[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors affecting the burden of family caregivers of home-bound disabled elderly persons. [Subjects] Data were collected for 66 home-bound disabled elderly persons (mean age of 81.4 ± 9.7) and their 66 family caregivers (mean age of 62.4 ± 11. 5) who were living at home in Kobe city, Hyogo. [Method] Capacity to perform ADL was assessed using the Barthel Index for the home-bound disabled elderly persons. The care burden and health status of their family caregivers were also evaluated. [Results] There was no significant correlation between ADL, the grade of care required for home-bound disabled elderly persons and family caregivers’ burden. It was also revealed that the family caregivers’ burdens were determined by their state of depression. [Conclusion] These results suggest that social and psychological supports are necessary to reduce the burden of family caregivers.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the criteria for postoperative physical activity levels that do not overload the hip joint. We examined the relationship between physical activity levels and hip joint pain in hip osteoarthritis patients. [Subjects] Subjects were 52 females who had osteoarthritis of the hip joint and underwent Chiari pelvic osteotomy. [Methods] Levels of physical activity were evaluated using an activity recorder to measure number of steps as well as duration of activity according to exercise intensity. By using the Harris Hip Score, patients with 40 or more points were classified as the no-pain group, and those with 30 or less points as the pain group. [Results] The number of steps was significantly greater in the pain group than in the no-pain group 10562 ± 2731 steps/day versus 7411 ± 1746 steps/day. The threshold value for the number of steps based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 8981 steps/day, sensitivity was 0.75, and specificity was 0.79. [Conclusion] On the basis of our results, we suggest that walking more than 9000 steps/day is an excessive level of postoperative physical activity that aggravates hip joint pain.
[Purpose] Driving is a complex activity involving cognitive and motor skills. It is an essential component of daily life for older adults. However, aging may decrease a driver’s psychomotor performance and increase the risk of traffic accidents. Driving reaction time (DRT) requires visuo-motor coordination and fast DRTS are needed to cope with unexpected conditions or traffic lights. The purpose of the current study was to compare the DRT of elderly drivers and young drivers using a tri-axial accelerometer and a foot switch. [Methods] Twenty-four subjects (younger=12, elderly=12) participated in this study. DRT was measured with a tri-axial accelerometer and foot switch. DRT was classified by initiation and termination as on or off according to contact with the brake pedal during the brake pedal task. [Results] The ANOVA model for accelerometer-DRT yielded significant main effects for phase, but not for axis. Termination was delayed significantly more than initiation. The elderly group showed significantly more delay than the younger group. In the elderly group, termination was delayed more than initiation, but there was no difference in delay between initiation and termination in the young group . In foot switch-DRT, termination was delayed much more than initiation in both groups (p<0.05). The elderly group showed significantly more delay than the young group. [Conclusion] We suggest that the driving ability of elderly drivers can be assessed with reasonable accuracy using accelerometer-DRT, which minimizes the expense and risk associated with on-road assessments of this population.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare a conventional one leg standing exercise and a device-using one leg standing exercise in order to improve hemiplegia patients gait and balance function. [Subject] The subjects of this study were 30 patients who were hospitalized with hemiplegia resulting from stroke. The final number of participants was 27, because three patients were discharged during the experiment. [Methods] The participants were divided randomly and equally into a conventional one-leg standing balance exercise group (control group) and a device-using one-leg standing balance exercise group (experimental group). In the experimental group, exercise consisted of a one-leg standing weight-bearing balance exercise in which ± 5° changes could be made for dynamic changes, while maintaining a hip flexion angle of 5° and a knee flexion angle of 10° during the stance phase. [Results] In the comparison of gait traits and velocity prior to and after the therapy in both the conservative group and the device-using group, all items significantly increased after 8 weeks of therapy. TUG and BBS of both groups also significantly increased. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated the effect of a treatment method using a one leg standing balance exercise on the gait cycle.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of holographic wristbands on strength, balance and flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 43 healthy university students, 15 females (34.88%) and 28 males (65.12%), attending the Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation at Marmara University. The age of the participants ranged from 19 to 27 (mean age 21.2 ± 1.7 years). Strength, balance with eyes open, balance with eyes closed and flexibility were evaluated under four different conditions of wearing holographic EFX®, PWX® and placebo wristbands, and no wristband. [Results] In evaluations of strength, balance with eyes are open, balance with eyes closed and flexibility, a significant difference was observed in favor of the placebo wristband compared to the PWX® wristband. For the other tests, holographic wristbands had no effect on strength, flexibility or balance with eyes closed. [Conclusion] It was concluded that holographic wristbands, which are marketed asergogenic aids, have no effect on strength, balance or flexibility.
