[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the H-reflex in participants before and after alcohol intake. [Subjects] The aim of this study was to investigate the impact on the H-reflex after alcohol intake by performing experiments with adult subjects who were 19 to 27 years of age. Thirty subjects (men=15, women=15) were arranged into three groups. There were 10 people in each group. [Method] The three groups consumed 0.05 mL/kg, 0.4 mL/kg and 0.8 mL/kg of alcohol, respectively. An MP150 (BIOPAC Systems, Inc., Goleta, CA, USA) was used to obtain the values measured by electromyography (EMG) using Ag-Ag/Cl measurement electrodes (BIOPAC, diameter of 2 cm). Waves were measured to assess the action potential of the central neuron. [Results] In Group I, the H-reflex was 4% lower after 6 hours compared with before alcohol intake. In Group II, it was 10% lower after 6 hours compared with before alcohol intake. In Group III, it was 31% lower after 6 hours compared with before alcohol intake. H-reflex was mostly decreased in the three groups after alcohol intake. [Conclusion] Drinking may cause problems with ADL. The results also show that having alcohol before work that requires intensive concentration would cause more accidents and injuries, as alcohol affects the human H-reflex. The amount of alcohol intake was found to have an influence on the H-reflex.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to validate the effects of an exercise program developed for healthy Japanese young men. This program was established as a basis for an exercise program for diabetic patients in Mongolia. [Methods] Ten healthy young men underwent the exercise tolerance test. They participated in a light exercise program consisting of 10 stretching exercises and 11 light exercises. During the exercise tolerance test and exercise program, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. The intensity of the exercise program was determined by taking the average of the VO2 parameters during exercise and dividing it by the maximum value for VO2 (VO2max). Correlation coefficients for VO2, HR, and RPE were calculated during the exercise tolerance test and all exercises. [Results] During the exercise program, VO2 was approximately 20% of VO2max, HR was 85–100 bpm, and RPE was 10–11. A high correlation coefficient was observed during the exercise tolerance test, and a moderate correlation was observed during the exercise program. [Conclusion] The intensity of the exercise program in this study was low to moderate. Thus, the exercise program must be revised after validating it among diabetic patients in Mongolia.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference between the flatfoot and normal foot on slopes using electromyography. [Subjects] This study was conducted on 30 adults having normal feet (N=15) and flatfeet (N=15) from who were 21 to 30 years old and no neurological history or gait problems. [Methods] A treadmill (AC5000M, SCIFIT, UK) was used to analyze kinematic features during walking, using slopes of −10, 0, and 10% and normal gait velocities. A surface electromyogram (TeleMyo 2400T, Noraxon Co., USA) was used to measure muscle activity changes. [Results] Muscle activity of the flatfoot was significantly different at most muscles, and muscle activity in the normal foot was significantly different in the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, medial gastrocnemius, and lateral gastrocnemius. Comparison of muscle activity between the flatfoot and normal foot showed significant differences in the tibialis anterior and abductor hallucis muscle. [Conclusion] In the gait of people with flatfoot while walking on slopes, muscle activation of the tibialis anterior is higher than for normal feet and muscle activation of the abductor hallucis muscle is relatively lower than for normal feet in the gait while walking on slopes. This is due to lack of the ability to absorb shock on the ground as a result of the weakned function of the medial longitudinal arch.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate how older adults adjust gait patterns when stepping over a ground-based obstacle under two different lighting conditions. [Subjects] A total of 10 community-dwelling healthy older adults (mean age, 67.9 ± 2.12 years; age range, 65–72 years) were enrolled in this study. [Methods] All participants stood quietly in a self-selected foot position on the floor. Each participant was then instructed to step over a 10 cm high wooden obstacle under two illumination conditions (1 and 200 lx) at a self-selected pace with the right leg in response to the verbal cue “GO”, and continued walking with the left leg on a 5 m pathway. Toe clearances and step parameters were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system. [Results] Under the low lighting condition, toe clearance of the trailing leg was significantly lower than under the normal lighting condition. However, no significant differences were observed in toe clearance of the lead leg, step velocity, stride length, step length, cadence, or swing/stance duration between the normal and low lighting conditions. [Conclusion] Older adults reduce toe clearance of the trailing leg under low lighting conditions while stepping over an obstacle, which places them at greater risk of falling.
