[Purpose] We developed a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device (MABD) to assist the dynamic hug exercise, and investigated the effects of MABD on the shoulder muscles during the dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured the right side serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and upper trapezius muscle activities during the dynamic hug exercise with and without MABD. [Results] The serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscles activities significantly increased during the dynamic hug exercise with MABD compared to without it. The upper trapezius muscle significantly decreased during the dynamic hug exercise with MABD compared to without it. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the dynamic hug exercise with MABD is an effective scapular stability exercise.
[Purpose] Intelligent emotion assessment systems have been highly successful in a variety of applications, such as e-learning, psychology, and psycho-physiology. This study aimed to assess five different human emotions (happiness, disgust, fear, sadness, and neutral) using heart rate variability (HRV) signals derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG). [Subjects] Twenty healthy university students (10 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 23 years participated in this experiment. [Methods] All five emotions were induced by audio-visual stimuli (video clips). ECG signals were acquired using 3 electrodes and were preprocessed using a Butterworth 3rd order filter to remove noise and baseline wander. The Pan-Tompkins algorithm was used to derive the HRV signals from ECG. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used to extract statistical features from the HRV signals using four wavelet functions: Daubechies6 (db6), Daubechies7 (db7), Symmlet8 (sym8), and Coiflet5 (coif5). The k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to map the statistical features into corresponding emotions. [Results] KNN provided the maximum average emotion classification rate compared to LDA for five emotions (sadness − 50.28%; happiness − 79.03%; fear − 77.78%; disgust − 88.69%; and neutral − 78.34%). [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that HRV may be a reliable indicator of changes in the emotional state of subjects and provides an approach to the development of a real-time emotion assessment system with a higher reliability than other systems.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, to investigate the efficacy of the two types of taping as methods for alleviating menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 34 unmarried women. The subjects were randomly divided into a Kinesio taping group, a spiral taping group and a control group. Subjects with a regular menstrual cycle underwent taping a total of six times; twice a week for about three weeks, starting from 14 days before menstruation and continuing until its end. Degrees of menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome were measured before the application of taping. [Results] The results revealed that Kinesio taping had significant effects on menstrual pain, while spiral taping was effective at alleviating both menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Conclusion] Both taping methods before menstruation brought significant relief to menstrual pain, which suggests that spiral taping is an effective method of alleviating premenstrual symptoms.
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify what impact the thickness differences between the leftside and rightside transversus abdominis (TrA), internal obliquus (IO) and external obliquus (EO) have on balance ability in the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and resting postures. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 41 young adults were asked to adopt a resting posture and to perform ADIM. The thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, IO, EO) were measured using ultrasound imaging, Then balance ability was measured, so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. [Results] According to the results, the thicknesses of TrA and IO very significantly increased when ADIM was performed. The changes in thickness of the muscles on the left and right sides showed no significant correlations with balance ability. [Conclusion] According to the study results, the difference in thickness between the left and right side muscles in a normal person is small (symmetric), and the differences in the thickness of TrA and IO on the left and right side reduced when the ADIM, which is a re-education method for abdominal muscles was performed. Therefore, we consider that the ADIM should be used in future clinical trials to induce symmetric contraction of the abdominal muscles. Also, the correlation results of muscle balance and body balance can be used as empirical data.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to cross-culturally translate and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Thai version of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). [Subjects] One hundred and thirty-nine persons with SCI who lived in the community were recruited for this study. [Methods] The IPA was translated following the guideline for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The reliability and validity was examined in 139 persons with SCI. For the test-retest reliability, 30 participants completed the Thai version of the IPA twice with a 2-week interval. [Results] The translated questionnaire and its items had moderate to good reliability, with the ICC(3,1) ranging from 0.76 to 0.93. The internal consistency for all domains was high, with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.86 to 0.90. The convergent validity, discriminant validity, and construct validity were supported. [Conclusion] The Thai version of the IPA is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the level of community participation in Thai persons with spinal cord injury.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between trunk stability and injury among young soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 male soccer players in junior high school. The presence of injury was noted, and trunk stability was measured by using the bench test and sideways bench test, which were modified from “The 11+” exercises. [Results] There was no significant difference in endurance time in the bench test or sideways bench test between the injury group (n=9) and non-injury group (n=10). Comparison within each group revealed no significant difference in endurance time between the right and left sideways bench tests in the non-injury group; however, the time in the left sideways bench test was significantly longer than that in the right in the injury group. [Conclusion] This study suggests that there is a relationship between asymmetric trunk stability and injury. Further research investigating the relationship between asymmetric trunk function and balance skills is necessary.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of action observation training and motor imagery training on recovery from chronic stroke. [Subjects] Thirty patients (who were over six months post stroke) participated in this study and were randomly allocated to three groups. [Methods] The action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for five 30-minute sessions over a four-week period. The motor imagery training group practiced additional motor imagery training for five 30-minute sessions over a four-week period. Electroencephalogram were used to compare brain waves between the three groups. [Results] The action observation group showed significant changes in relative alpha power in Fp1 and Fp2 and relative beta power in Fp2 and C3. [Conclusion] Action observation induces higher levels of cognitive activities than motor imagery and physical training. Action observation is expected to be more effective for stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of push-up exercise with hip adduction on the COP deviation and SA and L1 spinal muscle activation. