[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze and compare respiratory function and activities of daily living (ADL) of spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke patients and normal elderly people, as well as to examine the relationship between respiration and ADL in these groups. [Subjects and Methods] This study’s subjects were patients with spinal cord injury (n=30) and stroke (n=31), one year or longer after onset of their conditions, and a control group of ordinary elderly people (n=30). Measurements were made of their vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow (FEF), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, peak cough flow (PCF), and activities of daily living (ADL). [Results] The SCI and stroke groups had lower VC than the control group; the SCI group had the lowest value. The stroke group had the lowest FVC. There were no significant differences among the three groups in FEF, FEV1, or FEV1/FVC. The ADL of the SCI group showed significant differences according to the SCI level. Regarding the relationship between respiratory function and ADL, in the SCI group, the better their respiratory function was, the better their ADL became; there was no relationship between the two variables in the stroke group. The control group of healthy elderly was better able to climb stairs when they had better respiratory function. [Conclusion] We consider a physical therapy program accompanied by breathing execercise is necessary for SCI patients to improve ADL, and for stroke patients to prevent respiratory complications.
[Purpose] This study conducted a 3-dimensional kinematic analysis in order to examine changes in the movements of the lower limb joints during simulated skiing, to prevent skiing-related injuries. [Subjects] The participants (8 males, average age: 30.3 ± 3.0 years, average height: 178.5 ± 3.9 cm, average weight: 79.9 ± 3.4 kg, average career: 7.5 ± 1.9 years) held a certificate issued by the Korea Ski Instructors Association. [Methods] This experiment was conducted using a motion analysis system which recorded the subjects training on a ski simulator. The hip, knee and ankle joints’ ranges of angles were measured in the sagittal and coronal planes during simulated skiing. The paired t-test was conducted in order to examine changes in the lower limb joint motions. [Results] After training on the ski simulator, the range of angles of the performers’ hip joints in the sagittal plane decreased in each of the analyzed events. The range of angles of the knee joints in both the sagittal and coronal planes increased. Movements of the ankle joints in the sagittal plane, and overall movements of the left and right sides decreased. [Conclusion] To avoid skiing injuries in the lower limbs, exercise to strengthen the quadriceps and hamstring muscles to balance their strength is necessary. In particular, exercise to strengthen the hamstring muscles is required.
[Purpose] The morphology and innervation pattern of the vastus medialis (VM) were investigated to determine if there was an anatomical distinction between the oblique (VMO) and longus (VML) parts. [Subjects and Methods] Forty lower limbs were dissected. The innervation pattern was observed in 39 specimens. Muscle length and fibre angles of 14 specimens were recorded. [Results] In 22 specimens there was a distinct separation between the VML and VMO (change in fibre angle, fibrofascial plane, vasculature or nerve branch). The mean fibre angle of VMO was 52°, and the mean VML fibre angle was 5° (relative to the shaft of the femur). Ten limbs (25.6%) had separate innervation to the VML. The separation between VMO and VML was found to be more proximal than expected, with the VMO on average accounting for 70% of the VM, in contrast to the much more distal point of separation reported elsewhere, leading us to raise the possibility that VML and vastus intermedius may have been misidentified in some previous studies. [Conclusions] In conclusion the VML/VMO division (when present) is much more proximal than has been previously reported, and there is no consistent pattern of innervation to the two parts of the muscle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the effects of the Brandt-Daroff exercise on vestibular functions, such as balance, perception of subjective visual vertical (SVV), and nystagmus, in women with vertigo. [Subjects] After asking a group of women five questions about vertigo symptoms, we chose 17 women, in the age range of 19 to 21, who each had more than one symptom to participate in this study. [Methods] Vestibular functions were assessed through the use of a balance pad, subjective visual vertical (SVV), and videonystagmography (VNG). Each subject performed the Brandt-Daroff exercise five times a day for two weeks from May 8th to May 21th in 2010. Afterwards, vestibular functions were assessed by the same measuring instruments. After the intervention, the changes in vestibular functions were analyzed by the Wilcoxon sign rank test and repeated measures ANOVA test with the SPSSWIN (ver 18.0) package program. [Results] After the Brandt-Daroff exercise, perception of SVV in the left eye and right eye improved. In VNG, involuntary eye movement improved after exercise. However, neither measured equilibrium on the balance pad nor SVV in both eyes had changed. [Conclusion] This study revealed that two weeks performance of the Brandt-Daroff exercise improves some vestibular functions of women with vertigo. However, some functions did not change. Therefore, it seems that another study is needed to assess the effects of exercise for more than two weeks.