[Purpose] This study examines the relationship between the range of flexion-extension motion (RFEM) of the cervical spine and skin temperature differences of the right and left sides of the upper trapezius (UT), TB (triceps brachii), PM (pectoralis major), and BB (biceps brachii) regions in patients with cervical herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP). Another aim was to identify the differences between patients with HNP and normal subjects in the RFEM of the cervical spine and skin temperature differences of the right and left sides of the UT, TB, PM, and BB regions. [Subjects] A total of 15 patients with cervical HNP (mean age, 35.8±6.0 years; age range, 28–43 years) and 15 normal subjects (mean age, 33.6±7.95 years; age range, 25–40 years) volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The RFEM of the cervical spine for both the HNP and control groups was obtained through lateral radiograph. The average temperature differences between the right and left upper body surfaces were also obtained in the UT, TB, PM, and BB using digital infrared thermographic imagine (DITI). [Results] There was a strong negative correlation between REFM and skin temperature differences of the right and left sides of the UT, TB, and BB in the HNP group. In addition, the HNP group demonstrated statistically significantly lower RFEM and greater thermal asymmetry in all measured body surfaces compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The results from the present study suggest that the use of DITI appears to be a useful and noninvasive approach in the diagnosis of cervical HNP.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the optimal knee joint angle for minimizing cervical muscle tension and maximizing the muscle activity of the trunk during the bridging exercise for trunk stabilization. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 45 healthy adults in their 20s and 30s. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study included four forms of the exercise having knee joint flexion angles of 120°, 90°, 60°, and 45°. The posture of the bridging exercise was as follows. To prevent the increase of lumbar hyperlordosis during the bridging exercise, the exercise was practiced after maintaining the lumbar neutral position in the posterior pelvic tilting exercise. [Results] During the bridging exercise, muscle activity increased as the flexion angle decreased. For the knee joint flexion angle of 120°, muscle activity was 102.88 ± 0.69. It was 102.61 ± 0.69 for 90°, 105.57 ± 0.85 for 60°, and 106.24 ± 0.88 for 45°. According to the post hoc results, muscle activity was significantly higher for 60° and 45° than for 120° and 90°. [Conclusion] The knee joint angle affected the muscle activity of the neck muscle. The greater the knee joint angle was, the lower the load placed on the neck muscle. In contrast, the load increased as the knee joint angle decreased. In addition, the muscle activity of the neck muscle and trunk muscle increased as the knee joint angle decreased.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to research the physical factors affecting vital capacity (FVC, ERV, MVV) of adults in their 20s. [Methods] Ninety-seven healthy adults without neurological and muscular disorders participated in this study. The physical factors were defined by gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, and postures. A Spiropalm (A-M systems, Sequim, WA, USA) was used to measure respiratory function (FVC, ERV, and MVV). Multiple regressions were used to research the physical factors affecting vital capacity (FVC, ERV, and MVV). [Results] The important physical factors found to be significantly associated with FVC, ERV, and MVV were gender and weight (R2 =0.756), smoking history (R2 =0.179), and gender (R2 =0.427), respectively. [Conclusion] This study indicated that gender and weight are important physical factors for vital capacity in Korean adults in their 20s.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the upper trapezius/serratus anterior (UT/SA) ratio and the intramuscular activation of scapular stabilizing muscles during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and push-up plus (PUP) exercises in a quadruped position. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy men voluntarily participated as research subjects for this experiment. All subjects were measured in terms of the activation of their scapular stabilizing muscles using surface electromyography during random PNF and PUP exercises in a quadruped position. [Results] The PUP exercise showed a significantly higher level of middle serratus anterior activity than the PNF exercise. The PNF exercise showed statistically significant higher level of lower trapezius and lower serratus anterior activities than the PUP exercise. There was a significantly lower UT/LSA ratio in the PNF than in the PUP exercise. [Conclusion] The PUP exercise is more suitable for middle serratus anterior training than the PNF exercise. Furthermore, the PNF exercise is more effective than the PUP exercise as a training method for lower trapezius and lower serratus muscles and an unbalanced UT/LSA ratio.