[Purpose] To investigate the selective activation of the infraspinatus muscle while minimizing the use of the posterior deltoid muscles during common shoulder external rotation exercises. [Subjects] Thirty-two able-bodied volunteers (18 males, 14 females; aged 22 to 31 years, mean ± SD, 24.7 ± 3.3 years) were recruited for this study. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform four exercises: side-lying external rotation; prone abduction with external rotation; sitting external rotation, and sitting with abduction and external rotation exercise. The EMG signal amplitude was measured during each exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles. Differences among the exercises were tested using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. [Results] EMG activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles in prone abduction with external rotation were significantly higher than in the other exercises. The EMG ratio (infraspinatus/posterior deltoid) was significantly higher in sitting external rotation than in the other exercises. [Conclusion] Based on these findings, sitting with external rotation should be used to minimize posterior deltoid activation and selectively stimulate infraspinatus muscle activity during shoulder external rotation exercise.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the muscle activities of the neck, trunk, and lower extremities when an unstable base of support and a stable base of support were used in bridging exercises. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 14 persons in their twenties (9 Males, 5 Females, 23.3 years old, 168.7 cm, and 70.0 kg). [Methods] The subjects performed an ordinary bridging position (stable base) and a bridging position with a dynamic ball cushion (unstable base). The muscular activities of the longissimus capitis and sternocleidomastoid in the neck, the erector spinae and rectus abdominis in the trunk, the rectus femoris and lateral hamstring in the thigh, and the tibialis anterior and lateral head of the gastrocnemius in the lower leg were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] The erector spinae, lateral hamstring and gastrocnemius activities were significantly higher on the unstable base of support than on the stable one. [Conclusion] Activity of muscle groups varies according to the stability of the base of support during bridging exercises. Therefore, conducting bridging exercises with lumbar pain patients requires a gradual change from a stable to an unstable base of support.
[Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of electromagnetic field applied at different time points on muscle recovery process through observation of the expression of HSP 70 protein and histological changes in a rat muscle crush injury model. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to crush injury of the left extensor digitorum longus muscle. The animals were randomly assigned to the control (CON), pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), delayed PEMF (DPEMF) groups and pulsed electromagnetic fields were administered from 1 or 3 days after muscle injury. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to evaluate of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression to assess muscle recovery. [Results] Muscle injury-induced decrease of HSP 70 protein was increased and recovered by electromagnetic field application in the PEMF and DPEMF groups. Moreover, atrophy and irregular arrangement of muscle fiber caused by crush injury improved in both the PEMF and DPEMF groups. [Conclusion] In the rat model of muscle crush injury, PEMF induced muscle recovery via increased HSJP 70 protein.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual-task balance training on stroke patients’ balance performance. [Subjects and Method] Forty stroke patients were allocated equally and randomly to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group performed the dual-task balance training of standing on a balance pad and moving a cup containing water. The control group performed the single-task balance training of maintaining balance on a balance pad. All the subjects exercised five times per week for 4 weeks. Each group’s balance performance (sway area, sway path, and maximum velocity) was measured using a balance performance monitor, both prior to and after the exercise program. [Results] Comparing measurements from before and after the exercise program, both the experimental group and the control group showed statistically significant changes in sway area and maximum velocity, but not for sway path. Comparing the two groups, the experimental group showed more significant changes than the control group in sway area and maximum velocity, but there were no significant differences in sway distance between the two groups. [Conclusion] For the stroke patients, Dual-task balance training was more effective than single-task balance training. The results should help to promote the wider clinical application of dual-task balance training programs for stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of action observation on walking performance