[Purpose] This study applied the lunge exercise using a variety of foot wedge boards to analyze differences in the muscle activities of the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and the VMO/VL ratios. [Subjects] This study was performed on 20 asymptomatic males. [Methods] Surface electromyography measurements were obtained under 5 lunge exercise conditions. [Result] The EMG activity for the VL muscle significantly increased in the order of conditions as follows: anterior wedge < no wedge and medial wedge < lateral wedge and posterior wedge. The EMG activity for the VMO muscle significantly increased in the order of conditions as follows: anterior wedge < no wedge and lateral wedge < medial wedge and posterior wedge. The VMO/VL ratios under the medial wedge and posterior wedge conditions were significantly increased. [Conclusion] Use of medial and posterior wedge boards during the lunge exercise can selectively strengthen the VMO.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show the effects of an unstable dual foot support on the trunk flexion angle and rectus femoris (RF), L4 erector spinae (L4-ES), and external oblique (EO) muscles activities during computer work. [Subjects] Fourteen computer workers were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed computer work with and without an unstable dual foot support, and the muscle activities of the RF, L4-ES, EO were measured. [Results] The trunk flexion angle significantly decreased during working with the unstable dual foot support compared to without. The normalized EMG data of the RF, L4-ES and EO muscles significantly increased during working with the unstable dual foot support compared to without. [Conclusion] We suggest that the unstable dual foot support would be a portable and cost effective assistive tool for encourage an optimal sitting posture in computer workers.
[Purpose] To analyze dynamic lower cervical spine kinematics under neutral head extension (Ex) and protracted head extension (Pro-Ex) using fluoroscopy. [Method] The intervertebral body angle of the lower cervical spine of 8 healthy individual was analyzed using fluoroscopy during cervical extension with the head in the neutral (Ex) and protracted (Pro-Ex) positions. [Results] At maximum cervical extension position, we noted a significanly smaller value in the Pro-Ex position than in Ex position. During extension, the intervertebral body angle was significantly greater at C3-4 and less at C6-7 level in the Pro-Ex position compared to the Ex position in the initial phase. However, there was no significant difference in the intervertebral body angle between the two positions in final phase of extension. This shows greater extension movement C6-7 level in Pro-Ex. [Conclusion] The pro-Ex result showed less range of motion of extension. This suggests exaggerated hypermobility in the lower segments of the cervical spine, which might be implicated in early degenerative disease of the cervical spine.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a combination of inspiratory diaphragm exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle activation of stroke patients. [Methods] Thirty stroke patients were randomly and equally allocated to an experimental group and a control group, and the intervention was conducted five times per week for four weeks. In each session, both groups received rehabilitative exercise treatment for 30 minutes, and a feedback breathing device exercise for 15 minutes. In addition, the experimental group performed a combination of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and the expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise for 15 minutes. Prior to and after the intervention, patients’ pulmonary functions were measured using a spirometer. The pulmonary functions assessed were tests included FVC, FEV1, FVC/FEV1, PEF, VC, TV, IC, ERV, IRV. [Results] With respect to changes in the pulmonary functions of both groups after the intervention, the experimental group showed significant differences in FVC/FEV1, TV, and IC, but not in FVC, FEV1, PEF, VC, ERV, and IRV. The control group showed no significant differences. There were significant differences in FEV1, TV, and IC between the two groups, but no significant differences in FVC, PEF, FVC/FEV1, VC, ERV, and IRV after the experiment. [Conclusions] The experimental group, which conducted a combination of breathing machine exercise and the respiratory muscle strengthening exercise, saw their respiratory ability increase more significantly than the control group. The combination breathing exercise was found to improve pulmonary functions of stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study was done to determine the effect of a complex exercise on quadriceps activity and pain of elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a clinical setting. [Subjects] Ttwelve subjects over the age of 65, who were diagnosed with knee OA and hospitalized at a rehabilitation facility in the Republic of Korea, participated in this study. [Methods] All participants were supervised by an expert. They performed a program which consisted of stretch and strength exercises with traditional therapy for 10 weeks. The main outcome measures were assessed a pain scale and EMG data (%MVIC) of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis (VM) at baseline, after 5 weeks of exercise, and after 10 weeks of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference between the male and female groups in pain or quadriceps activity. After the 10-week intervention, all participants showed improvement of RF, VL and VM activities and had decreased knee pain. [Conclusions] Older patients with OA showed a reduction in knee pain and improvement quadriceps activity after performing a complex exercise program that might help to stabilize the knee.