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine factors related to the development and frequency of post-polio syndrome (PPS) based on the results of a survey of polio survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Characteristics of 265 polio survivors were evaluated on the basis of the results of a self-administered survey comprising 48 items. The frequency of PPS and factors that influence its development were evaluated. [Results] PPS was found to affect 25.7% of the polio survivors who responded to our survey. In addition to musculoskeletal symptoms, polio survivors were found to exhibit general physical and psychiatric symptoms such as sensitivity to cold, respiratory symptoms, dysphagia, sleep disorders, and depression tendencies. In addition, the polio survivors with PPS were restricted in daily living activities such as work and social participation. [Conclusion] Weight gain after adulthood and overuse of muscles were identified as risk factors for the development of PPS. Support systems such as health consultations and direct health screenings are needed to deal with the physical and social consequences of PPS.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of overground gait training (OGT) and treadmill gait training (TGT) on walking speed, gait endurance, and balance ability of subjects with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 40 patients with stroke. They were randomly divided into two groups, the OGT group and the TGT group, and further categorized according to their individual walking speeds (slow <0.5 m/s and fast >0.5 m/s). The groups performed exercises 10 times for a week. Pre- and post-test assessments involved the measurement of walking speed, walking endurance, and balance ability, as assessed by the 10-m walking time, the 6-min walking distance, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). [Results] The 10-m walking times, 6-min walking distance, and BBS scores of both the OGT group and the TGT group significantly improved, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. In the slow walking speed group, the OGT subjects showed significant improvement compared to the TGT subjects in the 6-min walk test. [Conclusion] Overall, we conclude that OGT was more effective at improving the gait endurance of stroke patients than TGT. Further research is needed to verify the generalizability of these findings and to identify which stroke patients might benefit from OGT.
[Purpose] This study investigated the correlation between the angle of lateral tibial rotation and the ratio of the medial and lateral hamstring muscle activities during standing knee flexion. [Subjects] Eighteen healthy subjects (6 females, 12 males) participated in this study. [Methods] Surface electromyography was used to record medial and lateral hamstring muscle activities, and the muscle activities were expressed as a percentage of the reference voluntary contraction. The angle of tibial rotation was measured with a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Subjects were instructed to perform knee flexion on one side in the standing position. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between the angle of the lateral tibial rotation and the ratio of the activity of the medial and lateral hamstring muscles during standing knee flexion. [Results] The angle of the lateral tibial rotation and the ratio of the medial and lateral hamstring muscle activities showed good to excellent correlation (r = −0.767). [Conclusion] These results suggest that asymmetry of the medial and lateral hamstring muscle activities may cause tibial lateral rotation during standing knee flexion.
[Purpose] The corpus callosum is the largest fiber bundle in the human brain that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. Callosal motor fiber is known to primarily cross through the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum. However, some reports have shown that callosal motor fibers cross through the posterior body and isthmus. In this study, we evaluated the relative anatomical location of callosal motor fibers related to foot fibers in the corpus callosum and collected quantitative data. [Methods] Fourteen healthy subjects participated in this study. A dataset was obtained utilizing a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. For fiber tracking, regions of interest were drawn in the functional MRI activation area and corpus callosum. After the callosal motor fiber tract was reconstructed, we measured its relative anatomical locations in the corpus callosum, and calculated the fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. [Results] The mean ± standard deviation of the distance ratio was 29.08 ± 3.42%. The values of FA and ADC were 0.54 ± 0.02 and 8.09 × 10−4 ± 0.22×10−4, respectively. [Conclusion] We believe that our results present good preliminary data for the determination of the anatomical location of callosal motor fibers in the corpus callosum.