and its clinical feasibility for treatment of hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 30 stroke patients. [Methods] They were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group (n=15) which used the action observation training and the control group (n=15) which did no exercise. [Result] The results indicate that step length (cm), stride length (cm), single support time (%), double support time (%), gait velocity (m/s), and cadence (steps/min) significantly improved in the experimental group. In contrast, in the control group, the results indicate that step length, stride length, single support time, double support time, gait velocity, and cadence did not significantly change. There were significant differences in step length, stride length, single support time, double support time, gait velocity, and cadence between the experimental group and the control group after the intervention of action observation. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the action observation can enhance the walking performance of patients with post stroke hemiparesis.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and upper quadrant posture measured by an ultrasound-based three-dimensional motion analyzer. [Subjects] The participants were 7 females with TMD symptoms (symptomatic group; mean age, 22.3 years) and 13 females without TMD symptoms (asymptomatic group; mean age, 23.3 years). [Methods] Outcome measures were the neck inclination angle (formed by a line connecting C7 and the ear tragus with a horizontal line), the angle of the shoulder (formed by a line connecting C7 and the acromial angle with a horizontal line), and the cranial rotation angle (formed by a line connecting the ear tragus and the corner of the eye with a horizontal line). The maximum range of mouth opening was measured using a scale. A significance level of 5% was used. [Results] The neck inclination angle of the symptomatic group was significantly smaller than that of the asymptomatic group in standing and in sitting. The maximum range of mouth opening of the symptomatic group was significantly smaller than that of the asymptomatic group. [Conclusion] TMD symptoms in young females were associated with head posture measured by an ultrasound-based three-dimensional motion analyzer.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect and problems associated with a newly established program of educational exchange for physical therapy in Mongolia. [Method] Physical therapy education was begun at the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) in July 2007, and lectures and practice for specialized subjects were started in March 2009 in conjunction with Gunma University (Japan). A survey concerning attitudes to rehabilitation and physical therapy was conducted among students in the Department of Physical Therapy before and after lectures. [Results] The curriculum of the Department of Physical Therapy at HSUM included 136 units. Lectures and practice adopted from Gunma University included nine subjects for 18 units. After the lectures, the level of understanding concerning rehabilitation and physical therapy increased. [Conclusion] The students were better able to appreciate the multipronged approach and they also increased their understanding of other occupational categories as a result of the educational opportunities provided in the enhanced curriculum. A future task is to clarify the students’ level of understanding of the contents and skills of physical therapy.
[Purpose] Electromyography (EMG) is a random signal recording process that fully depends on proper electrode placement on the active muscle. The present study investigated and analyzed the electrical (amplitude) responses from three different locations of an adolescent’s biceps brachii muscle during four contractions (concentric, eccentric, isometric and isokinetic) using a wireless EMG sensor. [Subjects and Methods] One healthy male subject (age: 17 years, weight: 60 kg, height: 171 cm, BMI: 20.7, right arm biceps muscle) volunteered for the study. A Shimmer TM wireless EMG sensor (non-invasive technique) was used in this experiment and MVC% was set to 0% and 100% with a 6-kg load. Electrode placement locations on the biceps were, i) between the endplate region and distal tendon insertion ii) in the midst of the muscle belly, and iii) above the medial belly of both head parallel to muscle fibers (long and short head biceps tendon). Statistical analyses were performed to examine the significant differences among the three electrode placements were determined by ANOVA (analysis of variances). [Results] The muscle belly gave significantly higher EMG activity than the other two locations. The medial belly muscle (long and short head biceps tendon) gave a considerably higher signal than the lower part muscle (near the endplate and tendon region). [Conclusion] The overall outcomes demonstrate that, EMG signals varied among the three electrode placements of an adolescent biceps brachii muscle. Generated results will be useful for adolescent’s biceps rehabilitation and any other physiological measurement that concern the upper arm muscles.
