[Purpose] This study examined whether the alpha rhythm sleep alters the EEG activity and response time in the attention and concentration tasks. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 30 healthy university students, who were randomly and equally divided into two groups, the experimental and control groups. They were treated using the Happy-sleep device or a sham device, respectively. All participants had a one-week training period. Before and after training sessions, a behavioral task test was performed and EEG alpha waves were measured to confirm the effectiveness of training on cognitive function. [Results] In terms of the behavioral task test, reaction time (RT) variations in the experimental group were significantly larger than in the control group for the attention item. Changes in the EEG alpha power in the experimental group were also significantly larger than those of the control group. [Conclusions] These findings suggest that sleep induced using the Happy-sleep device modestly enhances the ability to pay attention and focus during academic learning.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether insoles change standing balance on the ground in normal and flat-footed subjects. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with flatfeet and 20 subjects with normal feet were included in this study. [Methods] Body sway was evaluated based on the center of pressure while subjects stood on the ground. Body sway was measured during upright standing with the feet 10 cm apart for 30 seconds. The total locus length and the area of body sway were then measured using a zebris system. Measurements were made under three sets of conditions: using BMZ insoles, which supported the cuboid; using Superfeet insoles, which supported the medial longitudinal arch; and with no insoles. [Results] The 3 insole conditions were compared. On level ground, the total locus length for the Superfeet insole was significantly less than those for the BMZ insole and no insole. [Conclusion] On level ground, Superfeet feet insoles were effective in stabilizing standing balance in both flat-footed and normal-footed subjects.
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other with one week between them. The order of the interventions was completely randomized. [Methods] The baseball pitching velocity, the FR and the SRT were evaluated before and after treatment. [Results] In the NJF group, there were significant differences in baseball pitching velocity, FR and SRT after treatment. In the PNF group, there was a significant difference in SRT after treatment. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens the SRT, increases the baseball pitching velocity and FR, and may be recommended to improve performance in baseball players.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of an endurance exercise training program on cardiac hypertrophy in mice. [Subjects] Male 129 SvJ/C57BL6 mice (n=12) were used. The exercised mice ran on a motor-driven treadmill five days per week for 40 minutes at a speed of 24 m/min for eight weeks. All mice were weighed once a week to monitor excessive increases or decreases in weight. Peak weight was determined as the highest weekly recorded weight. Post-training weight was also taken on the day of final data collection. Following body weight measurement, the heart was excised from the body and weighed. The ratio of heart weight to body weight was calculated as an indicator of cardiac hypertrophy in the current study. Using an independent t test, the ratio of heart weight to body weight was compared between the exercised mice and the sedentary mice. [Results] The results show that the untrained mice had a significantly greater heart weight to body weight ratio compared with the wild-type mice. There was also a significant difference in body weight between the exercised and sedentary groups. The ratio of heart weight to body weight was lower in the untrained mice, but no significance was observed. [Conclusion] Running on the motor- driven treadmill five days per week for 40 minutes at a speed of 24 m/min for eight weeks did not increase in the ratio of heart weight to body weight in mice compared with the sedentary.