[Purpose] Field walking tests are widely used to assess the exercise capacity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study aimed to examine whether or not the incremental load repeated standup test (IRST), a new field test which is easy to conduct, can substitute for existing field walking tests, the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) and the incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT). [Methods] The cardiopulmonary exercise stress test (CEST), 6MWD, ISWT, and IRST were performed by18 Japanese male elderly patients with COPD. The IRST consists of repeated standups from a chair with incremental increases in the standup frequency. [Results] Single regression analysis using CEST-peak VO2 as the dependent variable and the number of standups, walking distance, and walking distance, as independent variables gave the comparable regression formulae of: CEST-peak VO2 = 0.12 × number of standups in IRST+ 8.26; CEST-peak VO2 = 0.02 × walking distance in the 6MWD + 3.48; and CEST-peak VO2 = 0.02 × walking distance in the ISWT + 6.48, respectively. [Conclusion] The IRST is a potential substitute field test for the 6MWD and ISWT because it has comparable predictive ability and can be conducted in a very limited space.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the positive effect of exercise intervention on risk factors of falls for Japanese subjects with osteoporosis (OP). [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials were performed to investigate the effect of exercise on muscle strength and balance, which are risk factors of falls for Japanese subjects with OP. The electronic databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, PEDro, CINAHL, and Ichushi-Web were searched. In the process of systematic review and meta-analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses Statement protocol (PRISMA) was used. [Results] Three studies (4 exercise groups) were included in our review. These studies used exercise interventions to improve handgrip, trunk extensor muscle strength, knee extensor muscle strength, static balance, and dynamic balance. Regardless of final measurement outcome, none of the studies showed that the exercise group had a better result than that of the control group in terms of muscle strength or balance. Synthesized data did not reveal a positive effect of exercise intervention on trunk extensor muscle strength. [Conclusion] Our results do not provide high-quality evidence that muscle strength and balance, which are risk factors for falls, are improved by exercise intervention for Japanese subjects with OP.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of scapular stabilization exercise on function of the upper extremity of individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects] Eleven chronic hemiparetic stroke patients participated in a scapular stabilization exercise program conducted in the sitting position for 30 min per session, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. We used 3 clinical assessments: the Manual Function Test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Modified Barthel Index. [Results] Manual Functional Test Scores for the paretic upper limb significantly improved after the scapular stabilization exercise program. However, Manual Function Test scores for the non-paretic upper limb did not significantly improve after the scapular stabilization exercise program. The Berg Balance Scale and the Modified Barthel Index scores did not significantly improved after scapular stabilization exercise program. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that scapular stabilization exercise can improve the function of the paretic upper extremity of individuals with chronic stroke. However, scapular stabilization exercise did not affect balance or basic daily activities.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three-dimensional robot-assisted therapy on upper limb function of patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two post-stroke patients who had no visual or cognitive problems were randomly assigned to two groups: the robot-assisted training group (experimental) and control group. Robot-assisted training and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy were conducted by the experimental group. Comprehensive rehabilitation therapy was performed by the control group. Both groups received training three times per week for six weeks. [Result] Significant improvements were observed in upper limb function after training in the experimental group. Gains were greater in the experimental group than in the control group. Values of grip power, Wolf motor function test, and the box and block test increased as a result of training in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Three-dimensional robot-assisted therapy improved the upper limb function of patients with stroke.
[Purpose] This study compared the activations of the upper trapezius (UT) and serratus anterior upper (USA) and lower fibers (LSA) during elbow push up plus exercises (EPP) with various foot placements. [Subjects] We recruited 15 male subjects. [Methods] Elbow push up plus exercises were performed on three different foot placements: the elbow push-up plus with an elbow bench (EPP-EB), the elbow push-up plus on the floor (EPP-F), and the elbow push-up plus with a foot bench (EPP-FB). Electromyography activities of the USA, LSA and UT muscles were recorded. [Results] The activations of USA and LSA muscles were significantly higher when foot placement was relatively elevated. The activation of UT during EPP-FB exercise was significantly higher than during EPP-EB exercise. [Conclusion] Foot placement in the elbow push-up plus exercise for selective activation of SA muscles must be considered by clinicians.
