tibialis anterior muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, and hamstring muscle, but there were significant differences in the quadriceps muscle between the four color conditions.[Conclusion] Input of various forms of color information will provide control of muscle in patients with an abnormal gait.
[Purpose] Heart rate recovery (HRR), a recently recognized cardiovascular risk factor, is predominantly modulated by reactivation of vagal tone after exercise stops. Obesity causes autonomic dysfunction that may result in reduced HRR following exercise. We sought to determine whether obesity is associated with reduced HRR and possible influential factors. [Methods] Analyses were based on 62 men who had confirmed angiographically patent coronary arteries (PCA) and had reached 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate (MHR). Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to their body mass index (BMI): NOR (BMI<24), OW (24≤BMI<27), and OB (BMI≥27) as recommended by the Ministry of Health, Taiwan. HRR were defined as the difference between the MHR obtained during exercise and the HR at 1, 3, and 5 minutes after exercise stopped. After separating subjects into higher and lower HRR subgroups using the median as a cutoff point, logistical analysis was performed to provide odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of independent variables related to HRR. [Results] Subjects reached similar absolute work loads, but NOR reached a higher percentage of age-predicted MHR when compared with OW and OB. No significant difference was found in HRR after 1 minute. In logistic regression analyses, the higher HRR1 was mostly associated with a lower resting HR (OR 0.95, CI 0.91–0.98), and this was also found for HRR after 3 and 5 minutes. [Conclusion] There was no difference in HRR with different degrees of BMI in subjects with PCA. Resting HR was probably the most influential factor contributing to HRR.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare pain, range of motion, isokinetic strength, and endurance in patients with partial-thickness rotator cuff tear, before and after scapular stabilizing exercise. [Subjects] The participants included 12 male patients diagnosed with partial-thickness rotator cuff tear after a magnetic resonance imaging examination in a metropolitan hospital in Korea. [Methods] All participants were tested for pain, range of motion, isokinetic strength, and endurance and were retested after 8 weeks of a scapular stabilizing exercise program in which they participated for 30 minutes a day, 3 days a week. [Results] The differences in visual analogue scale, range of motion, isokinetic strength, and endurance before and after the exercise program were significant. [Conclusion] Patients with partial-thickness rotator cuff tear showed improvements in the areas of pain, range of motion, isokinetic strength, and endurance after scapular stabilizing exercise. Thus, rehabilitation using scapular stabilization exercises improves shoulder function in patients with partial-thickness rotator cuff tear.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the P300 in electroencephalography (EEG) and the reaction time in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an auditory oddball task when sitting on a classroom chair or therapy ball. [Subjects] Fifteen ADHD children with a mean age of 8.6 ± 2.1 years and 14 healthy children with a mean age of 8.7 ± 2.0 years were used as subjects in this study. [Methods] All subjects were asked to sit on a chair or therapy ball and perform simultaneously the auditory oddball task. A portable 40-channel EEG system and a sound operating system were employed to record and analyze the EEG and button reaction time signals. [Results] When seated on the chair, the ADHD group had a significantly longer reaction time than the control group. ADHD children seated on a therapy ball showed a significant improvement in reaction time compared with when seated on the chair. In the parietal lobe, the ADHD group had a significantly delayed P300 latency during chair seating compared with the control group. The ADHD group showed a significantly shorter P300 latency time when seated on a therapy ball. [Conclusion] The therapy ball has a significant advantage for enhancing the attentional ability in children with ADHD.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in postural sway according to surface stability in post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Fifty-eight subjects were recruited on a voluntary basis from the local rehabilitation unit (stroke patients) and community (age-matched older adults). Twenty-nine stroke patients and twenty-nine age-matched older adults who were healthy participated in the study. Participants were classified as the stroke group (28 stroke patients) and control group (28 age-matched older adults). [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. The Good Balance force platform system (Metitur Ltd., Finland) was used to measure the postural sway velocity, area, and distance of subjects under the unstable surface (foam) condition and stable surface condition in the standing posture. [Results] The postural way velocity, area, and distance were significantly higher in under the unstable surface conditions compared with under the stable surface conditions in both groups. In particular, the changes in postural sway velocity (anteroposterior), area, and distance (anteroposterior) under the foam and stable surface conditions were significantly different between the stroke group and control group. [Conclusion] We believe that these results provide basic information on the improvements in balance ability and may be useful in balance training to prevent future falls after stroke.
