[Purpose] The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the benefits and the basic principles of ultrasonographic examination in the evaluation of sciatic nerve injuries. [Subjects and Methods] Patients with sciatic nerve injury were evaluated using a real-time utrasonographic examination. The capabilty of ultrasonography in terms of determination of the type and the localization of injury, the position of the proximal and distal nerve segments, the presence or absence of a neuroma, and perilesional scar tissue were evaluated in all cases. [Results] Ten cases with sciatic nerve injury were evaluated with real time sonography. Perilesional scar tissue formation was found in 4 (40%) cases. Two (20%) cases had stump neuroma diagnosed by sonographic examination. The capability of ultrasonographic examination was satisfactory for all evaluation parameters. [Conclusion] Ultrasonographic examination of sciatic nerve lesions may be used for the description of the degree of injury, determination of complete or incomplete nerve sectioning, the presence of hematoma and foreign body, the continuity of nerve, determination of nerve stumps, formation of perilesional scar tissue, and the presence of neuroma.
[Purpose] Increased femoral anteversion may occur with hip internal rotation and valgus knee alignment upon landing and is considered a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. We examined the relationship between femoral anteversion and joint motion and muscle activity of the lower extremity in terms of the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury. [Subjects] Sixteen healthy females were divided on the basis of femoral anteversion into low and high groups. [Methods] Femoral anteversion was assessed using Craig's test. We performed kinematic analysis and measured the electromyography activity of the lower extremity upon left single-leg landing. [Results] The high group had a significantly lower hip flexion angle and higher knee flexion and valgus angles than the low group. The rectus femoris showed significantly greater electromyography activities in the high group than in the low group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that increased femoral anteversion results in lower hip flexion angle, higher knee valgus alignment, and greater rectus femoris muscle activity, leading to anterior tibial displacement upon single-leg landing. Increased femoral anteversion may be a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in balance ability of land exercise and underwater exercise on chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 60 patients received exercise for 40 minutes, three times a week, for 6 weeks. [Methods] Subjects from both groups performed general conventional treatment during the experimental period. In addition, all subjects engaged in extra treatment sessions. This extra treatment consisted of unstable surface exercise. The underwater exercise group used wonder boards in a pool (depth 1.1 m, water temperature 33.5°C, air temperature 27°C) dedicated to underwater exercise, and the land exercise group used balance mats. [Result] The joint position sense, sway area, Berg Balance Scale showed significant improvements in both groups. However, the joint position sense test, sway area, and Berg Balance Scale showed there was more improvement in the underwater exercise group than in the land exercise group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that underwater exercise is more effective than land exercise at improving the joint position sense and balance of stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the minimal clinically important difference for comfortable gait speed for patients with stroke. [Subjects] Data were analyzed from 35 patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. [Methods] Two characteristics of gait were measured, assistance required and comfortable gait speed. Patients were grouped as either experiencing or not experiencing a decrease of 2 or more levels of assistance required over the course of rehabilitation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the change in gait speed that best differentiated between patients who did and did not experience the requisite decrease in assistance required for gait. [Results] Twenty-one patients decreased 2 or more levels of assistance whereas 14 did not. Walking speed increased significantly more in the group who experienced a decrease in assistance of at least 2 levels. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a change in walking speed of 0.13 m/s best distinguished between patients who did versus did not experience a reduction in assistance required. [Conclusion] An improvement in gait speed of 0.13 m/s or more is clinically important in patients with stroke.
[Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill training on limb motor function and acetylcholinesterase activity following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Methods] Focal cerebral ischemia was examined in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by using a middle cerebral artery occlusion model. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=12), Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=12), and Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=12). We determined the limb placement test score for each rat on days 1,7, 14, and 21; acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus was examined at the end of the experiment. [Results] We observed that the motor behavior index improved in the treadmill group, and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase activity was decreased. [Conclusion] These results indicated that treadmill training after focal cerebral ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury by improving motor performance and decreasing the levels of acetylcholinesterase activity. Furthermore, these results suggest that treadmill training at an appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation.