[Purpose] This study investigated the difference in muscle activation of the dominant upper extremity in right-handed and left-handed persons during writing. [Subjects] There were 36 subjects (16 left- handers/ 20 right- handers), and the study was conducted from 03/01/2012 to 30/3/2012. [Methods] Six electrodes were attached to the FCU (flexor carpi ulnaris), FCR (flexor carpi radialis), ECU (extensor carpi ulnaris), ECR (extensor carpi radialis), and both UT (upper trapezius) muscles. [Results] FCU muscle activation was 16.77±9.12% in left-handers and 10.29±4.13% (%MVIC) in right-handers. FCR muscle activation was 19.09±9.43% in left-handers and 10.64±5.03% in right-handers. In addition, the UT muscle activation on the writing hand side was 11.91±5.79% in left-handers and 1.66±1.19% in right-handers. [Conclusion] As a result of this study, it was discovered that left-handers used more wrist flexion in performance of the writing task with the dominant upper extremity than right-handers, and that the left-handers activated the wrist and shoulder muscles more than the right-handers. These results indicate a potential danger of musculoskeletal disease in left-hander.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to identify the effects of walking on the body composition, health-related physical fitness, and serum lipids as part of efforts to encourage middle-aged people to participate in walking as a regular and sustainable exercise. [Methods] This study was conducted as a pretest-posttest control group study. The study period was for 12 weeks from January to March 2010. The participants were 43 middle-aged women (age range: 40–55 years) with body fat rates over 30%. Subjects in the experiment group participated in the walking exercise (n = 38), the control group did not participate in the exercise (n = 23). [Results] In the exercise group, statistically significant reductions in weight and body fat were observed among the body composition measurement variables, and statistically significant increases in flexibility and cardiopulmonary endurance were observed among the physical fitness measurement variables. TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in the serum lipid measurement variables showed a statistically significant reduction in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that 12 weeks of walking exercise influenced middle-aged women in a positive way by effecting changes in their body composition, physical fitness, and serum lipids. We believe that these positive changes result in positive effects on the factors for prevention of various adult diseases that can occur in middle-aged women.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the lumbar flexion angle and electromyography (EMG) measurements of trunk muscle activity in individuals with and without limited hip flexion range of motion (ROM) during visual display terminal (VDT) work with cross-legged sitting. [Subjects] The 15 participants included a control group with sufficient hip flexion ROM (n = 7) and an experimental group with limited hip flexion ROM (n = 8). [Methods] All subjects performed VDT work with cross-legged sitting. The lumbar flexion angle was measured using a three-dimensional motion capture system, and the trunk muscle activity was recorded using a surface EMG system during VDT work with cross-legged sitting. The differences in trunk flexion angle and trunk muscle activity between the two groups were analyzed using independent t-tests. [Results] The lumbar flexion angle was significantly greater in the experimental group than the control group, although trunk muscle activity did not differ between the two groups. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that limited hip flexion leads to greater lumbar flexion during cross-legged sitting.
[Purpose] This study compared the effectiveness of stabilization and McKenzie exercises on pain, disability, and thickness of the transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. [Subjects] Thirty patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the McKenzie and stabilization exercise groups. [Methods] Before and after intervention, pain, disability, and thickness of the transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles were evaluated by visual analogue scale, functional rating index, and sonography, respectively. The training program was 18 scheduled sessions of individual training for both groups. [Results] After interventions, the pain score decreased in both groups. The disability score decreased only in the stabilization group. The thickness of the left multifidus was significantly increased during resting and contracting states in the stabilization group. The thickness of the right transverse abdominis during the abdominal draw-in maneuver, and thickness of the left transverse abdominis during the active straight leg raising maneuver were significantly increased in the stabilization group. The intensity of pain, disability score, thickness of the right transverse abdominis during the abdominal draw-in manouver, and thickness of the left transverse abdominis during active straight leg raising in the stabilization group were greater than those on the Mackenzie. [Conclusion] Stabilization exercises are more effective than McKenzie exercises in improving the intensity of pain and function score and in increasing the thickness of the transverse abdominis muscle.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of the ROM exercise on joint components according to histopathological analysis. [Subjects and Methods] In total, twenty-six 9-week-old adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups, the immobilization group (n=10), exercise group (n=10), and control group (n=6). The immobilization group and exercise group were anaesthetized and operated on under sterile conditions. The right knee joints in the immobilization group and exercise group were immobilized with external fixation at 120 degrees of flexion. Range of motion exercise was started from the day after immobilization. ROM exercise was performed in the exercise group once a day for 3 minutes, 6 days a week, for 2 weeks. [Result] The joint capsule in the immobilization group and exercise group showed narrowing of the collagen bundles in interstitial spaces but was less dense in the control group. In the immobilized group, a hyperplastic reaction was associated with infiltration into the articular cavity and adhesion to the surface of the articular cartilage. Conversely, in the exercise group, hyperplasia of tissue was localized to the synovial membrane. [Conclusion] This finding may suggest that ROM exercise induces some changes within the joint components and tissue metabolism.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cervical stabilization exercises on the electromyographic activity of the shoulder stabilizers in normal adults. [Subjects] In the present study, 20 normal adults were divided into an experimental group (EG, n=10) that performed cervical stabilization exercises and shoulder stabilization exercises and a control group (CG, n=10) that performed shoulder stabilization exercises. [Methods] The EG and CG performed their exercises three times per week for four weeks. The cervical stabilization exercises consisted of Craniocervical flexion exercises (CCFEs) that were performed using pressure biofeedback units (PBUs). The shoulder stabilization exercises consisted of scapula-setting exercises, wall stretching, and external rotation exercises. To examine the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius (UT) muscle, lower trapezius (LT) muscle, and serratus anterior (SA) muscle, the electromyograms for these muscles were compared and analyzed. [Results] In comparisons within the groups, the EG showed statistically significant differences in the UT, the LT and the SA. The CG did not show any significant differences. [Conclusion] Cervical stabilization exercises and shoulder stabilization exercises are considered to be an effective intervention for the electromyographic activity of the shoulder stabilizers, the UT, LT, and SA.