[Purpose] We investigated effects of loading on cartilage repair in rat full-thickness articular cartilage defects and histopathologically analyzed the healing process of the defect. [Subjects] A total of 40 male 9-week-old Wistar rats were used. [Methods] Full-thickness articular cartilage defects were created over the capsule at the loading portion in the medial condyle of the femur. Twenty rats were randomly allocated into each of a loading group and non-loading group. Twenty rats from these two groups were later randomly allocated to each of 2 groups for evaluation at 1 and 2 weeks after surgery. At the end of each period, knee joints were examined histopathologically and statistically. [Results] The surface of the repair tissue in the loading group was irregular and discontinuous, while that in the non-loading group was smooth and continuous. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the difference in the surface between the loading group and non-loading group was significant. The defects in the both groups spontaneously resurfaced with a mixture of hyaline cartilage and granulation tissue, and some remnants of articular cartilage with aseptic necrosis were contained in the repair tissue. [Conclusion] We concluded that loading in the early phase of an articular cartilage defect may be accompanied by a certain danger for the repair tissue.
[Purpose] The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether the deep head hanging maneuver (DH maneuver) is an efficacious treatment maneuver for anterior canalithiasis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two adult patients were recruited. Their ages ranged from 41–63 years, with an average age of 53 years. Ten patients were male, and twelve were female. Patients were judged to be “clear” of anterior canalithiasis when there was no nystagmus or subjective vertigo elicited by diagnostic positioning at a follow-up appointment. This study method was supported by other research using the same method. [Results] The results indicated that 77.3% of the twenty-two patients were clear of anterior canalithiasis after one treatment session, with another 18.1% clear after a second treatment session. The remaining 4.5% required a third treatment session. [Conclusion] The deep head hanging maneuver was demonstrated to be a useful treatment in patients presenting with possible anterior canalithiasis. Approximately 95% of the patients were clear after one or two deep head hanging maneuver sessions.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the participants’ balance before and after the alcohol intake. [Subjects] This study conducted experiments by selecting adult subjects between the ages of 19 and 27. Thirty subjects (men=15, woman=15) were arranged into three groups. There were 10 people in each group. [Method] The three groups drank 0.05 mL/kg, 0.4 mL/kg and 0.8 mL/kg of alcohol, respectively. Romberg’s test was applied to measure static balance ability. A static balancing ability test was conducted by applying Romberg’s test in order to evaluate proprioceptive function. [Results] The results were similar for Romberg’s test with the eyes open and closed. The results for Group III were mostly decreased immediately after alcohol intake. For 6 hours after alcohol intake, Groups I and II showed various levels of recovery including return to a normal status. However, Group III showed the least recovery. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the amount of alcohol intake affects on balance. This result also shows that having alcohol before work that requires intensive concentration would cause more accidents and injuries, as alcohol affects human static balance.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological effects of mobilization on joint components using a rat knee joint contracture model. [Method] Twenty-two male Wistar rats (aged 9 weeks) were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 18) and a control group (n = 4). The experimental group had the right posterior limb knee joint immobilized for 8 weeks to induce contracture after which this group was subdivided into three subgroups–immobilized, treatment, and non-treatment groups. In the immobilized group (n = 6), knee joint specimens were collected immediately after immobilization. The non-treatment group (n = 6) was bred normally for 8 weeks, while the treatment group (n = 6) underwent mobilization during the same 8 weeks. After breeding, we prepared tissue specimens of the knee joint for observation in the sagittal plane and examined them using a light microscope. [Results] Compared to the non-treatment group, the treatment group showed an increase in the number of fat cells in the synovial subintima and a reduction in the density of collagen fiber bundles in the posterior joint capsule. [Conclusion] Joint mobilization appears to effectively improve joint function.
[Purpose] This study investigated upper extremity function and visual perception changes in stroke patients with hemiplegia using virtual reality (VR) training. [Subjects] Twenty-nine stroke patients were randomly allocated to the VR (n = 15) and control (CON) (n = 14) groups. [Methods] The Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System was used for VR training. Two expert therapists provided the VR and CON groups with traditional rehabilitation therapy in 30-minute sessions, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. VR training was provided only to the VR group in 60-minute sessions, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The CON group received traditional rehabilitation therapy only. Before and after 4 weeks of intervention, Wolf motor function test (WMFT) of the affected arm and motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) were performed, and the results were analyzed. [Results] The VR and CON groups showed significant differences in WMFT score between before and after the intervention. Moreover, the VR group showed a significant difference in all MVPT raw scores and response times. [Conclusion] This study suggests that remote rehabilitation using functionally effective VR makes rehabilitation training an easy and pleasant experience for patients. Therapists should develop suitable programs for patients suffering from stroke as well as other illnesses.