[Purpose] Cryotherapy has been used to treat acute skeletal muscle damage, but there are some controversies about the effects of cryotherapy on exercise-induced muscle damage. In present study, we investigated the effect of cool water immersion on exercise-induced muscle damage. [Methods] Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into a control (Cont) group, exercise (Ex) group, and cool water immersion after exercise (Ex+W) group. Rats in the Ex and Ex+W groups performed downhill running at 16 m/min on a -16 degree incline, for 90 minutes. The rats of the Ex+W group were immersed in cool water (20 degrees C for 30 minutes) immediately after exercise. The soleus muscles were removed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise, cross-sectional areas of muscle were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and glucose-6-phoshate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was measured. [Results] Muscle damage was observed in both the Ex and Ex+W groups. The percentage of damaged muscle fibers in the Ex+W group was lower than that in the Ex group at 72 h. G6PD activity in the Ex+W group was lower than that in the Ex group at 48 and 72 h. [Conclusion] These results suggest that cool water immersion after downhill running suppresses exercise-induced muscle damage.
[Purpose] In this study, to investigate the effect of various lower limb heights on the muscle stabilizers and the trunk muscles, we measured the muscle activation of the trunk muscles and the shoulder girdle muscles as different lower limb heights. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 17 healthy adults in their 20s who had normal range of motion and who had no disorders of the shoulder complex, musculoskeletal disease in the upper limbs, or low back pain. [Methods] The lower limb height was controlled during the push-up plus exercise by placing the lower limbs on the ground (0 cm) or elevating them to 30 cm using a box. The height was increased to 60 cm using a Bobath table. To prevent the effect of muscle fatigue, all exercises were randomly performed. To measure muscle activation in the trunk, electrodes were attached to the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and external oblique abdominal muscle. The serratus anterior, deltoid middle fiber, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscle were chosen as scapular stabilizers. [Results] The activities of the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, serratus anterior and that of the deltoid middle fiber increased as the lower limb height increased. In particular, the increase was significant at the level of 60 cm. [Conclusion] Our result that the muscle activation of the shoulder girdle muscles increases as the height of the lower limbs increases during push-up exercise is similar to those of the previous studies. The muscle activities of trunk muscles was also increased. The increase was significant at the lower limb height of 60 cm.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to kinesiologically analyze of the stand-to-sit motion in the third trimester. [Subjects] Eight pregnant women in their third trimester and 8 non-pregnant women participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects were asked to sit-down on a 400-mm-high seat from the standing position. A 3D motion analysis system and a force plate were used to collect data. Measurements analyzed were (1) the time taken to sit down; (2) the leg joint moment; (3) the antero-posterior and vertical floor reaction forces; and (4) the range of motion of the lower limbs and trunk. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the pregnant with non-pregnant women using the Mann-Whitney U test. [Results] For pregnant women, the time taken to sit down, the knee extension moment, as well as the posterior and vertical components of the motion were significantly higher. The ranges of motion of the other joints were not significantly different between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. [Conclusion] Pregnant woman have unstable posterior balance when sitting down due to the increase of the posterior floor reaction force. In the third trimester, the sit-down motion requires attention because of the impact of weight gain and the shift in the center of gravity.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the significance of standing on one leg with eyes open. [Subjects] We categorized the subjects into two groups: 304 people who were able to stand on one leg with eyes open for fifteen seconds or longer and 203 people who were unable to do so. [Methods] We conducted age-adjusted covariance analyses of physical, cognitive, and psychological functions between the two groups. [Results] All scores for muscle strength and walking ability were markedly lower in the unable group. No significant differences in the cognitive functions were noted between the two groups. Scores for a subjective sense of well-being and the purpose in life were lower in the unable group. [Conclusion] Measurement of the time of being able to stand on one leg with eyes open served as a simple test which identified a decrease in the physical functions of the elderly. In addition, the inability to stand on one leg for fifteen seconds was associated with a decrease in subjects’ psychological functions.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a cranio-cervical flexor exercise is effective at improving the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the longus colli (LC), the absolute rotation angle (ARA) and neck disability index (NDI) of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 35 patients who had chronic neck pain. [Methods] The experimental group (n=17) did cranio-cervical flexor exercises and the control group (n=18) did neck isometric exercises. [Results] Paired t-test analysis revealed significant changes in CSA, ARA and NDI within both groups. CSA, ARA and NDI showed significant post-intervention differences between groups. The experimental group showed greater improvement than the control group in CSA of the LC, with a between group difference of 0.07 cm2, in ARA, with a between group difference of 0.39 degree, and in NDI, with a between group difference of 3.47 points. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the cranio-cervical flexor exercise was more effective at enhancing CSA, ARA and treating functional disabilities.