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a self-training physiotherapy program (STPP) on the pulmonary functions, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), and post-thoracotomy pain of patients who had undergone lobectomy due to lung cancer. [Subjects] STPP was performed for 4 weeks by 15 patients who had undergone lobectomy for lung cancer. [Methods] Forced expiratory volume for one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured before surgery, 2 weeks after surgery, and 4 weeks after surgery. The occurrence of PPCs during the two-week hospitalization period was recorded. Post thoracotomy pain was measured 1 day after surgery, 2 weeks after surgery, and 4 weeks after surgery. [Results] FEV1 and FVC were significantly decreased at 2 weeks after surgery, as compared to before surgery, but had significantly increased at 4 weeks after surgery, as compared to 2 weeks after surgery. PPCs did not occur in any subject. Post-thoracotomy pain had significantly decreased at 4 weeks after surgery, as compared to 1 day after surgery. [Conclusion] STPP has positive effects on pulmonary functions after lobectomy for lung cancer, and prevented of PPCs. However, the alleviation of post-thoracotomy pain may be the result of natural amelioration rather than STPP.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO) and vastus lateralis muscle (VL) during squat exercise with various hip adduction loads using a pressure-biofeedback unit, and to suggest the most effective exercise method. [Subjects] We recruited 15 healthy adult females with no pain in the knee joint and no other orthopedic problems of the lower limbs. [Methods] The enrolled individuals performed four exercises (conventional squat exercise, maximal load hip adduction squat exercise, 80% hip adduction squat load exercise, 40% hip adduction load squat exercise). [Result] VMO was more active at 80% and 40% hip adduction loads than in the conventional squat and maximal loading hip adduction squat exercises. [Conclusion] We suggest using a 40%~80% hip adduction load in squat exercises for VMO strengthening in the clinical setting.
[Purpose] This study examined periscapular muscle activities and performed a kinematic analysis of the push-up plus exercises with the lower limbs supported on a stable surface (bench) and an unstable surface (elastic ball). [Subjects and Method] The subjects were 15 college students. Surface electromyograms were recorded of the upper trapezius, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, and infraspinatus while the subjects performed the push-up plus exercises with their feet placed on a bench or an elastic gym ball. Markers for kinematic changes of elbow flexion, shoulder extension, shoulder retraction and scapular adduction were attatched the C7 and T7 spinous processes, both acromions, scapula superior and inferior angles, humeral lateral epicondyles, and ulnar styloid processes. The subjects completed three sets of push-up plus exercise. Three dimensional angles were calculated for the elbow, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joint motions. The collected data were analyzed using the paired t-test and SPSS 18.0. [Result] There were statistically significant increase in the serratus anterior, infraspinatus, latissimus dorsi muscle activities during push-up plus exercise performed on the unstable surface, while the activity of upper trapezius increased during push up plus exercise performed on the stable surface. The angle of shoulder extension was significantly greater on the stable surface than on the unstable surface. The length of scapular adduction was significantly greater on the stable surface than on the unstable surface. [Conclusion] When the push-up plus exercise was performed on an unstable surface, recruitment of the periscapular muscles helped to stabilize the instable scapula.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and physical performance of mothers of children with different types of disability. [Subjects] Twenty-three mothers of children with mental and motor retardation, 21 mothers of children with Down syndrome, 16 mothers of children with motor retardation, 12 mothers of children with mental retardation, and 20 mothers of healthy children were included in this study. [Method] Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory. Physical performance was evaluated using the Fifty-Foot Walk, and the Sit to Stand and Bend Forward Tests. [Results] There were statistically significant differences among the groups in depression score, walking velocity, balance and endurance. Walking velocity and balance ability were found to have an effect on mean Beck depression scores. [Conclusions] All mothers should be supported psychologically and physically, especially those who have children with mental and motor retardation.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the current perception threshold (CPT), in a comparison with the visual analog scale (VAS), to assess its selectivity in assessing the excitability of Aβ, Aδ and C fibers in subjects with sub-acute post-operative pain who were being treated with conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 17 subjects (mean age of 29.2 ±10.8 years) participated in this study. For all subjects, the study commenced on the fifth post-operative day and continued for the next five consecutive days following a descriptive time-series design. Both CPT and VAS were measured for all subjects on all five days following 15 minutes rest with the TENS output intensity set at zero on the baseline days (Days 1, 3, 5), and after 15 minutes TENS stimulation on the intervention days (Days 2 and 4). [Results] The results demonstrate that CPT was able to selectively assess the excitability of the Aβ and Aδ fibers. However, the selectivity of CPT in assessing the C fibers could not be verified in this study. [Conclusion] The various limitations of the time series design used in this study suggest the need to verify some of these results in a different experimental design in future studies.