[Purpose] This study was conducted on university students with nonspecific low back pain in order to determine the independent variables that affect their pain. [Methods] A total of 514 students were included in this study. Pain was evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A special form was prepared in order to evaluate the following independent variables: gender, weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), working periods sitting straight (television, computer, seminar, etc.), working periods bending at a table (reading, writing, etc.), using lumbar support while sitting, the mean duration of pain within the last one year, type of pain, time of the pain, faculty, class, physical activity habits and smoking. The collected data were evaluated using the CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis method. [Results] The working hours bending at a table, physical activity, height, weight, BMI and educational departments were found not to affect the severity of the pain. The pain severity was affected by the duration of pain complaints within the last one year, the duration of working staying upright, smoking, classes, usage of lumbar support and age variables. [Conclusions] The results of this study show that nonspecific low back pain of university students is affected by many factors such as smoking, class, age, using a computer and lumbar support.
[Purpose] Preparing for prayers, practicing religious meditation and performing prayers are believed to stimulate the visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems, which provide the sensory information that influences human balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Islamic prayer regime on balance. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 31 ± 5 years and a mean body mass index of 27 ± 2 kg/cm2 voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects were divided into two equal groups: one group of subjects who regularly practiced Islamic prayer, and another group of non-practicing subjects. The dynamic balance of individuals in both groups was measured using a Balance Master. [Results] Adult healthy subjects practicing Islamic prayer regimes exhibited statistically significantly better dynamic balance than the non-practicing healthy subjects. [Conclusions] The results of this study support the hypothesis that religious meditation and prayers benefit human physiological function, especially balance.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the activities of the trunk and hip muscles in chronic low back pain (CLBP) women and asymptomatic subjects during the kneeling to half-kneeling task. [Subjects] Twenty-nine CLBP women and thirty asymptomatic subjects (C) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography activity (EMG) of the obliquus internus abdominis (OI), the lumbar erector spinae (LES) and the gluteus medius (GM) muscles was recorded bilaterally. The peak amplitude, the time of peak amplitude and the integrated linear envelope EMG for each muscle were obtained. [Results] The C group bilateral OI and GM muscles displayed higher peak amplitudes and earlier times of peak amplitude. They also had higher integrated linear envelope EMG values. The CLBP group bilateral LES muscles had higher peak amplitudes and earlier times of peak amplitude. They also showed an increased integrated linear envelope EMG values. [Conclusion] The CLBP women activate the LES muscles in the kneeling to half-kneeling task, showing different patterns of motor planning activity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lumbar stability exercises on chronic low back pain by using sling exercise and push-ups. [Subjects] Thirty adult subjects with chronic back pain participated, with 10 adults being assigned to each of 3 exercise groups: general physical therapy (PT), lumbar stability using sling exercises (Sling Ex), and sling exercise plus push-ups (Sling Ex+PU). Each group trained for 30 minutes 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the lumbar muscles, and cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle on computed tomography (CT) were evaluated before and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of therapy. [Results] A significant decrease in ODI was seen in all therapy groups, and this change was greater in the Sling Ex and Sling Ex+PU groups than in the PT group. No changes in sEMG activity were noted in the PT group, whereas significant increases in the sEMG activities of all lumbar muscles were found in the other 2 groups. The increases in the sEMG activities of the rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles of the abdomen were greater in the Sling Ex+PU group than in the other 2 groups. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that Sling Ex+PU, similar to normal lumbar stabilization exercise, is effective in activating and improving the function of the lumbar muscles. These results suggest that Sling Ex+PU has a positive impact on stabilization of the lumbar region.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the visual restriction and unstable base dual-task training (VUDT), the visual restriction dual-task training (VDT), and the unstable base dual-task training (UDT) on the balance and attention of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 38 chronic stroke patients, who were divided into two groups of 13 patients each and one group of 12 patients. They were given dual-task training for 30 minutes per session, three times a week, for eight weeks. Their balance was measured using the center of pressure (COP) migration distances, functional reach test (FRT), and Berg balance scale (BBS), and attention was measured with the Trail Making Tests and the Stroop test. [Results] In comparisons within each group, all the three groups showed significant differences before and after the training (p<0.05), and in the comparisons among the three groups, the VUDT group showed more significant differences compared with the other two groups in all tests (p<0.05). [Conclusion] Dual-task training applied with visual restriction and an unstable base in which the subjects attempted to maintain their balance was effective in improving the balance and attention of stroke patients, and the VUDT was more effective than VDT or UDT.