[Purpose] To evaluate the state of understanding of specialist personnel engaged in community-based rehabilitation (CBR) about the definition, service recipients, range, and teamwork factors of CBR, and to clarify factors inhibiting CBR cooperation. [Subjects] The subjects were 440 workers of 24 professions involved in CBR in an urban region, where CBR resources are sufficient, and a rural region, where they are insufficient, in Aomori Prefecture. [Methods] A questionnaire was distributed by visiting the subjects and collected by mail. A pamphlet describing the desirable state of CBR was prepared and distributed with the self-administered questionnaire. [Results] The subjects of all professions in both the urban and rural regions did not know or had different understandings of the definition, service recipients, range, and teamwork factors of CBR described in the pamphlet. As causes of the differences in understanding, self-restriction of activities and deviations from the concept of CBR were observed in many professions. [Conclusion] To close this gap as a measure, it is necessary not only for those directly engaged in CBR to improve their own skills by self-education, but also for training facilities, including the community-based rehabilitation support center, to more earnestly provide training sessions as a measure to support their efforts.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of a breathing movement measuring device (BMMD) that was newly developed for the objective assessment of breathing movements in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] The breathing movement distances of the chest (bilateral third and eighth ribs) and abdomen (upper abdomen) of 30 healthy young males were measured using the BMMD and a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system during quiet breathing. During measurements, the pen-size mechanical BMMD was held in the hand and placed on selected observation points. Distances on the BMMD scale were read by two raters. In addition, the breathing movement distances of 10 subjects were measured during quiet breathing using the BMMD fixed on a tripod. The distances between the reflective markers on the observation points were measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were performed. [Results] The inter-rater reliability of the BMMD was low-to-moderate. However, the reliability and validity between the two measurement methods were high. Systematic errors were identified for almost all the observation points. [Conclusion] The reliability and validity of the BMMD, which works by comparing the reflective marker distances, were acceptable. These findings suggest that the BMMD may be useful for quantitatively assessing chest and abdominal wall movements during quiet breathing in clinical practice.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in the sequence of movements of stroke patients performing sit-to-walk (STW) among various foot positions and chair. [Subjects] The subjects of the present study were 11 stroke patients and a control group of 11 subjects, with no significant differences in sex, age, height, weight and body mass index between the two groups were randomly selected. [Methods] STW tasks were performed under four different conditions: high seat with feet forward, high seat with feet backward, normal seat with feet forward and normal seat with feet backward) with different foot positions and chair heights. The STW tasks were divided into four phases and the sequences of STW movements during the phases were analyzed. The phases were as follows: rise preparation, transition, primary gait initiation, and secondary gait initiation. [Results] In the condition of the high seat with feet backward, decreases in the center of mass (COM) horizontal momentum were the smallest at the time point of ending of the rise preparation phase, and moving speeds and distances between the COM and the center of pressure (COP) significantly increased at swing leg toe-off which is at the end of the primary gait initiation phase.[Conclusion] Changes in the movement pattern of COM horizontal momentum were the most efficient when rising from chair of a height of 120% of the leg length, and COM horizontal momentum was maintained until swing leg toe-off in this condition. When practicing STW functional movements in the clinical setting, the foot positions and chair heights necessary to maintain the sequence of movements should be considered.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to perform Gong’s mobilization for low back pain patients with a limited lumbar extension range of motion (ROM) in order to examine the effect of Gong’s mobilization on increases in lumbar extension ROM. [Subjects] Thirty low back pain patients with a limited lumbar extension ROM were divided into a Gong’s mobilization group (n=15) and a sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGS) group (n=15). [Methods] Gong’s mobilization was performed for the Gong’s mobilization group, and SNAGS was performed for the SNAGS group. [Results] The Gong’s mobilization group showed significant improvements in extension ROM at L1-2, L2-3, L3-4, and L1-5 compared to the SNAGS group. [Conclusion] Gong’s mobilization is recommended as a clinical intervention method for the improvement of lumbar extension ROM of low back pain patients with a limited extension ROM.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic adaptation of the head and trunk of elderly subjects in the ascent of stairs and ramp. The three-dimensional kinematic patterns of the head and trunk were examined during stairs and steep ramp climbing. [Methods] The subjects of this study were 14 elderly people who had no musculoskeletal disease, or low back pain, and who showed normal ROM. Kinematic data were collected using the 6-camera Vicon system (Oxford Metrix, Oxford, England). Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to investigate the effect of gait mode on kinematics of the head and trunk. [Results] The results of our study show that the angle of the trunk during ascent of stairs and a ramp was modified in sagittal, frontal and transverse plane. The angle of the head and neck during ascent of stairs and a ramp did not change in the sagittal plane but changed in the frontal and transverse planes. [Conclusion] This study investigated and discusses some basic kinematic mechanisms underlying the pattern of movements of the head and trunk of elderly subjects during ascent of stairs and a ramp. We showed that postural adaptation of head and trunk is necessary for balance.