[Purpose] This study aims to improve the safety for caregivers and avoid musculoskeletal diseases by examining the shoulder and trunk muscle activity depending on wheelchair handle height as the caregiver provides propulsion to a wheelchair for wheelchair-bound patients. [Subjects] The participants were caregivers who met the criteria for this study (n=30). [Methods] To determine the activity of the shoulder and trunk muscles of caregivers depending on the handle height, the muscle activity was measured as a wheelchair was being pushed under three height conditions. [Results] According to the study results, the deltoid middle fiber, serratus anterior muscle, rhomboid muscle, and erector spinalis of lumbar part showed significantly low muscle activity at a height that produced an elbow joint flexion angle of 30°. Caregivers are highly likely to develop musculoskeletal disease if the handle height is excessively low. In addition, the burden on the shoulder and back muscles can be reduced at heights that lead to flexion of 30°. [Conclusions] As a caregiver pushes a wheelchair, the handle height has a close relationship with the burden on the shoulder and back muscles. If the handle height is excessively low, the caregiver is highly likely to develop musculoskeletal disease.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive resistance training (PRT) integrated with foot and ankle compression on the gait ability of post-stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to two groups: the PRT group (n=14) and the control group (n=14). Subjects in the PRT group received training for 30 minutes, five days per week, for a period of six weeks. Gait ability was evaluated using the RsScan system. [Results] Use of PRT integrated with foot and ankle compression resulted in significant improvements in temporal parameters (gait velocity, step time, and double limb support) and spatial parameters (step length, stride length, and heel-to-heel base of support). [Conclusion] Progressive resistance training integrated with foot and ankle compression improved the gait ability of stroke patients. These results suggest the feasibility and suitability of integration of PRT with foot and ankle compression for individuals with stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of closed kinetic chain exercises performed by an unstable exercise group (UEG) and a stable exercise group (SEG) on the knee joint, proprioception, and functional scores of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. [Subjects] Twenty-eight patients participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were fracture or neurological disease. [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each with 14 people. Each group took part in a 60-minute exercise program, three times a week for six weeks. [Results] The results of the clinical evaluation at 45°proprioception showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The results of the clinical evaluation at 15°proprioception showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] The proprioception and functional scores of the patients in the UEG who underwent ACL reconstruction were superior to those in the SEG group.
[Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of shoulder stability exercises and the effect of stability exercise on the shoulder pain of middle-aged women. [Subjects] Twenty-two middle-aged female subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a shoulder stability exercise group (Experimental group, n=11) and a control group (n=11). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group performed a shoulder stability exercise, which was designed to correct abnormal location of the scapula, for 40 minutes per day, three times per week, over a period of four weeks. Range of motion, muscle strength, and grasping power were measured to determine the effect of the shoulder stability exercise. The measured parameters were evaluated before and after four weeks of exercise. [Results] Following intervention, range of motion, muscle strength, and grasping power showed greater improvements in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that shoulder stability exercise can improve the shoulder function of middle-aged women, and prevent damage to the shoulder joint. We consider this exercise would be useful in clinical rehabilitation.
[Purpose] This study investigated changes in the activation of the main elbow muscle while performing tasks similar to activities of daily living (ADL) with and without a cock-up splint. [Methods] Sixteen participants performed a simulated feeding task and picked up light and heavy cans in the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test. The activation of the biceps brachii, the triceps brachii, and the brachioradialis with and without the cock-up splint was measured using a BTS FreeEMG 300 wireless electromyography system (BTS, Inc., Milan, Italy). [Results] The activation of the biceps brachii and the brachioradialis was significantly higher while performing the simulated feeding task with the cock-up splint than without the splint. While picking up the light and heavy cans, the activation of the brachioradialis was significantly decreased by wearing the cock-up splint. In the heavy cans task, the activation of the triceps brachii was significantly higher with the cock-up splint than without the splint. [Conclusion] This study showed that diverse muscles' activation was increased or decreased when wearing the cock-up splint while performing tasks similar to ADL. The results of this study can be used as an educational resource for therapists teaching patients about splint application and splint compliance in ADL.