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the reproducibility within a session and between sessions of the knee joint movement and moment during the stance phase using the Anatomical Landmarks Calibration. [Subjects] The study subjects were five healthy adults. [Methods] The subjects walked along a 10-m walkway. Reflective markers were attached to each subject’s anatomical landmarks on the right lower extremity. Moreover, rigid plates with three attached reflective markers were placed on the lateral side of the thigh and shank. The anatomical landmarks presumed by the thigh and shank clusters were used for the knee angle and joint moment calculations. To check the reproducibility of the joint angles and moments, coefficients of multiple correlations (CMCs) and standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were computed. [Results] The CMCs of abduction–adduction and internal–external rotation of the knee joint between sessions were lower than those within a session, while the SEMs were larger. Regarding the knee joint moment, all the subjects showed larger SEMs between sessions than within a session. [Conclusions] The present results suggest that it is important to identify the attachment positions of the reflective markers to obtain good reproducibility for knee joint angle changes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to the discharge destination of 126 patients who underwent acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] We assessed Activities of Daily Living (ADL) of 126 patients, based on the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score at discharge and analyzed whether the FIM score was useful for predicting the outcome by discriminant analysis. [Results] The correct classification rate of our model was 93.7%. Control of excretion, self care, and transfer were the factors with the greatest influence on the outcome. When our model was tested with 40 patients for validation, the correct classification rate was 77.5%. [Conclusion] ADL is a useful indicator of the discharge destination of patients undergoing acute rehabilitation. Further research is needed to improve our model, so that it includes disease characteristics and social factors.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to suggest the proper seat height for wheelchair propulsion on a slope. [Subjects] Participants who met the criteria for this study (n=20). [Methods] Muscular activity was measured while propelling the wheelchair using the chairs of heights corresponding to elbow flexion angles of 0, 30, 60 and 90 degrees. To eliminate the effect of muscular fatigue that might have been caused, wheelchair propulsion with the four elbow joint angles was randomly performed. EMG electrodes to the attached were pectoralis major, flex carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, serratus anterior, anterior deltoid, biceps brachi, triceps and lattisimus dorsi. [Results] The anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, triceps, extensor carpi radialis and flexor carpi radialis muscle activations showed significant differences between each groups. [Conclusion] This study investigated propulsion on a slope, not flat ground, where propulsion force is offset by potential energy. Thus, unlike flat ground, where small muscle activity is sufficient for propulsion, much muscle activation is necessary to stably go up a ramp.Our results show that in climbing a ramp, user stability is likely to be compromised at wheelchair seat heights eliciting elbow flexion of less/greater than 60 degrees.
[Purpose] This study was undertaken to understand the effects of three different ways of resting after maximal exercise on lactic acid in blood, and muscular strength. [Methods] To achieve this objective, nine athletes were selected as blood donors. Blood was gathered from each donor at three different times: at rest, after maximal exercise, and after recovery. Strength was measured after 30 minutes maximal exercise. [Results] Lactic acid of significant differences appeared more in the walking + jogging rest than the national gymnastics rest and was more effective in removing lactate. [Conclusion] Isokinetic strength (Peak Torque, Peak Torque % Body Weight) were significantly better after the walking + jogging rest than after the national gymnastics rest.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the validation and usefulness of an online cognitive examination system to measure the degree of cognitive deficits of stroke patients. [Subjects] To verify the usefulness of the online examination system, thirty-one stroke patients and twenty normal, healthy volunteers as an age-matched control group were recruited. [Methods] The thirty-one stroke patients were classified into three groups according to the severity of their cognitive dysfunction. To evaluate the reliability of the online system we compared the results of our system with the results of the Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE-K). [Results] There were significant correlations between the results of the evaluation by the online-based system and those of MMSE-K, and there were also significant differences between patient subgroups and the control group. [Conclusions] We have investigated the usefulness of an online evaluation system and verified its effectiveness in the screening of patients for cognitive dysfunction.