[Purpose] The object of this study was to examine the effects of the core muscle release technique (CRT) on correcting scoliosis. [Subjects] Ninety patients diagnosed with scoliosis participated in this study. [Methods] First, participants were divided into three groups according to method of treatment. The first group was administered 50 minutes of CRT five times a week for two weeks. The second group performed general exercise to treat scoliosis for the same duration. The third group received electrotherapy in 50-minute sessions, five times a week for two weeks. The CRT began with release treatment of the diaphragm, and then focused on control of paraspinal muscle tone. Respiratory therapy was also conducted during these treatments. Directly after their two-week treatment, the patients were re-examined, and another follow-up test was performed two weeks after treatment had finished. [Results] The data suggest that CRT, exercise and electrotherapy all helped to decrease the Cobb angle. Of these treatment methods, however, CRT was the most effective for the treatment of scoliosis. [Conclusion] CRT was effective in the correction of scoliosis.
[Purpose] To examine effects of Bilateral Arm Training (BAT) on unilateral and bilateral reaching performance and the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) of stroke patients. [Methods] Fifteen participants received 4 weeks of BAT. Unilateral and bilateral reaching were measured using 3D motion analysis. Performance of and client satisfaction with ADL were assessed by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. The amount and quality of use of the affected upper limb were assessed by the Motor Activity Log. [Results] BAT showed statistically significant improvements in the average and peak velocities during reaching performance, and the amount and quality of use of the affected upper limb. There were statistically significant improvements in the performance of and client satisfaction with ADL. However, the result did not show a statistically significant difference in the trajectory ratio during reaching performance. [Conclusion] BAT was significantly effective at improving the velocity of reaching performance and the performance of ADL by stroke patients. In the future, studies should investigate the effects of the duration and intensity of training, and a variety of BAT protocols need to be developed.
[Purpose] Posture analysis has been used widely as a tool for gait evaluation. However, previous research on posture analysis has not considered the various types of crutch gait. The purpose of this study was to investigate the body posture of the non-crutch gait and types of crutch gait of healthy volunteers. [Methods] Using gait and position assessment equipment, the present study analysed the posture of healthy adult subjects in the superior view, anterior view, and lateral view during non-crutch gait, swing to crutch gait, swing through crutch gait, two-point crutch gait, and four-point crutch gait. [Results] In superior views, the angle of the shoulder area significantly increased in the negative direction at the starting position compared to the normal standing position. In anterior views, the angle of the shoulder and hand areas significantly decreased from the positive direction to the negative direction at the starting position compared to the normal position. In lateral views, the angle of the neck area significantly decreased in the negative direction at the starting position compared to the normal standing position. [Conclusion] These results demonstrate that body posture changed according to the type of crutch gait used by the healthy volunteers.
[Purpose] The present study was designed to investigate the effect of trunk control exercise on an unstable surface on spinal stability of low back pain patients. [Subjects] In total, 21 participants were assigned to a trunk experimental group (TG, n=11) or a control group (CG, n=10). In addition to conventional therapy, the TG received trunk control exercise on a Swiss ball for 20 minutes, 4 times a week, for 8 weeks. [Methods] The ability to move the center of gravity (COP) forward, backward, left, and right and the ability to maintain the COP in these positions were measured using the Air Balance 3D System to evaluate spinal stability. [Results] There were significant differences between CG and TG in the ability to move the COP and the ability to maintain the COP in the forward and backward directions. [Conclusion] These results suggest that trunk control exercise on an unstable surface improves the spinal stability of low back pain patients.
