[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of differences in room brightness on standing postural control with or without light touch contact (LT). [Subjects] The subjects were of 40 healthy young people. [Methods] We tested the center of pressure (COP) oscillation during LT under illumination with fluorescent lamps, miniature bulbs, moonlight, and complete darkness. [Results] When we compared the oscillation between the conditions of LT and Non contact (NC) at various illuminations, all the parameters, except those observed in complete darkness, showed significantly lower values under the LT condition than under the NC condition. Under the LT condition, only the values of Total sway length (TSL), but not of the other two parameters, showed any significant difference; complete darkness resulted in a greater TSL than that found under the other illumination conditions. [Conclusion] These results support the idea that, 1) when a person is not touching objects, it may be necessary to adjust the surrounding illuminance to the level of fluorescent lamps (300 lux), but 2) when a person is performing LT, COP oscillation may not greatly change as long as the illuminance is moonlight or brighter, not complete darkness.
[Purpose] We divided the jump action into a resting phase and a motion execution phase, so that we could shed light on each phase’s relationship with the whole body reaction time in jump. [Subjects and Methods] Whole body reaction of young subjects in their late teens was recorded with a high-speed video camera to identify moving reaction time. [Results] The results revealed a high correlation between jumping reaction time and the light stimulus to movement initiation, and the movement initiation to feet-off. Individual variation existed in neural processing velocity of movement preparation and execution, and the processing velocity was shown to reflect the whole body reaction time in jumping. [Conclusion] The outcome suggests that improvement of body performance can be achieved not only by muscle stretch and elastic energy recruitment training but also by faster neural processing.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the motion strategy used by young healthy adults during sit-to-stand motion (STS) and to investigate the relationship between forward tilt movement by the trunk and shanks, which is considered to contribute to the forward shift of COG, and the load on the lower extremity joints accept, from the standpoint of mechanical energy flow. [Subjects] The subjects were 10 young healthy males without disease and/or present history of illnesses that would affect STS. [Methods] Three kinds of task conditions were adopted: normal STS (condition N), STS with the trunk tilted as forward as possible (condition TM), and STS with the trunk as vertical as possible (condition TV). The kinematic data during STS were collected using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and the kinetic data were collected by force plates. [Results] The average negative power in the proximal portions of the shank under condition TV was significantly higher than that under conditions N and TM. [Conclusion] Shank forward tilt appears to be primarily a reactive movement facilitating knee extension rather than contributing to moving COG forward. Thus, less trunk forward tilt movement results in the requirement of higher ability of shank forward tilt movement.
[Purpose] We examined whether changes of position alter perceptions. [Subjects] The subjects were 23 healthy adults and one male adult with quadriplegia due to sequelae of head injury. [Methods] The experiment employed six positions for the healthy adults: side-lying, sitting with 45-degree reclining (reclining), dangling, long sitting, cross-legged sitting, and creeping position. Three positions were employed for the quadriplegia patient: side-lying, reclining, and sitting in an electric wheelchair (mimicking dangling). Using a functional-reach measuring instrument, to obtain the depth perception of distance between object and the subject’s arm length, the subjects were asked whether they thought the could reach the object or not. [Results] For healthy adults, the results showed no significant difference in the number of correct answers among all the positions. The quadriplegia patient examined in this study, however, showed a high number of correct answers while in the wheelchair sitting position, and low scores in the other two positions. [Conclusion] A subject?fs perceptual judgment of reaching is possible as long as he has experience of that particular position. By conducting exercises involving a variety of positions and environments, it may be possible to renew body image and reduce the recognition gap between body image and physical abilities.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of kinesiology taping applied to primary and accessory respiratory muscles on respiratory muscle strength.[Subjects] The subjects were 47 healthy university students (16 female, 31 male), who were all enrolled at the Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Marmara. [Methods] Participants were divided into two groups and diaphragmatic kinesiology taping was applied to the first group and kinesiology taping to the accessory respiratory muscles of the second group. Respiratory muscle strength was measured with Micro Mouth Pressure Measurement (MPM) before and after taping.[Results] The results show that kinesiology taping of the primary and accessory respiratory muscles caused no significant increase in respiratory strength. [Conclusion] The current findings on the effect of kinesiology taping on muscular strength do not fully support the results of other studies reported in the literature. These results suggest the need for more comprehensive studies of both acute and long-term effects of kinesiology taping on muscular strength of healthy individuals and patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inpatient rehabilitation on functional recovery of chronic stroke patients with cognitive impairment. [Subjects] This study recruited 63 patients, who underwent a rehabilitation program after stroke between May, 2008 and May, 2010. Patients were divided according to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) total scores into a cognitive impairment group (MMSE<21) and a non-cognitive impairment group (MMSE≥22). All patients were evaluated ADL performance, balance and walking ability at admission and discharge. [Results] The scores of Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and walking ability of chronic stroke patients with cognitive impairment improved significantly after 3 months of the rehabilitation program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that inpatient rehabilitation improves the functional recovery of chronic stroke patients with cognitive impairment.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the prediction of and the relationship between gait and postural control of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty stroke patients participated in this study. We conducted three common clinical assessments: the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and the Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). [Results] Multiple regression analysis was performed. The dependent variables were the DGI and the POMA for walking and the independent variables were BBS score, post-stroke duration, age, sex, and affected side. In the regression equation for DGI, the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.776, the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.602, and the BBS score was the most important variable for determining the DGI score. In the regression equation for the POMA score, r was 0.769, R2 was 0.591, and the BBS score was the most important variable for determining POMA score. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the walking ability should be determined on the basis of the balance ability of stroke patients. More assessment tools of walking ability as well as balance ability are required.