[Purpose] This study investigated the alteration of blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy subjects before, during and after Saunders cervical traction at different traction forces. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred eighty healthy volunteers were divided randomly into A (5% body weight, n = 60), B (15% body weight, n = 60) and C (25% body weight, n = 60) groups. Changes of the blood pressure, oxygen concentration and HRV in the three groups after completing the three evaluation sessions were examined by comparing results from a session with the previous one. [Results] During Saunders cervical traction, significant differences were found within groups B and C, in the change of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and HRV. In group C, significant differences in these changes were also observed after cervical traction. [Conclusions] HRV, which is induced by changes in blood pressure, reduced with increasing cervical traction force. Our results suggest that traction forces of 15% and 25% body weight should be carefully used for patients with cardiovascular diseases.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine effects of an exercise treatment program on lumbar extensor muscle strength and pain of rehabilitation patients following lumbar disc herniation surgery. [Subjects] This study randomly allocated 14 rehabilitation patients after lumbar disc herniation surgery to an exercise therapy group (ETG, n=7) and a control group (CONG, n=7). [Methods] Lumbar extensor muscle strength was measured using a Medx lumbar extension machine (Medx, USA) and pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). [Results] ETG showed significant improvements in all items that measured lumbar extensor muscle strength and pain after the intervention, but CONG did not exhibit any significant improvements. [Conclusion] The exercise treatment program for rehabilitation patients after lumbar disc herniation surgery was effective at strengthening lumbar extensor muscles and reducing pain.
[Purpose] This study examined the effect on stroke patients of a task-oriented training program for trunk control ability, balance and gait. [Methods] The subjects were 20 inpatients who were randomly divided into two groups; Ten patients in the experimental group performed the task-oriented training (3 times/wk) and received general physical therapy (5 times/wk) for 4 weeks, and 10 patients in the control group received only general physical therapy (5 times/wk) for 4 weeks. The Trunk Impairment Scale, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up & Go test (TUG), and 10 m walking time, were measured before and after the 4 weeks of therapy. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in trunk control ability, balance and gait after 4 weeks of task-oriented training. Except for TUG, significant differences in trunk control ability, balance and gait were observed between the experimental and control groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that task-oriented training after a stoke can improve the trunk control ability, balance and gait, which be effective in stroke rehabilitation.
[Purpose] We used the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to investigate whether or not physical therapists (PT) and occupational therapists (OT) assess problematic behaviors of handicapped children differently. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 mentally-retarded children undergoing physical therapy at T Hospital. The examiners were classified into two groups: PT and OT. Wilcoxon’s signed rank sum test was conducted on the two groups’ ABC-J scores for, irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity and inappropriate speech scores. [Results] No significant differences between the two groups were observed for most problematic behavior types, although the effect sizes were small. Physical therapists, however, assessed the lethargy of the subject children as more problematic than occupational therapists did. [Conclusion] The results that some bias may occur depending on examiner occupation, although the ABC-J allows anyone to be an examiner as long as he/she knows the subject child well.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the physical function of early- and latter-stage elderly with and without the musculoskeletal ambulation disability symptom (MADS) complex, and examine their characteristics. [Subjects] Subjects were 211 elderly females living in the community. [Methods] Comparisons of the physical function were conducted between those with and without the MADS complex and two age groups. [Results] A markedly larger number of latter-stage elderly had the MADS complex than those in the early stage. The walking ability was significantly lower in the MADS complex and latter-stage elderly groups. Although the score for muscle strength was markedly lower in the latter-stage elderly group, no significant difference was noted between those with and without the MADS complex. There was no marked difference in the score for the sit-and-reach flexibility between the MADS and non-MADS and two age groups. [Conclusion] A markedly larger number of MADS complex patients were in the latter- than in the early-stage elderly group, and the physical function of the latter-stage elderly was lower. The walking ability of the elderly with the MADS complex was very low.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the lung capacity when a balloon-blowing exercise was used to increase patients’ lung function. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 30 young smokers. [Methods] Subjects were randomly divided two groups; The experimental group (n=15) performed a balloon-blowing exercise. The control group (n=15) performed no exercise. [Result] The results indicate that VC, ERV, IRV, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF significantly improved in the experimental group. In contrast, VC, ERV, IRV, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF did not significantly change in the control group. There were significant differences in VC, ERV, IRV, FVC, and FEV1 between the experimental group and the control group after the performance of the balloon-blowing exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the balloon-blowing exercise has positive effects on lung function.