[Purpose] Sit-to-stand (STS) is one of the important functional tasks people perform throughout the day. This study investigated whether varying angles of knee flexion affect STS patterns in individuals with hemiparesis by using a foot plantar pressure measurement system. [Methods] Fifteen stroke patients with hemiparesis participated for this study. They performed sit-to-stand with three angles of knee flexion (70°, 90°, and 110°). We measured the trajectory of the center of pressure, peak plantar pressure, and symmetry index using a Mat-scan system (Tekscan, South Boston, MA, USA). [Results] As a result, we found that there were significant differences among the three angle conditions (trajectory of center of pressure, peak plantar pressure on the affected side, and symmetry index). However, there was no significant difference in peak pressure according to the knee flexion on the unaffected side. [Conclusion] In the current study, we found that stroke patients with hemiparesis had a compensated STS pattern according to knee flexion angles. This indicates that the peak value of plantar pressure increased and that the trajectory of the center of pressure widened as the angle of knee flexion increased. We also suggest that hemiparesis patients should be more concerned about proper knee angle for symmetrical STS pattern.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to standardize the clock drawing test (CDT) for people with stroke using Rasch analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen items of the CDT identified through a literature review were performed by 159 stroke patients. The data was analyzed with Winstep version 3.57 using the Rasch model to examine the unidimensionality of the items’ fit, the distribution of the items’ difficulty, and the reliability and appropriateness of the rating scale. [Result] Ten out of the 159 participations (6.2%) were considered misfit subjects, and one item of the CDT was determined to be a misfit item based on Rasch analysis. The rating scales were judged as suitable because the observed average showed an array of vertical orders and MNSQ values < 2. The separate index and reliability of the subject (1.98, 0.80) and item (6.45, 0.97) showed relatively high values. [Conclusion] This study is the first to examine the CDT scale in stroke patients by Rasch analysis. The CDT is expected to be useful for screening stroke patients with cognitive problems.
[Purpose] Aging is associated with a progressive decline in overall muscle strength. Loss of lower limb strength leads to an increased risk of falls and a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lower limb strengthening exercise leads to improved lower limb strength and balance function for the elderly. [Subjects] From a total of 74 respondents, 50 subjects were randomly assigned to either a training group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 20). The subjects ranged in age from 65 to 82 years. A randomized controlled trial compared the effects of strengthening exercise and balance function. [Methods] Leg extension and lower curl exercises were performed during the 12-week study. [Results] After training, the lower limb strength and balance of the individuals in the training group had significantly improved compared to the baseline. [Conclusion] Improvement in lower limb strength may lead to balance enhancement in neurologically intact older persons.