[Purpose] The purpose of this research was to study the changes in chest mobility and pulmonary functions in relation to stroke patients’ situation. [Methods] Twenty stroke patients participated in this experiment. Measurements were taken in the supine position, 45° sitting position leaning against a surface, and 90° sitting positions, in a random order. Chest mobility (during rest, during maximal inspiration, and during maximal expiration) in each position was evaluated using a tape measure, and pulmonary functions (vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume) were evaluated using a spirometer. [Results] The results show a significant differences in chest circumference during maximal inspiration for chest mobility between supine and sitting at 90°, and significant differences in tidal volume and vital capacity for the pulmonary functions among the three positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, changing a stroke patient’s position produce changes in chest mobility and pulmonary functions. The greatest change occurred in the 90? sitting position. Presumably, ventilation is affected by gravity, The results will provide objective data for establishing stroke positions for stroke patients performing respiratory exercises.
[Purpose] To examine autonomic nerve responses during a psychological stress task and subsequent breathing. [Subjects and Methods] Slow and normal breaths were measured randomly at more than two days apart. The Uchida-Kraepelin test was executed for 15 minutes as a psychological stress task after a 5-minute rest sitting on a chair. Subsequently, slow breathing or normal breathing was carried out for 5 minutes. Salivary alpha-amylase and heart rate variability were analyzed as autonomic nerve responses. [Results] Salivary alpha-amylase increased with stress, and decreased with slow breathing. The HF and LF/HF ratio were synchronized with neither stress nor slow breathing. [Conclusion] The findings of our study suggest that salivary alpha-amylase is a more sensitive test of psychological stress than heart rate variability.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality exercise program on the balance of elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Participants were randomly allocated to two groups: a VR-based exercise group (n=27) and a control group (28). [Methods] The VR group performed a VR-based exercise program for 50 minutes twice a week for 10 weeks, and the control group received only diabetes education without exercise activity. Balance was measured as postural sway using a force plate. [Results] Postural sway significantly decreased after the VR-based exercise. [Conclusion] The VR-based exercise program improved balance. These results suggest that VR-based exercise programs are suitable and effective preventing falls by elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics and kinetics of the vertical ground reaction force peak during a drop-landing by flatfooted males and females. [Subjects] Twenty subjects (ten male and ten female subjects) participated. [Methods] Subjects performed a drop-landing task from 40 cm, and knee, hip, and ankle kinematics and kinetics were recorded using 12 cameras, the Vicon motion system (Vicon, Oxford, England) and 2 force platforms. [Results] A significant difference in the hip, knee, and ankle joint angles was observed in the sagittal plane between the male and female groups. Significant differences in F(x) and F(z) were observed between males and females, but no significant difference was found for F(y). [Conclusion] A higher risk of not only an anterior cruciate ligament injury but also ankle ligament injury may arise from hyper-inversion flatfooted females, compared to flatfooted males, because of lower hip joint control.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to compare three McKenzie’s extension exercises in the prone position using kinematic analysis with fluoroscopy. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy females without a history of low back pain participated. Lumbosacral lordorsis, intervertebral body angle, anterior heights of intervertebral disc and intervertebral body displacement were measured in three exercises: prone lying, prone lying on elbows, prone press-up. [Results] Prone press-up had a significantly higher value of lumbosacral lordosis than prone lying on elbows and prone lying (p<0.05). The intervertebral body angle and anterior height of the intervertebral disc at L3/4 were significantly higher in prone lying on elbows and prone press-up than in prone lying (p<0.05). There were significant differences among all exercises at L4/5 in the anterior height of the intervertebral disc(p<0.05), and a significantly higher value in prone press-up than in prone lying or prone lying on elbows at L5/S1 (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in intervertebral body displacement (p>0.05). [Conclusion] These findings suggest that prone lying on the elbows might be effective at treating disc bulging at the cephalic level and that prone press-ups are effective for treatment of relatively caudal lumbar disc pathology. Our study provides normative reference values for treating low back pain during McKenzie’s exercise.
[Purpose] This study was conducted in order to examine the correlations between cervical lordosis angles (Absolute Rotation Angle, ARA, forward head posture, FHP, Anterior Weight Bearing, AWB), the range of flexion and extension (RFEM), the strength and endurance of the deep neck flexor (DNF) and cervical pain. [Subjects] The study enrolled 24 university students (female: 12, male:12) aged in their 20s. [Methods] ARA, AWB and RFEM were analyzed using radiographs of lateral views. Strength and endurance were assessed using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU) and cervical pain and physical functions were assessed using the Neck Disability Index (NDI).[Results]As ARA increased, extension and RFEM also increased, and as AWB decreased, extension and endurance increased. As extension increased, RFEM and endurance increased and NDI decreased. As flexion became larger, RFEM and NDI increased, and as RFEM increased, endurance increased. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that the posture of the cervical spine affects the endurance rather than the strength of the DNF. Therefore, as therapeutic interventions to enhance the endurance of the DNF, posture control to reduce AWB and approaches to increase extension and RFEM should be considered.