[Purpose] To identify the relationship between depressive disorder prevalence and cognitive and physical functions of community-dwelling older adults. [Methods] The study subjects were 95 adults over the age of 65 residing in J City. Social and demographic characteristics, cognition, balance, walking, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were evaluated, along with depressive disorder symptoms, and analyzed with logistic regression. [Results] Depressive disorder among senior citizens was related to the death of a spouse, disease status, ability to walk 10 m, and IADLs. [Conclusion] Interventions that employ social and physical therapeutic approaches to enhance locomotion and activities of daily living (ADLs) through the promotion of psycholoical stability might be effective for senior citizens with depressive disorders.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the tight pants on kinematic data of the hip and pelvis during women’s gait. [Subjects] We recruited 15 asymptomatic women. [Methods] Walking was performed under two different conditions: gait with and without wearing tight pants. Kinematic data of right hip and pelvis were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system. [Results] The changes of the anterior, external pelvic rotation significantly increased under the tight pants condition, while the changes of hip flexion, abduction, and external rotation significantly decreased under the tight pants condition. [Conclusion] Frequent wearing of tight pants has the possibility of inducing excessive pelvic rotational movement in women.
[Purpose] Muscle activities and subjective evaluations were compared while changing diapers at various bed heights to investigate working techniques and bed heights for reducing low back load. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 skilled caregivers. [Methods] Bed height was adjusted to the level at which the subjects usually changed diapers, their preferred level, and 45% of the subject’s height. The activities of eight muscles and subjective evaluation were compared among the various heights. [Results] The bed height at which subjects usually changed diapers was 51.7 cm, the preferred bed height was 63.4 cm, and 45% of subjects’height was 71.0 cm, showing significant differences. Right erector spinae activities were significantly different among three heights, as were subjective evaluations. The diaper-changing fulcrum differed: it was set at the thighs and knees at the routine height; at the thighs, knees, and lower abdominal region at the preferred height; and at the thighs at 45% of the subject’s height. [Conclusions] Skilled caregivers mastered adjustment of the diaper-changing fulcrum corresponding to the bed height. It was also suggested that the erector spinae muscle activity level and subjective low back load may not be consistent when 45% of the subject’s height.
[Purpose] Post-menopausal women are often affected with menopausal syndromes, and their sedentary lifestyle may increase their risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assay the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV), the adjustment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and menopausal symptoms among different exercise behaviors of post-menopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study, and the relationships between exercise behavior, menopause rating scale (MRS), and HRV were analyzed. Subjects were assessed by a structured questionnaire and electrocardiography, and assigned to Group A, Group B, and Group C according to exercise behaviors (low, medium, and high, respectively). [Results] Three hundred and twenty-seven post-menopausal women were assessed. The correlation analysis revealed that exercise behaviors had negative correlations with MRS, and the low frequency component and the low frequency / high frequency ratio of heart rate power spectra. MRS of Group C was significantly lower than that of Groups A and B. There were no significant differences in HRV among the three groups. [Conclusions] The differences of exercise behavior affected post-menopausal symptoms and the adjustment of ANS of post-menopausal women.