[Purpose] To examine changes in the knee joint’s isokinetic muscle functions following systematic and gradual rehabilitation exercises lasting for 12 weeks for male and female patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Differences in muscle functions between the uninvolved side (US) and the involved side (IS) before surgery, differences in muscle functions between US and IS after rehabilitation exercises lasting for 12 weeks, and changes in muscle functions on US and IS between before and after surgery were analyzed to examine the effects of accelerated rehabilitation exercises after ACL reconstruction. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 patients, five females and five males, who underwent ACL reconstruction performed by the same surgeon. [Methods] As a measuring tool, a Biodex Multi-joint system 3pro (USA), which is an isokinetic measuring device, was used to examine the flexion and extension forces of the knee joint. During isokinetic muscle strength evaluation, the ROM of US was set to be the same as that of IS for consistency of measurement. [Results] At 60°/s, the isokinetic muscle functions of the females did not show any significant change between before and after surgery in any of the variables on both US and IS. At 60°/s, the isokinetic muscle functions of the males did not show any significant change between before and after surgery in the peak torque, average power, and entire work done on US. In extension, peak torque on IS did not show any significant change.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive activity combined with active physical exercise for a sample of older adults with dementia. [Subjects] A convenience sample of 30 patients with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score between 16 and 23) was used. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: cognitive activity combined with physical exercise CAE, n=11), and only cognitive activity CA, n=9). [Methods] Both groups participated in a therapeutic exercise program for 30 minutes, three days a week for 12 weeks. The CAE group performed an additional exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for 12 weeks. A Wii Balance Board (WBB, Nintendo, Japan) was used to evaluate postural sway as an assessment of balance. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) were used to assess dynamic balance abilities. The Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) was used to assess gait, and the Digit Span Test (DST) and 7 Minute Screening Test (7MST) were used to measure memory performance. The Mini-Mental Status Exam-Korean version (MMSE-K), Kenny Self-Care Evaluation (KSCE), and Short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to assess quality of life (QOL). [Results] There were significant beneficial effects of the therapeutic program on balance (velocity in EOWB, path length in ECNB, BBS, and MMFE), QOL (MMSE-KC, GDS, KSCE), and memory performance (DSB) in the CAE group compared to CA group, and between pre-test and post-test. [Conclusion] A 12-week CAE program resulted in improvements in balance, memory and QOL. Therefore, some older adults with dementia have the ability to acquire effective skills relevant to daily living.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of Vojta therapy on spatiotemporal gait parameters in children with spastic diplegia. [Methods] The study population consisted of 3 children diagnosed with spastic diplegia. The subjects were treated with Vojta therapy for 8 weeks and followed up for 8 weeks after completion of the therapy. Vicon motion analysis was used to determine the subjects’ spatiotemporal gait parameters. [Results] The following results were noted in the changes of each joint angle in the sagittal plane after Vojta therapy. Subject 1 remained in phase throughout the entire gait cycle and did not show any noticeable improvement, even demonstrating a negative range of motion when compared to the baseline. Subject 2 showed a normal anti-phase in heel strike, and the mid-stance, and swing phases. Subject 3 showed a normal anti-phase in heel strike and mid-stance, but the anti-phase during the swing phase was not significantly different from the baseline. For subjects 2 and 3, compared to the baseline, the range of motion of the hip and knee increased but the range of motion of the ankle decreased. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicate that Vojta therapy can do a good role in improve the spatiotemporal gait parameters of children with spastic diplegia.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different types of bridging exercises on the activities of the trunk muscles. [Methods] Twenty-four students participated in this experiment. The activities of the internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), rectus abdominis (RA), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were measured in four different bridging exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in the IO, EO, RA, and ES among the four kinds of bridging exercise. The activities of IO, EO and RA were the highest in prone bridging (exercise 4), followed by unilateral bridging (exercise 3), and supine bridging on balance pads (exercise 2). In conventional bridging (exercise 1), the activities of IO, EO, and RA were the lowest. The activity of ES was the highest in exercise 3 followed by exercises 2 and 1. The activity of ES was the lowest than in exercise 1. [Conclusions] Bridging exercise in the prone position may be a more effective method of enhancing trunk muscle activities exercises in other positions.