[Purpose] This study investigated to look at developmental characteristics of infants at a post-conceptual age of around 40 weeks and compared them with weight and gestational age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 51 full-term and preterm infants, classified into three different subgroups according to birth weight groups (appropriate for gestational age; low birth weight; very low birth weight) and gestational age groups (38 weeks or older; between 32 and 37 weeks; less than 32 weeks). Infants were measured for movement and posture using the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the assessment was performed at the postconceptional age of 40 weeks (mean age: 39.75 weeks). [Results] Head in Midline (O-1) had differences according to birth weight only, and Isolated Rt. Ankle Movement (O-7) had differences according to gestational age only. Only the three gestational age groups showed in head control-posterior neck muscles (E-3). Therefore, developmental characteristics were little different according to birth weight or gestational age. [Conclusion] Regardless of the birth weight or gestational age, there appeared to be no differences in the development evaluation results.
[Purpose] We examined the effects of prolonged stretching and thermotherapy on muscle contracture of immobilized rat soleus muscles by determining ankle joint range of motion (ROM), collagen fibril arrangement in the endomysium and insoluble collagen content. [Methods] In the experimental group, bilateral ankle joints of each rat were fixed in full plantar flexion with plaster casts for four weeks. Then, the experimental group animals were randomly partitioned into five groups: 1) immobilization alone; and 2) spontaneous recovery, 3) prolonged stretching, 4) thermotherapy, and 5) prolonged stretching immediately following thermotherapy for 2 weeks after cast removal. Prolonged stretching of the soleus muscle (30 min/day) was conducted by maintaining the dorsiflexion position of the ankle joint. Thermotherapy consisted of immersion of bilateral hindlimbs (20 min/day) in hot water (42 °C). Under anesthesia, both treatments were performed six days per week during the two-week remobilization. [Results] Immobilization led to decreased ROM, collagen fibril movement in the endomysium and increased insoluble collagen. Prolonged stretching and the combination of stretching and thermotherapy accelerated amelioration of the ROM limitation and diminished collagen fibril movement. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that while thermotherapy does not exert a specific effect on muscle contracture, prolonged stretching can promote recovery.
[Purpose] This study investigated the activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (Gas) muscles of healthy subjects during salat and specific exercises using surface electromyography (EMG). [Methods] A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. For the assessment of the RF muscle, the subjects were asked to perform salat movement [standing to prostration (STP)] and squat exercise (SE) and for the BF, TA and Gas muscles, subjects were asked to perform salat (bowing) and the toe touching exercise (TTE). The electromyograms of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. [Result] The findings indicate that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercises with difference EMG levels. Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum Test found a statistically no significant differences between salat and the specific exercises for RF, BF and Gas. For TA, the test revealed a statistically significant difference between salat and the specific exercise with a difference of 5.67%MVC. [Conclusion] Salat may be useful in warm up or in rehabilitation programs. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of visual cues on movement smoothness during gait performance by individuals with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen patients with symptoms of idiopathic PD were recruited into the study. The mean age of the subjects was 65.1 years, and the mean post-disease period was 71.3 months. The gait performance was analyzed in this study under 2 different conditions, free walking and visual cue walking. To determine the effect of visual cues on the gait performance of PD patients, we collected spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] Spatiotemporal parameters significantly improved during gait performance with visual cues compared to free walking. The presence of visual cues also resulted in significantly improved peak-to-peak angular displacement of the ankle, hip, and pelvis as well as movement smoothness in the lower extremities. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that augmented feedback using visual cues improves the deficit in kinematic parameters, and improves movement smoothness in the lower extremities of individuals with PD.