[Purpose] Balance is an integral part of human ability. The smart balance master system (SBM) is a balance test instrument with good reliability and validity, but it is expensive. Therefore, we modified a Wii Fit balance board, which is a convenient balance assessment tool, and analyzed its reliability and validity. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 20 healthy young adults and 20 elderly people, and administered 3 balance tests. The correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation of both instruments were analyzed. [Results] There were no statistically significant differences in the 3 tests between the Wii Fit balance board and the SBM. The Wii Fit balance board had a good intraclass correlation (0.86–0.99) for the elderly people and positive correlations (r = 0.58–0.86) with the SBM. [Conclusions] The Wii Fit balance board is a balance assessment tool with good reliability and high validity for elderly people, and we recommend it as an alternative tool for assessing balance ability.
[Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods] Subjects were asked to adopt a supine position, and the tip of the biofeedback pressure unit was placed under the posterior superior iliac spine. Then, the pressure was adjusted to 40 mmHg while referring to the pressure gauge connected to the biofeedback pressure unit. Subjects were instructed to increase the pressure by 10 mmHg using the drawing-in technique upon the oral instruction, “Start,” and to maintain the drawn-in state. The time during which the pressure was maintained within an error range of ±1–2 mmHg was measured in seconds. [Result] During the abdominal drawing-in exercises, the activity of the rectus abdominis, the internal and external obliques, and the transverse abdominis increased as the knee joint flexion angle increased from 45° to 120°. [Conclusion] When trunk stabilization exercises are performed at the same pressure to reduce damage after the acute phase of low back pain, trunk muscle strength can be efficiently increased by increasing the knee joint angle gradually, while performing abdominal drawing-in exercises with a biofeedback pressure unit.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle plantarflexor strength training on selective voluntary motor control, gait parameters, and gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on changes in the strength and muscle activity of the ankle plantarflexors. [Methods] Six children aged between 4 and 10 years with CP participated in a 6 week strengthening program. The subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of ankle plantarflexor strength, muscle activity, gait velocity, cadence, step length, and D (standing) and E (walking, running, and jumping) dimensions of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). The data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. [Results] The strength of the plantarflexors increased in the majority of subjects. Significant and clinically meaningful post-intervention improvements in subject's gait velocity, cadence, and step length were found. [Conclusion] The controlled ankle plantarflexor strengthening program may lead to improvements in strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters of children with CP.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare electrophysiological characteristics observed in nerve conduction studies (NCS) of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT 1). [Subjects] A differential diagnosis of acquired and congenital demyelinating neuropathies was based on a study of 35 patients with NCS-confirmed CIDP and 30 patients with CMT 1 genetically proven by peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) gene analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and Southern blot analysis. [Methods] We analyzed values collected in motor nerve conduction studies. We conducted dispersion analysis of the amplitudes of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of various nerve types and correlation coefficient analysis of the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV). [Results] We found that CIDP and CMT 1 were clearly attributable to severe polyneuropathy. In dispersion analysis, CIDP showed greater differences in proximal-to-distal amplitude ratios. Moreover, CMT 1 showed relatively high correlations compared to CIDP based on correlation coefficient analysis of MNCV. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that CIDP showed greater asymmetry than CMT 1 in MNCV and CMAP amplitudes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the foot and ankle condition between elite athletes and non-athletes. [Subjects] The elite athletes group included 85 subjects (28 males and 57 females) and the non-athletes group included 85 subjects (38 males and 47 females). [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for pain (visual analogue scale, VAS) and foot and ankle condition (The Foot and Ankle Disability Index, FADI, and The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, FAOS). [Results] The elite athlete group showed significant differences from the non-athletes group in VAS, FADI (FADI, FADI-Sports), and FAOS (FAOS-symptoms, FAOS-pain, FAOS-ADL, FAOS-sports, FAOS-QoL). In addition, a meaningful difference in VAS, FADI-Sports, and FAOS-symptoms was observed between gymnasts and wrestlers. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the necessity prevention of injury to the foot and ankle of elite athletes, and for the development of exercise for the rehabilitation of foot and ankle injuries, because there is a difference in foot and ankle condition between elite athletes and non-athletes.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct a scientific analysis of the effectiveness of Kinesio taping at preventing injury and improving horse racing jockey' performance, by studying the effects on isokinetic muscular function of Kinesio taping applied to the knee joint muscle. [Subjects] Eight horse racing jockeys were selected for this study. [Methods] Measurement of isokinetic muscular function of both flexor and extensor muscles was performed at the angular velocities of 60°/sec and 180°/sec using a Biodex system 3, before and after application of Kinesio taping to the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and hamstring. [Result] At the angular velocities of 60°/sec and 180°/sec, significant differences were observed in both flexor and extensor peak torque, average power, and total work of the knee joint after application of Kinesio taping. [Conclusion] The application of Kinesio taping has a positive effect on the function of both knee flexors and extensors, and also kinetic ability. Therefore, its use would lead to a significant increase in the muscle function of horse racing jockeys.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness (reliability and validity) of the pendulum test using a Noland-Kuckhoff (NK) table with an attached electrogoniometer to measure the spasticity of patients with brain lesions. [Subjects] The subjects were 31 patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury. [Methods] The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to verify the test–retest reliability of spasticity measures obtained using the pendulum test. Pearson's product correlation coefficient was used to examine the validity of the pendulum test using the amplitude of the patellar tendon reflex (PTR) test, an objective and quantitative measure of spasticity. [Results] The test–retest reliability was high, reflecting a significant correlation between the test and the retest (ICCs = 0.95–0.97). A significant negative correlation was found between the amplitude of the PTR test and the four variables measured in the pendulum test (r = −0.77– −0.85). [Conclusion] The pendulum test using a NK table is an objective measure of spasticity and can be used in the clinical setting in place of more expensive and complicated equipment. Further studies are needed to investigate the therapeutic effect of this method on spasticity.
[Purpose] This study was designed to determine whether smoking affects endothelium function after cold therapy in young men. [Subjects] The final cohort included 27 healthy men (age, 20–21 years). Because an impact on vascular endothelium function was anticipated to be caused by smoking, the study enrolled 14 participants in a smoking group and 13 in a non-smoking group. [Methods] Vascular endothelial function was assessed by determining the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), using finger-tonometry. RHI was measured twice, at rest (baseline) and after a cold stimulus. The forearm was cooled with an ice bag for 10 min as the cold stimulus. Comparisons between the RHI at baseline and after cold treatment, and between the smoking and non-smoking groups, were performed using the paired and unpaired t-tests, respectively. [Results] There was a significant difference in baseline RHI values between the smoking and non-smoking groups, but there was no significant difference between the baseline and post-treatment RHI values in either group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that cigarette smoking damages the endothelial cells in young men with a short history of smoking. However, cold therapy did not have a significant impact on the RHI in either group.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the cervical extension angle and the upper trapezius muscle activity between overhead work and below-knee work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–30 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during overhead work and below-knee work. [Results] The results show that the cervical extension angle and upper trapezius muscle activity were significantly increased during below-knee work compared to overhead work. [Conclusion] Below-knee work is more likely to cause neck and shoulder pain than overhead work. Therefore, future studies should investigate below-knee work in detail.
[Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.