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to correlate results obtained with a portable device for measuring spasticity at the ankle joint and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) evaluations of patients with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] A non-controlled, observational, cross-sectional study was carried out involving 17 individuals with spastic CP. The evaluation of spasticity was performed with the MAS, followed by the measurement of the passive, articular moment-angle characteristics at the ankle by means of the portable device. [Results] No statistically significant differences were found between evaluations made with MAS and the portable device with the knee flexed and extended. A strong negative correlation was found between moment-angle and the MAS in the evaluations of knee flexion and extension under conditions of fast and slow movement of both the right and left limbs. [Conclusion] By using the portable device and the MAS, similar evaluations of ankle spasticity in individuals with CP were obtained. The negative correlation between the device and the MAS indicates that greater spasticity leads to a lower moment-angle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the biomechanical changes in the lower extremities of patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis during gait on level ground, ramps, and stairs. [Methods] Fourteen elderly patients with degenerative osteoarthritis walked on flat ground, ramps of varying angles (1:12, 1:8, 1:6), and climbed stairs. Gait analysis equipment was used for kinematic analysis of the lower extremities to assess the temporospatial variables and the kinematic variables. [Results] The velocity, stride length, cadence, support time, step length, and double support time but not stride width of degenerative arthritis patients significantly differed among level walking, ramp climbing, and stair climbing. In terms of the kinematic variables, the flexion angles of the hip joints, knee joints, and ankle joints differed significantly according to the timing of the gait. [Conclusion] The results show that patients with degenerative osteoarthritis had more difficulty with gait on stairs or ramps of high inclination than on flat ground. This study provides data for use in basic research into safe gait on stairs and ramps for patients with degenerative osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] This study investigated postural stability and visual vertical perception of healthy middle-aged subjects before and after induction of dorsal neck muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Fourteen subjects (3 males, 11 females) were recruited from the community. [Methods] To induce neck extensor muscle fatigue, participants pushed their heads against a myometer. The average center of pressure (COP) displacement in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions and average sway velocity were measured on a force platform, and the error in visual vertical perception was measured using the rod and frame test. [Results] The average COP displacement in the AP direction and average sway velocity were significantly different between before and after induction of neck muscle fatigue. No difference in the average COP displacement in the ML direction or errors in visual verticality perception was observed before and after neck muscle fatigue. [Conclusion] In the presence of visual input, dorsal neck muscle fatigue induced postural instability, but not visual vertical misperception. After isometric or repetitive neck extensor muscle contraction for a long period, taking a rest for a while before changing posture from sitting to standing is recommended for workers, to avoid an increase in postural sway in standing, which may lead to an accidental fall.
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the immediate and delayed effects of two directions of Kinesio taping (KT) on maximal isometric strength of the wrist and finger muscles of healthy adults and compare their differences. [Subjects] Nineteen healthy junior college students participated in this study. [Methods] The inhibition and facilitation KT techniques were separately used to tape on the dominant and non-dominant forearms of the participants, respectively. Maximal isometric strength of wrist extension, middle finger extension, and grip of both hands were measured before taping, immediately after taping, and after 24 h of taping (with the tape in situ). [Results] Compared with the baseline, the average maximal isometric strength of middle finger extensors increased considerably after application of the facilitation technique. No significant time effect was observed for measurement of middle finger extension strength on the dominant side or for wrist extension and grip strength on both sides. Significant differences between both taping techniques were observed for wrist and middle finger extension strength immediately after taping, and for middle finger extension after 24 h of taping. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the application direction of KT may have different effects on isometric muscle strength. Future studies involving a larger sample of subjects and a sham condition are warranted to confirm our findings.