[Purpose] This study implement ankle joint dorsiflexion training for ankle muscle the weakness that impairs stroke patients’ gait performance, to examine the effect of the training on stroke patients’ plantar pressure and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 36 stroke patients diagnosed with stroke due to cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage performed the training. Static muscle stretching was performed four times a week for 20 minutes at a time for 6 weeks by the training group. Ankle dorsiflexor training was performed four times a week, two sets per time in the case of females and three sets per time in the case of males for 6 weeks, by another group. Center of pressure sway amplitude was measured using the F-scan system during gait. All subjects were assessed with the same measurements at a pre-study examination and reassessed at eight weeks. Data were analyzed statistically using the paired t-test and one-way ANOVA. [Results] Among the between ankle dorsiflexor training group, static muscle stretching group, and control group, the difference before and after the training were proven to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] Compared to other training groups, the ankle muscle strength training group showed statistically significant increases of forward thrust at stroke patients’ toe-off which positively affected stroke patients’ ability to perform gait.
[Purpose] Atrophy is a common phenomenon caused by prolonged muscle disuse associated with bed-rest, aging, and immobilization. However, changes in the expression of atrophy-related myoglobin are still poorly understood. In the present study, we examined whether or not myoglobin expression is altered in the gastrocnemius muscles of rats after seven days of cast immobilization. [Methods] We conducted a protein expression and high-resolution differential proteomic analysis using, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and western blotting. [Results] The density and expression of myoglobin increased significantly more in atrophic gastrocnemius muscle strips than they did in the control group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that cast immobilization-induced atrophy may be related to changes in the expression of myoglobin in rat gastrocnemius muscles.
[Purpose] To examine the internal consistency, criterion-related validity, factorial validity, and content validity of the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy (CEPT). [Subjects] The subjects were 278 novice physical therapy trainees and 119 tutors from 21 medical facilities. [Methods] The trainees self-evaluated their clinical competences and the tutors evaluated trainee competences using the CEPT. Overall trainee autonomy was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) for self-evaluation and the trainees were also evaluated by their tutors. The content validity of the CEPT was examined by asking if the CEPT could evaluate the competence of novice physical therapists on a four-point scale. [Results] Cronbach’s alpha of the CEPT was 0.96 for the trainees and 0.97 for the tutors. The correlation coefficient between the total score of the CEPT and whole competence by VAS was 0.83 for the trainees and 0.87 for the tutors. Factor analysis identified two factors, “the specialty of the physical therapist” and “the essential competence of a health professional”. Ninety percent or more of the trainees and the tutors answered that the CEPT could sufficiently evaluate the competence of novice physical therapists. [Conclusion] The CEPT is a reliable and valid scale for clinical competence evaluation of novice physical therapists.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the activities of the muscles around the ankle joint during foot gripping. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 17 healthy females. [Methods] We measured the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activities of the soleus muscle, the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, and the tibialis anterior muscle, and calculated %IEMG during foot gripping in 3 different ankle joint positions: 10° of plantar flexion, 0°, and 10° of dorsiflexion. [Results] The maximal force of foot gripping achived by the crural muscles in any ankle position was 30–50% IMEG of the MVC. Repeated analysis of variance showed that the %IEMG was significantly lower in 10°of dorsiflexion than in the other 2 positions for all muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggested that the crural muscles help the ankle joint by co-contracting during foot gripping.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of idiopathic scoliosis on the human body by comparing the postural balance of adolescents with and without idiopathic scoliosis, to provide basic data for the optimal desirable growth and development of adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects were 128 adolescents diagnosed with scoliosis on X-ray by orthopedists. The subjects were divided into a 10 to 19 degree group, 20 to 29 degree group, and 30 degree and over group according to the degree of scoliosis. For comparison, 15 normal adolescents without orthopedic injury within the last 6 months were selected as a control group. [Methods] As measurement tools, DK2 525R (Dongkang Medical: Korea) was used to measure the Cobb angle and a multifunktional traininggeraete device (MFT, Germany) was used to measure balance. One-way variance of analysis was conducted in order to examine differences among the four groups in left and right balance, forward and backward balance, and overall postural balance, and when there were differences, they were compared in detail using Duncan’s post-hoc test. [Results] The results of scoliosis angle and body mass index (BMI) showed significant differences between the normal group (NG) and the scoliosis groups (GI, G II, G III), but there were no significant differences among the scoliosis groups. The scoliosis groups showed a significantly lower BMI than that of the normal group. In addition, the results of the left/right and the front/rear balance abilities showed significant differences between the normal group and the scoliosis groups. Furthermore, the results of whole body balance ability were showed significant differences between the normal group and the scoliosis groups.