[Purpose] To clarify the relationship between spinal alignment and trunk muscle activities in upright sitting without manual intervention. [Subjects] Twenty-three healthy male volunteers with no history of lumbar disorders participated in this study. [Methods] Trunk alignment and surface electromyographic activities of 6 trunk muscles were measured synchronously during the motion from slump to upright sitting position. The amplitude of the muscle activities were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction. Subjects were classified into 3 spinal alignment groups: long lordosis (LL), short lordosis (SL), and kyphosis (K). [Results] The LL group consisted of 9 subjects (39%), the SL group of 9 subjects (39%), and the K group of 5 subjects (22%). The K group had significantly lower muscle activity of the back and abdominal muscles. The SL group had significantly greater muscle activity of the lumbar paraspinals than the LL group, and greater activity of the lumbar multifidus was observed in the SL group than in the other groups. The LL group showed significantly greater muscle activity of the internal oblique muscle than the other groups. [Conclusion] Upright sitting without manual correction leads to various kinds of spinal alignment. Judging from trunk muscle activities, we suggest that the desirable spinal alignment in upright sitting is a neutral lumbar position with no thoracolumbar kyphosis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the humeral head anterior glide posture (HHAGP) and elbow joint angle (EJA), forward head posture (FHP), and glenohumeral joint (GHJ) range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The subjects were 47 college students (10 male, 37 female) in whom more than one third of the humeral head was anteriorly translated against the acromion. [Methods] Humeral head distance (HHD) was measured with vernier calipers and EJA and FHP were measured using NIH Image J software for lateral body imaging obtained with a digital camera. GHJ ROM was measured with a goniometer. [Results] Increases in HHD were accompanied by decreases in internal rotation (IR) and abduction (AB), while increases in forward head angle (FHA) accompanied decreases in EJA. Increases in EJA occurred together with increases in external rotation (ER). IR and ER increased with increases in AB. [Conclusion] HHD influences EJA, IR, and AB; therefore, HHD should be considered in therapeutic approaches for these factors.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the magnetic field therapy on the motor unit action potentials from the muscles of the sole of the foot and balance of healthy subjects. [Subjects] Twenty-four volunteer students from Yeditepe University Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation participated in this study. [Method] The feet region received 60-Gauss intensity pulsed magnetic field therapy for 20 minutes using a 30-cm solenoid electrode. Motor unit action potentials of the muscles of the sole were evaluated in both the dominant and non-dominant legs before and after the application of magnetic field therapy. One leg standing balance tests under the eyes open and eyes closed conditions in the static and dynamic forms were also evaluated in both the dominant and non-dominant legs before and after the application of magnetic field therapy. [Results] Motor unit action potential values and balance tests results showed statistically significant improvements in the post-treatment period in comparison to the pre-treatment observations. A strongly significant positive correlation was found between the motor unit action potentials and eyes open static balance on the non-dominant side. [Conclusions] Magnetic field therapy improves the activities of muscles and balance of healthy subjects.
[Purpose] In this study, proposed and existing brain indexes derived from quantitative EEG analysis were compared in dementia cases and healthy subjects, to verify their clinical applicability in the diagnosis of dementia. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 elderly women suffering from dementia and 18 elderly women without dementia, who consented to voluntary participation in this study after being informed of its purpose. [Method] There were two kinds of brain indexes used in this study. The first type was already in use and includes the attention (AT) index, the activation (AC) index, and the stress (ST) index. The second type of brain index, proposed by the author of this paper, comprises of the drowsiness (DS) index, the thinking (TK) index, and the complication (CP) index. [Result] There were significant differences between the AT index group and the TK index group in Fz, Fp1, and Fp2 of the prefrontal lobe. However, F3, F4, F7 and F8 of the frontal lobe, showed significant differences only in the AT index. For Pz, P3 and P4 of the parietal lobe, there were significant differences between the AT index group and the DS and TK index group. [Conclusion] The results show that a brain index for detecting dementia in a more accurate and objective way is needed, and that the development of a new brain index is feasible.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a knee extension exercise in the sitting position (KES) on stretching of the hamstring muscles of patients who suffered from lower back pain. For this study, we compared the effect of the passive straight leg raise (SLR), an exercise already proven effective, with that of passive KES. [Subjects] Thirty-one subjects (18 males and 13 females) were randomly divided into two groups: one group received the passive KES exercise method, and the other group the passive straight leg raise exercise method. [Method] Forward bending, active SLR and active knee joint extension were measured before and after the two passive exercises. [Results] Forward bending, active SLR, and active knee joint extension improved in both groups. However, the KES exercise group showed greater improvement in forward bending than the SLR exercise group. Although both passive KES exercise and passive SLR exercise were effective at stretching the hamstring, passive KES exercise, which allows for stability of the lumbar spine, was more effective when motion required lumbopelvic rhythm. [Conclusion] On the basis of these results, we conclude that passive KES exercise is a more effective treatment for forward bending of patients with lower back pain.