[Purpose] The present study examined the effects of knee flexion angle on hip extensor muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects maintained knee flexion angles of 0°, 30°, 60°, 90° and 110° in the prone position and performed maximal voluntary contraction in hip extension. Maximum torque in hip extension at the different angles was measured, and surface electromyogram activities of the gluteus maximus (GM), biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) were recorded and normalized by the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). [Results] The maximum torque of the hip extensor showed significant decreases between 0°and 60°, 90° and 110° of knee flexion. The muscle activity of BF was significantly high at 0°, and GM showed a significantly higher activity than both BF and ST at 60°, 90°and 110° of knee flexion. [Conclusion] The maximum torque in hip extension and muscle activities of BF and ST were significantly high at 0° but they decreased at knee flexion angles of more than 60°. Therefore, we consider that more than 60° of knee joint flexion is required to increase GM activity, and to reduce the muscle activities of BF and ST.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in muscle activation patterns of the biceps brachii (BB) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles, while measuring the resultant force (RF) at different shoulder flexion angles. [Subjects] Thirteen healthy males (age 24.85±3.4 years, weight; 77.8±7.9 kg; height, 1.7±0.05 m) were enrolled in this study. [Methods] The resultant force was measured by a force transducer . The elbow angle remained constant and the flexion shoulder angle was changed (30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90°). [Results] The results of the surface EMG show the largest muscle activities occurred at a shoulder flexion of 75° for BB and 90° for FCR. The largest resultant force was measured at a shoulder flexion angle of 75°. We conclude, that when performing the biceps curl exercise using an arm curl machine, the shoulder should be flexed at 75° to maximize the focus of the exercise for the BB. [Conclusion] These results are useful from the perspective of design as they highlight the differences in the muscle activation of BB and FCR with postural change. Ultimately this knowledge can be used in the design of rehabilitation training for the shoulder as they show that posture can affect muscle activation.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the behavior of the mean and median frequencies of the electromyography signal of the mastication muscles of adolescents with different degrees of TMD severity. [Subjects] Forty-two adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. [Methods] The adolescents were classified according to severity using the Helkimo Index. The control group consisted of 14 subjects with no signs or symptoms of TMD. Three readings were taken in during maximum intercuspation and mandibular rest, with each reading lasting 10 seconds. [Results] Significant differences (p=0.0001) were found in the mean frequency (Hz) between the control group (CG), mild TMD group (MG) and moderate/severe TMD group (MSG), especially during mandibular rest, for all muscles evaluated: right temporal: CG (137.5), MG (194.2), MSG (291.7); left temporal: CG (106.9), MG (200.6), MSG (294.2); right masseter: CG (155.7), MG (242.8), MSG (278.3); left masseter: CG (125.0), MG (214.6), MSG (316.7). Greater differences among groups were found under the condition of mandibular rest. Conclusions: Adolescents with TMD especially those with more severe symptoms exhibit hyperactivity of the mastication muscles.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the most appropriate height for shoe heels by measuring the displacement of the COP (center of pressure) and changes in the distribution of foot pressure after walking in flat (0.5 cm), middle-heeled (4 cm), and high-heeled (9 cm) shoes for 1 hour. [Methods] A single-subject design was used, with 15 healthy women wearing shoes with heels of each height in a random order. The foot pressure and displacement of COP before and after walking in an ordinary environment for 1 hour were measured using an FDM-S (zebris Medical GmbH, Germany). [Results] The distribution of foot pressure did not change significantly after walking in middle-heeled (4 cm) shoes but did change significantly after walking in either flat (0.5 cm) or high-heeled (9 cm) shoes. Similarly, the COP was not significantly displaced after walking in middle-heeled (4 cm) shoes but was significantly displaced after walking in either flat (0.5 cm) or high-heeled (9 cm) shoes. [Conclusion] Both flat and high-heeled shoes had adverse effects on the body. Middle-heeled (4 cm) shoes are preferable to both flat (0.5 cm) and high-heeled (9 cm) shoes for the health and comfort of the feet.
[Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate the changes in one-legged standing balance of the ipsilateral lower limb following unilateral isokinetic strength training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group, so that each group included 15 subjects. Subjects in the training group performed unilateral ankle isokinetic exercises of the dominant leg using the Biodex 3 PRO System for a period of four weeks. Ipsilateral one-legged standing balance was evaluated before and after the intervention with three stability indexes of balance using the Biodex System: Anterior-Posterior Stability Index (APSI), Medial-Lateral Stability Index (MLSI), and Overall Stability Index (OSI). [Results] Comparison of pre- and post-test data revealed significant improvements in strength values (dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, eversion, and inversion) and stability indexes (APSI, MLSI, OSI). [Conclusion] These results suggest that ankle strengthening exercise can be considered as a form of exercise that may assist individuals with improvement of balance.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of endurance exercise on the cardiac mitochondrial function of mice. [Subjects] Ten 129 SvJ/C57BL6 Male mice were used. The mice were randomly divided into an exercise group (n=5; mean ± SD weight, 27.4 ± 1.6 g) and a control (n=5; mean ± SD weight, 28.2 ± 1.1 g). The exercise mice ran on a motor driven treadmill 5 days per week for 30 minutes at a speed of 24 m/min for 8 weeks. Mitochondrial function as measured RCI was compared between the exercise and control group mice using an independent t test. [Results] The exercise mice had a significantly greater state 4 respiration than to the sedentary control mice. There was also a significant difference in RCI between exercise and sedentary control mice. [Conclusion] Endurance exercise decreased RCI, indicating an uncoupling of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation.
[Purpose] Balance and gait ability determine to a large degree the level of independence of daily living which is an important goal of rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to examine the effectiveness of an ankle proprioceptive control program on ankle muscle strength, balance, and gait of chronic stroke patients. [Methods] Thirteen chronic stroke patients more than six months post-stroke were recruited. All subjects received ankle proprioceptive control training for 30 minutes per session, two days per week, over a period of six weeks. Outcome measures were ankle strength (BTE-Primus), the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), and spatiotemporal parameters measured by a GAITRite instrument. [Results] Significant improvements in ankle dorsiflexor strength, TUG, gait speed and cadence, step length, and stride length were observed on the paretic side. [Conclusion] The results of this study provide evidence in support of incorporation of an ankle proprioceptive control program for effective improvement of both balance and gait ability of chronic stroke patients. The findings of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of an ankle proprioceptive control program for chronic stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of stomatognathic alignment exercise on temporomandibular joint function and swallowing function of stroke patients presenting limited mouth opening. [Subjects] Fourteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis presenting limited mouth opening were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group, with 7 subjects in each group. [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in a stomatognathic alignment exercise program that consisted of mobility exercises of the TMJ and neck and postural correction. Main outcome measures were neck mobility, the active maximum range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index (CMI), and the Mann assessment of swallowing ability (MASA) score. [Results] The changes in the values of the range of mouth opening, CMI, MASA, and all the parameters of neck mobility were significantly different between the groups. Furthermore, post-test values appeared to be significantly different for the range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index, and the MASA scores between the groups (p>0.05). [Conclusion] Stomatognathic alignment exercise may improve TMJ function and swallowing function of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis.