[Purpose] We attempted to determine whether differences of respiratory function could be found in terms of truncal expansion, respiratory muscle strength, and pulmonary function test (PFT) between children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 19 children with spastic diplegic CP (diplegic-CP group) and 10 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (hemiplegic-CP group). For all the children, clinical factors associated with respiratory functions were assessed in terms of truncal expansion (chest and waist expansion), respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiration and expiration pressures: MIP and MEP), and pulmonary function test (FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC). [Results] Overall, the diplegic-CP group showed lower truncal circumference, respiratory muscle strength, and pulmonary function values than the hemiplegic-CP group. However, in the comparison of the two groups significant differences were only found in waist expansion, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that children with diplegic CP have much poorer waist expansion, weaker respiratory muscle, and lower pulmonary function values. These findings will provide valuable information for use in the clinical assessment and treatment of children with spastic CP.
[Purpose] During exercise, skeletal muscle motor units are recruited based on afferent sensory input following peripheral metabolic by-product accumulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lactate plays a role in conveying fatigue-related information to the brain. [Subjects] Eleven healthy adults participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed handgrip exercises at 10%, 30%, and 50% maximal voluntary contraction for 120 s. They were monitored for brachial artery blood pressure, respiratory quotient, muscle fatigue (integrated electromyogram, median power frequency), blood lactate levels, muscle blood flow, and brain activity. [Results] The handgrip exercise protocol caused significant muscle fatigue based on 28% and 37% reductions in median power frequency detected at 30% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction, respectively. Subjects exhibited intensity-dependent increases in blood pressure, respiratory quotient, muscle blood flow, and circulating lactate concentrations. Furthermore, brain activity increased at 30% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction. Multiple regression analysis identified muscle blood flow at 30% maximal voluntary contraction and lactate at 50% maximal voluntary contraction with standardized partial regression coefficients of −0.64 and 0.75, respectively. [Conclusion] These data suggest that blood lactate concentration and muscle blood flow, which reflect muscle metabolism, may convey load intensity information to the brain during muscle fatigue.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of local vibration stimuli on body balance (trace area, trace length, and velocity) in healthy adults during double-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-nine subjects (10 male, 29 female) participated in this study. They were asked to keep their balance while holding four positions: standing with their eyes open, with and without vibration stimuli, and standing with their eyes closed, with and without vibration stimuli. The vibration stimuli, which had a duration of 30 sec, and a frequency of 60–80 Hz, were applied to the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle belly during double-leg standing. Balance measurement was performed using the Balance Trainer 4 (HUR Labs Oy, Tampere, Finland). All subjects provided informed consent prior to participation in this study. [Results] In the open-eyes position, there were no significant differences in trace area, trace length, and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) either with or without vibration stimuli. However, in the closed-eyes position, the vibration stimuli significantly decreased trace area, trace length, and velocity of the COP compared with when no vibration stimuli were applied. [Conclusion] These results suggest that vibration stimuli applied to the lower leg improve balance when a person’s eyes are closed during double-leg quiet standing.
[Purpose]This observational study provides a retrospective description of changes in motor function of a 10 year old child who suffered from motor weakness caused by Moyamoya disease (MMD) over an approximately 3 year follow-up observation period. [Methods] The child was diagnosed as MMD due to multifocal encephalomalacia in both frontal and parietal cortices. After the ischemic attack, the child received physical therapy the based on stroke rehabilitation, including muscle strengthening exercises, training of functional activity/ADL, and neurodevelopmental treatment. [Results] The child’s MRI showed areas of ischemic infarction in both the frontal and parietal lobes. Steno-occlusive findings for both the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery were observed on cerebral angiography. Regarding changes of motor function during the three-year follow-up, significant improvements, in the Motricity index, Modified Brunnstrom Classification, manual function test, and functional ambulatory category were observed. [Conclusion] The basic motor function and functional abilities of the child showed improvement with conservative treatment over approximately three years. The functional motor ability of children with MMD may be similar to the recovery progression of pediatric stroke patients, if there is no re-occurrence of ischemia.