[Purpose] This study’s purpose was to verify the effects of Gong’s mobilization on shoulder medial rotation range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] This study selected 40 healthy male and female college students and allocated them equationually to either a Gong’s mobilization group or an anterior to posterior gliding group (A-P group). [Methods] Gong’s mobilization and anterior to posterior gliding were performed repetitively 10?15 times and a goniometer was used to measure shoulder medial rotation ROM. [Results] Both Gong’s mobilization and anterior to posterior gliding increased shoulder medial rotation ROM, but Gong?fs mobilization was more effective. [Conclusion] Gong’s mobilization is an end-range mobilization technique in which the shoulder joints are maintained in the normal position. It is applicable as a method for increasing ROM in the clinical field.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct a passive intervention program and an active intervention program for healthy subjects for six weeks, and analyze and compare their effects on the neck’s muscular strength and endurance and the joint range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] This study selected 28 undergraduates as subjects and allocated them randomly and equally to either the passive intervention program group (PIPG) or the active intervention program group (AIPG). [Methods] The cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT) was modified to measure the deep neck flexor (DNF)’s strength and endurance, and the cervical range of motion (CROM) was measured to compare and analyze flexion, extension, right lateral flexion (RLF), left lateral flexion (LLF), right rotation (RR), and left rotation (LR) of the neck. [Results] Both the PIPG and the AIPG showed significant improvements in the measured items post-intervention. In a comparison of the two groups, strength, endurance, flexion, and extension in the AIPG were significantly better than their respective values in PIPG. [Conclusion] In treating deep neck flexors, an active intervention program is more effective than a passive intervention program at improving muscular strength, muscular endurance, and joint ROM.
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of forward tilt of the seat surface on the efficiency of wheelchair one-leg propulsion. [Subjects] Subjects were 10 healthy adults (4 men, 6 women; mean age, 27.7 ± 6.1 years; height, 166.8 ± 6.5 cm; weight, 57.9 ± 12.2 kg). [Method] This study investigated the effects of forward tilt of the seat surface (0° or 10°) on the efficiency of one-leg propulsion, based on muscle activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, lumbar multifidus, hamstring and external oblique muscles when propelling a wheelchair at 1 m/s, and the time taken to travel 10 m using one-leg propulsion at maximum effort. [Result] Time taken to travel 10 m at maximum effort was significantly shorter with forward tilt than without. Muscle activity of all the muscles except the external oblique was significantly lower with forward tilt than without. [Conclusion] Tilting the wheelchair seat forward may be useful during one-leg wheelchair propulsion for individuals with decreased ability to tilt the pelvis forward.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate whether vibroacoustic therapy (VAT) could improve the psychological symptoms of 15 elderly nursing home (NH) residents with symptoms of depression. [Methods] Fifteen subjects received VAT for 30 minutes per day for 10 days. Depression was evaluated using the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale (DMAS). Tympanic temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and SpO2 were measured as physiological indexes of relaxation. In addition, sleep-wake rhythms of the 15 subjects were evaluated using actigraphy. [Results] Based on DMAS scores, mitigation of depression was observed in NH residents after receiving VAT. Moreover, significant decreases in tympanic temperature and pulse were observed after treatment. Total sleeping hours per day showed a significant decrease when mean sleeping hours in the first week were compared with the mean sleeping hours in the second week. [Conclusion] VAT provided relaxation effects for elderly NH residents, and improved depressive symptoms.
[Purpose] This case study describes an interesting therapeutic approach to an athlete’s muscle injury, which was erroneously diagnosed and treated for the first 48 hours. [Case] During a regular season match, a 17 year-old male, soccer player was hit on his front thigh while he was kicking the ball. The first diagnosis was a contusion, and the player was treated with warm-packs for 48 hours. Ultrasound images revealed a massive muscle tear on the left vastus intermedius of the quadriceps muscle 60 hours after injury. The rehabilitation approach was based on three therapeutic principles: 1) to prevent inflammatory secondary damage, we performed a controlled re-injury to start with a new acute injury; 2) use of physical agents as acute control of the inflammation process; and 3) overlapping rehabilitation phases, such as rest, pain control, healing process, muscle strengthening and aerobic training, to reduce total rehabilitation time. [Results] Weekly ultrasound images showed a total repair after 4 weeks of treatment. Due to the effectiveness of the rehabilitation program the athlete was able to play competitively 35 days after the injury and no re-injury was observed over a 1 year follow-up. [Conclusion] The therapeutic approach used in this case study, which involved the prevention of secondary damage and the overlap of rehabilitation phases, was effective and time efficient.