[Purpose] To assess the association between the oclusal characteristics, headache, parafunctional habits and clicking sounds and signs/symptoms of TMD in adolescents. [Subjects] Adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. [Methods] The participants were evaluated using the Helkimo Index and a clinical examination to track clicking sounds, parafunctional habits and other signs/symptoms of temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were classified according to the presence or absence of headache, type of occlusion, facial pattern and type of bite. In statistical analyse we used the chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test, with a level of significance of 5%. [Results] The sample was made up of 81 adolescents with a mean age of 15.64 years; 51.9% were male. The prevalence of signals/symptoms of TMD was 74.1%, predominantly affecting females. Signals/symptoms of TMD were significantly associated with clicking sounds, headache and nail biting. No associations were found between signals/symptoms of TMD and angle classification, type of bite and facial pattern. [Conclusion] Headache is one of the most closely associated symptoms of TMD. Clicking sounds were found in the majority of cases. Therefore, the sum of two or more factors may be necessary for the onset and perpetuation of TMD.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of abdominal hollowing during lower-limb proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on the activation of contralateral muscles. [Subjects] Twenty male college students without symptoms or signs of muscular or nervous disease participated in this experiment after signing a consent form. [Methods] All the subjects were measured with electromyography (EMG) in a muscle activation test before and after abdominal hollowing. In the PNF program, the lower-limb pattern of PNF training, was maintained for 5 seconds, followed by a 2-minute break. This was repeated three times. The resting time between sets was 30 minutes. Surface EMG (Keypoint, Medtronic Inc., USA) was used for the measurements, and the highest value of three measurements was used in the analysis. [Result] The results revealed a significant change in the muscular activation of the opposite-side lower limbs. The muscular activations of the vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and gastrocnemius were increased significantly after the abdominal hollowing. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that abdominal hollowing in PNF pattern training can be effective at promoting muscular activation of the contralateral muscles. To promote muscular activation of the opposite side in lower-limb PNF pattern training, abdominal hollowing should be considered to improve the effect of PNF pattern training.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of perceived social support on the parenting stress of mothers who have children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Methods] This study was conducted using surveys, literature review, and interviews. Survey data were collected from 181 mothers of children (under 18 years of age) with CP. [Results] Level of disability, mother’s health status and social support were significant predictors of the parenting stress of mothers. [Conclusion] We have to comprehend and share the psychological and physical affliction of mothers having much difficulty nurturing children with CP. Also, the government should take social responsibility for the upbringing of their children, developing back-up programs for mothers and making them comprehensively available to support the psychological and physical health of mothers of children with CP.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of bridging exercise on different support surfaces on the thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis and lower extremity muscle activities. [Subjects] Thirty-five students of H University. [Methods] The experimental group (n=18) performed bridging exercise on the sling support surface, and the control group (n=17) performed bridging exercise on a general support surface. [Results] Thickness changes in the musculus transversus abdominis were 0.35 cm in the experimental group, and 0.17 cm in the control group, suggesting that the experimental group showed a more significant change. For the lower extremity muscular activity, there was a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group only in the biceps femoris muscle. [Conclusion] Based on these results, we consider that bridging exercise on a sling support surface would increase the thickness of the transversus abdominis and lower extremity muscle activities in rehabilitation programs for patients with back pain.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic passive exercise and motion velocity on passive stiffness. In addition, we also discuss the effects of the contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles on passive stiffness. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 healthy men with no bone or joint disease. [Methods] Isokinetic passive exercise and isometric muscle contraction were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. The angular acceleration measured by the accelerometer was compared before and after each task. [Results] After the passive exercise, the angular acceleration increased in the phase of small damped oscillation. Moreover, the effect was higher at high-speed movement. The angular acceleration was decreased by the contraction of the agonist muscle. Conversely, the angular acceleration was increased by the contraction of the antagonist muscle. [Conclusion] Isokinetic passive exercise reduced passive stiffness. Our results suggest the possibility that passive stiffness is increased by agonist muscle contraction and decreased by antagonist muscle contraction.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.
[Purpose] The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of individual strengthening exercises for the anterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with flat back. [Subject] A 37 year-old male, who complained of LBP pain at L3-5 levels with flat back, participated. [Methods] He performed the individual strengthening exercises for anterior pelvic tilt muscles (erector spinae,iliopsoas, rectus femoris). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles of the right and left sides were recovered to normal ranges. His lumbar ROMs increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that individual resistance exercises are a necessary approach for effective and fast strengthening of pelvic anterior tilt muscles in LBP with flat back.