[Purpose] This study investigated how the toe spreader affects muscle activities during gait in order to enhance the clinical decision-making process regarding the different characteristics of toe spreader materials. [Subjects] Twenty healthy participants were recruited. [Methods] Repeated measures of tibialis anterior (TA) and peroneus longus (PL) EMG activities (%RVC) were evaluated with and without toe separators made of two different materials (i.e., soft and hard). [Results] Compared to walking without a toe spreader, TA activity was significantly increased by the soft toe spreader and was decreased by the hard one. PL activity was significantly decreased by the soft toe spreader. [Conclusion] The altered TA and PL activities observed in this study may be the result of the toe spreader providing medio-lateral foot support during walking.
[Purpose] We investigated the effect of somatosensory training, e.g. facilitation of reaching and somatosensory stimulus of upper limb (UL) on hand function and postural control. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 stroke patients in the Bobath Memorial Hospital, who has problems with unilateral neglect, and somatosensory deficits. [Methods] The patients were divided into two groups: a unilateral neglect group (NG), and a sensrimotor deficit group (SMG). Somatosensory training for the hand was carried out eighteen times, three times a week for six weeks, together with 40 minutes preservative treatment. To compare the groups, we used several assessment tools: the manual function test (MFT), the postural assessment scale for stroke (PASS) and the functional reach test (FRT). [Results] In NG, somatosensory training for the hand significantly improved MFT, and PASS (p<0.05). In the SMG, somatosensory training for the hand significantly improved MFT, PASS and FRT (p<0.05). Also, there were significantly differences in MFT, and PASS between the groups. [Conclusion] Somatosensory training for the hand influenced hand function and postural control. Therefore, we consider that somatosensory function plays a major role in hand and postural control.
[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between muscle weakness and activation of the cerebral cortex in the early period after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). [Subjects] The subjects were 11 patients who underwent UKA. [Methods] They performed maximum isometric knee extension using a muscle force measurement device before, and 1 and 2 weeks after UKA. They were simultaneously measured for changes in the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin in the bilateral sensorimotor leg areas using functional multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The muscle force decreased after UKA, and the active region of the sensorimotor leg area also narrowed. The severity of knee pain with muscle contraction 2 weeks after UKA did not change significantly compared with the preoperative level. [Conclusions] The patients treated with UKA displayed early postoperative muscle weakness, and the bilateral sensorimotor areas that were activated during maximum isometric knee extension were narrowed, suggesting that early postoperative muscle weakness is influenced by the central nervous system.
[Purpose] This study evaluated the analgesic efficacy of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis rat model. [Subjects and Method] Thirty Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats each: the normal, control, and LILT groups. The LILT group was treated with LILT using a gallium–aluminum–arsenide diode laser during the 3 weeks. Each group had 10 rats. All treatments were applied once a day, 5 days a week, for a total experimental period of 21 days. Weight-bearing shift, paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), and paw withdrawal latency were used as outcome measures. [Results] The hind paw weight-bearing shift, PWT, and paw withdrawal latency of rats in the control group were significantly lower than those in the normal group. In the LILT group, the weight-bearing shift, PWT, and paw withdrawal latency were significantly greater than those in the control group. [Conclusion] LILT reduces pain related behaviors of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rats.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in plantar pressure distributions between the dominant and non dominant sides during walking by older women with a history of falling. [Subjects] Fourteen older women without foot problems participated in this study. [Methods] Plantar pressure distributions between the dominant and non-dominant sides were recorded using the F-scan system (Tekscan Inc, Boston, USA). Measured parameters included peak plantar pressure and surface area contact during the stance phase from heel-strike to toe-off. [Results] Although there were no differences in peak pressure, contact surface area was significantly greater in the first metatarsal (M1) and heel (H) regions of the dominant side compared to the non-dominant side. [Conclusion] Unequal weight distribution indicated by a greater contact surface area may be an indicator of fall risk during walking by older adults with a history of falls.