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural mechanisms of the brain regions activated by training dependent changes in large-scale motor networks induced by performance of sequential motor learning, using functional MRI. [Method] Twenty healthy subjects were recruited, who were randomly allocated to the training or control group. The training group performed a serial reaction time task for two weeks, whereas the control group did not receive any training. Behavioral assessment was conducted in terms of response accuracy and reaction time during pre- and post-fMRI scanning. [Results] The training group showed a significant improvement in motor performance. On the other hand, the control group also showed a slight improvement of performance. After the two-week training, activations of all areas observed on the initial fMRI showed a remarkable decrease, whereas no differences or slight increases were observed in the change of activation in the control group. In the cerebellar activation of the training group, the most prominent change was observed in the medial cerebellar area, and contralateral deep cerebellar nuclei were newly activated. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that brain reorganization for sequential motor learning was induced by motor sequence acquisition, and that decreased cerebral and increased cerebellar activity during explicit learning might be related to familiarity with the task.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the risk factors influencing subjective symptoms of fatigue through computer workstation monitoring of Korean high school students. [Methods] Six-hundred and eighty-five high school students were surveyed, and the independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were conducted to determine subjective symptoms of fatigue according to gender and hours of computer use, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the correlations between subjective symptoms of fatigue and computer workstations, and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine risk factors influencing subjective symptoms of fatigue. SPSS 12.0 was used to conduct the statistical analysis. [Results] Subjective symptoms of fatigue were stronger among females than males. The longer subjects rested, the less the subjective symptoms of fatigue were. There were correlations between subjective symptoms of fatigue and computer workstations, and musculoskeletal symptoms turned out to be a risk factor influencing subjective symptoms of fatigue. [Conclusion] This study identified the factors influencing subjective symptoms of fatigue at computer workstations, and consequently, the need to create specialized computer environments within schools to minimize fatigue symptoms was recognized.
[Purpose] We investigated the availability of facial grading systems for the evaluation of facial nerve functions including both of traditional and computer-based approaches. An accurate and reliable studies on facial grading systems is needed for constructing a standard system, which is desired by the medical professions all over the world, for evaluating how much the patients suffering from facial paralysis. [Methods] We searched for articles related to facial grading systems using online databases such as Pub Med, Elsevier, IEEE, Springer, and the ACM digital library. Studies selected to be include were based on following criteria: a) in English language; b) published from 1955 to 2012; and c) considered both bilateral and unilateral facial palsy resulting from any causes. [Results] Thirty-two articles were identified in the search, and we present an overview and explanations of various traditional and computer-based methods for accessing facial nerve function for facial rehabilitation. [Conclusion] Studies of facial grading systems cannot be compared easily as facial grading systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. We expect that this review will provide the clinicians and researchers a brief overview of the facial grading systems which have been used and assist in the development of a standard one.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between change in exercise habit and changes in body composition, blood pressure and health-related quality of life among participants in a health-guidance program with no exercise habit. [Subjects] The subjects were 3 males and 12 females (mean age, 65.4 years). [Methods] The intervention was a 6-month exercise- and nutritional-guidance program. Outcome measures were body composition, blood pressure, and health-related quality of life based on the physical and mental components summary of the SF-36. Measurements were performed at baseline, post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention (follow-up). At baseline, post-intervention (short-term change) and follow-up (long-term change), the outcome measures were compared between the ‘exercising group’ who had established an exercise habit at follow-up and the ‘non-exercising group’ who had not. [Results] At baseline, the physical component summary of the non-exercising group was significantly lower than that of the exercising group. In the long-term, the exercising group tended to have a greater decrease in waist circumference than the non-exercising group. [Conclusion] The reason why a significant effect of the health-guidance program was not found over the short-term might be that the physical component summary of the non-exercising group was lower than that of the exercising group.