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of consecutive training in dual motor tasks on the gait ability of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Conservative physical therapy was conducted for 29 subjects divided into two groups. The dual-motor task group was also taught a basic motor task and additional motor tasks, whereas the single-motor task training group was taught consecutive single motor tasks. Both groups performed their programs five times a week for 30 minutes over a period of four weeks. For performance measurements, time-based gait variables and space-based gait variables were measured using GAITRite. [Results] The dual-motor task group exhibited statistically significant improvement in the temporal variables of cadence, gait velocity, step time, and cycle time, as well as in the spatial gait variables of step length and stride length. The single-motor task group exhibited significant improvements in cadence, gait velocity. Moreover, according to the comparison of training effects between in the two groups, the temporal gait variables of gait velocity and cycle time and the spatial gait variable of stride length revealed a statistically significant difference. [Conclusions] Compared to the single-motor task training, the dual-motor task training of stroke patients was more effective at improving gait ability.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate differences in cognitive function and expression of GAP-43 and NT-3 on the aged rat hippocampus in spontaneous (wheel running) and forced (treadmill) exercise groups. [Subjects and Methods] 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats (48-week-old aged rats) were randomly divided into 3 groups: namely, the controls (n = 15; CON), voluntary exercise group (n = 15; VE), and forced exercise group (n = 15; FE). Each exercise was applied for five days per week for 8 weeks, and the object recognition and object location tests were conducted in both the control and exercise groups after 8 weeks. In addition, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate GAP-43 and NT-3 expression. [Results] There was significant improvement in the spontaneous exercise group and more improvement in the forced exercise group in the object location and object recognition tests for evaluation of cognitive function. Moreover, these results were similar to the results in GAP-43 and NT-3 immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that forced exercise is a useful strategy for preventing the loss of cognitive function in the elderly.
[Purpose] The cervical spine is a common site of pain, which may arise from different parts of the upper limbs or dysfunctions of the upper thoracic spine. The different sections of the spinal column are interlinked, and one region exerts an influence over another. Thus, a low range of motion (hypomobility) in the thoracic spine is an indicator of neck pain, and alterations in the cervical spine can occur due to dysfunctions of the thoracic region. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of upper thoracic spine (T1–T4) thrust manipulation with regard to reduction of pain and disability in patients with neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five individuals with persistent neck pain upon movement participated in this study. The individuals were evaluated using the Neck Disability Index and a visual analog scale for pain. Each individual underwent five sessions of thoracic spine thrust manipulation. Data analysis involved the Student’s t-test. [Results] Significant improvements were found in neck pain and disability. [Conclusion] Based on the results of the present study, thoracic spine thrust manipulation proved effective in the treatment of individuals with neck pain, leading to a reduction in both pain and disability.
[Purpose] Balance training lowers the risk of falling in the elderly, but it is not known which specific muscles should be strengthened. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between fatigue of individual muscle groups in the lower limbs and balance. [Subjects and Methods] We tested 42 lower limbs of 21 healthy young adults with no history of fractures or of bone and joint disorders. Groups of flexor and extensor muscles were fatigued individually by voluntary isometric contraction, and the effects on balance function were analyzed. [Results] We found changes in total trajectory length of hip extensors and ankle plantar flexors after muscles were fatigued and in trajectory length per unit area of hip flexors and extensors, knee flexors and ankle dorsiflexors. Only hip extensors showed changes in both total trajectory length and trajectory length per unit area. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that muscle fatigue of the hip extensors is associated with a decline in balance function of the lower limbs of healthy young adults. It is likely that incorporating a greater focus on hip extensors in balance training would increase the effectiveness of such programs.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the EMG amplitude of the gluteus maximus (GMax) and medius (GMed) during 6 exercises with and without a pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twenty healthy males were recruited. [Methods] The belt was positioned below the anterior superior iliac spine. Surface EMG was used to measure the GMax and GMed activity of the dominant limb during exercise. The percentage of the EMG amplitude relative to maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed with a mixed within-between subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). [Results] This study showed significantly increased GMax activity in the pelvic belt condition as a main effect. However, there was no significant effect on GMed activity except with the hip clam. [Conclusion] The pelvic belt significantly improved GMax activity during exercises in contrast to the GMed activity. When treating people with weakness of gluteal muscles, the functional specific exercises with a pelvic belt have the beneficial effect of associated muscle strengthening.
[Purpose] The study aims to examines the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), and trigger point injection (TPI) on pain reduction and functional improvement in patients with Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the upper trapezius muscle and compares their treatment effects, thereby presenting precise and efficient treatment methods. [Subjects] Thirty-three patients with MPS in the upper trapezius muscle were divided into three groups: a PNF group (n=11), ESWT group (n=11), and a TPI group (n=11). [Methods] The degree of pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS). Pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured at trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle by using a pressure algometer, and the Constant-Murley scale (CMS) and neck disability index (NDI) was applied for functional evaluation. [Results] A comparison of the effects of the different treatment methods revealed no significant differences among the groups in terms of PPT, but CMS (pain, range, and activities of daily living) and NDI showed significant differences among groups. [Conclusion] PNF treatment enhanced neck function, range of motion in the shoulder joint, and activities of daily living relative to the other methods; ESWT reduced degree of pain and improved functioning. TPI treatment reduced pain, but had limited effects in enhancing functional activities.
[Purpose] This study examined how exercise capacity and the oxidative stress regulation system are affected by different amounts of consumed ubiquinol (reduced coenzyme Q10, H2CoQ10: QH) through experiments on 23 SAMP1 mice. [Methods] The mice were randomly divided into two groups: one consuming a high amount of QH (300 mg/Kg) and the other consuming a low amount of QH (30 mg/Kg). Both groups were made to run up to their limit on a treadmill (TM) before/after consuming QH, and then each running time was measured. For the oxidative stress regulation system, the d-ROM test value (degree of oxidative stress) and BAP test value (anti-oxidant potential) were measured both in a resting state before QH consumption and after running up to the limit, and then the BAP/d-ROM ratio was calculated. The values of plasma QH and plasma ubiquinone (plasma oxidized CoQ10) were also measured, and the reduced ratio was calculated. [Results] Both groups showed a significant extension of running time. Also, a more significant extension was seen in the group consuming a high amount of QH than in the group consuming a low amount. With regard to the oxidative stress regulation system, the group consuming a high amount also showed a significant increase in d-ROM test value, plasma QH value and reduced ratio. [Conclusion] The difference in the amount of consumed ubiquinol led to an extension of running time and an increase in reduced ratio and other values.
[Purpose] The fiber type composition of the muscle hypothetically causes differences in the effects of astaxanthin on capillary regression in the superficial and deep layers of atrophied muscle. The effect of astaxanthin on capillary regression was studied in the superficial and deep layers of the plantaris muscle. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, control treated with astaxanthin, hind limb unloading, and hind limb unloading treated with astaxanthin groups. The cross-sectional area and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the plantaris muscle fibers, capillary-to-muscle fiber ratio, and number of capillaries around the muscle fiber were measured using histological images. [Results] In the deep layer, succinate dehydrogenase was activated, and the number of capillaries was decreased in atrophied plantaris muscle. However, these changes were not found in the superficial layer. [Conclusion] Capillary regression in atrophied skeletal muscle was initiated in the deep layer, where muscle fiber characterized by high mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activity is predominantly located, and astaxanthin administration effectively prevent capillary regression.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of behavioral therapy and pelvic floor muscle training in the treatment of a 5 year-old female child presenting insensible urinary incontinence (IUI) symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] Outcome measures included a voiding diary to quantify symptoms and urinary frequency, and surface electromyography was measured at the beginning and end of the treatment. Behavioral therapy included the provision of information regarding hygiene habits, voiding position, the anatomical and physiological basis of urinary incontinence, and bladder training using a voiding diary on a specified schedule. Pelvic floor muscle training was performed in different positions using sets of sustained and fast contractions. The child received training in a total of 25 sessions. [Results] The child showed improvement of symptoms according to the voiding diary and electromyographic values. [Conclusion] Behavior therapy and pelvic floor muscle training following to our protocol may have improved the symptoms of IUI in this child.