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–30 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured the COP deviation and SA and L1 spinal muscle activities during push-up exercise with and without hip adduction [Results] The COP deviation significantly decreased and the SA and L1 spinal muscles were significantly increased during push-ups with hip adduction when compared with push-ups without hip adduction. [Conclusion] We thought that the push-up exercise with hip adduction might help to selectively strengthen the SA.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pelvic adjustment via the Gonstead Technique on the posture of female university students. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 female university students who were equally and randomly allocated to a pelvic adjustment group, an experimental group, and a stretching group, a control group. [Methods] Using BackMapper, their trunk inclination (TIN), trunk imbalance (TIM), pelvic position (PPO), pelvic torsion (PTO), pelvic rotation (PRO), and position of their scapulae (PSA) were evaluated. [Results] The adjustment group obtained significant results in TIM, PPO, PTO, and PSA, while the control group obtained no significant results for any items. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment via the Gonstead Technique may be applied as a method to correct the posture of average adults.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on teenagers’ internal oblique (IO) and transverses abdominis (TrA) expiratory muscles and their pulmonary function. [Subjects] A total of 30 healthy teenagers (15 smokers; 15 nonsmokers) voluntarily participated in the study. [Methods] The subjects were instructed to maintain an upright standing posture with their scapulars against the wall. Measurements were then taken to determine the thickness of their right IO and their right TrA while they were at rest and in a state of forced expiration using a 7.5 MHz linear probe of an ultrasonic imaging system. The measured thickness was converted into the percentage of change in muscle thickness (PCMT) and the relative contribution ratio (RCR) using a calculation formula, and then the data were analyzed. [Results] No significant differences were found between the two groups in the thickness, PCMT, and RCR of both the IO and TrA muscles, while there were significant differences in the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and the peak expiratory flow (PEF). [Conclusion] This study examined teenage smokers whose duration of smoking was relatively short. The two groups did not show significant differences in the thickness of both the IO and TrA muscles. However, based on the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and PEF measurements, the smokers showed greater decreases in pulmonary function than the nonsmokers.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of a pelvic belt on the electromyography (EMG) activity of the abdominal muscles during a single-leg hold in the hook-lying position on a round foam roll. [Subjects] Seventeen healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study. [Methods] The participants performed single-leg-hold exercises on a round foam roll with and without a pelvic belt. Surface EMG was recorded from the rectus abdominis (RA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) bilaterally. [Results] The EMG activity of the bilateral RA, EO, and IO was significantly lower when the pelvic belt applied. [Conclusions] Our finding that the bilateral EO, IO, and RA muscles were less active with a pelvic belt during trunk-stabilizing exercises on an unstable surface suggests that the pelvic belt provided “form closure”.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 elderly women, who were randomly divided into two groups: an augmented reality-based Otago exercise group of 10 subjects and an Otago exercise group of 11 subjects. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length), and falls efficacy. Within 12 weeks, Otago exercise for muscle strengthening and balance training was conducted three times, for a period of 60 minutes each, and subjects in the experimental group performed augmented reality-based Otago exercise. [Results] Following intervention, the augmented reality-based Otago exercise group showed significant increases in BBS, velocity, cadence, step length (right side), stride length (right side and left side) and falls efficacy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of this augmented reality-based Otago exercise for elderly women.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of core stabilization exercise on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 stroke patients, who were randomly divided into two groups: a core stabilization exercise group of eight subjects and control group of eight subjects. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the core stabilization exercise group practiced an additional core stabilization exercise program, which was performed for 30 minutes, three times per week, during a period of four weeks. All subjects were evaluated for dynamic balance (Timed Up and Go test, TUG) and gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length). [Results] Following intervention, the core exercise group showed a significant change in TUG, velocity, and cadence. The only significant difference observed between the core group and control group was in velocity. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of core stabilization exercise for stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study explored the roles of physical therapists (PTs) in living environment maintenance, which is essential for living securely and stably at home, and examines how physical therapists can fulfill these roles more efficiently and effectively. [Subjects and Methods] A questionnaire on living environment maintenance was given to PTs working at randomly selected hospitals, health care facilities for the elderly requiring long-term care, home-visit nursing stations, and other such facilities and directly providing physical therapy to the home-bound elderly disabled. The subjects of the study were 77 PTs who returned valid responses. [Results] For awareness of systems for living environment maintenance, PTs were more aware of the system based on the Long-Term Care (LTC) Insurance Act than the system based on the Act on Welfare for the Home-Bound Elderly Disabled. PTs who have worked at two or more types of medical, welfare, and intermediate institutions were more aware of such systems than PTs who have worked at only one type. For PTs handling living environment maintenance for the home-bound elderly disabled, approximately 80% of respondents answered that they have handled some living environment maintenance, and PTs with longer clinical experience have handled more living environment maintenance cases. [Conclusion] The results demonstrated that PTs understand their living environment maintenance work well and handle the work. The results, however, also suggested that educational and operational improvements are urgently required for PTs handling living environment maintenance essential for the lives of the home-bound elderly disabled.
[Purpose] The purpose of this this study was to examine the immediate effects of intervention of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) and NJF+pelvic floor muscle (PFM) exercise. [Subjects] Thirteen young people (5 males, 8 females) who had chronic low back pain on one side for more than 6 months. [Methods] Subjects were asked to lie on their sides with the painful side uppremost. The subjects received PNF, and NJF, NJF+PFM exercise treatments. The changes in the cross-sectional area of the multifidusmuscle were measured using ultrasonography. [Results] The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle of NJF+PFM group showed the largest increases on both the sides with and without pain. [Conclusion] Our results show that chronic low back pain can be improved by a combination of PFM exercise and the NJF pattern.
[Purpose] This study investigated the differences in shoulder muscles activities during shoulder abduction between a forward shoulder posture group and asymptomatic group. [Subjects] Seven males with forward shoulder posture (FHS) and seven asymptomatic males were recruited. [Methods] We measured the upper and middle trapezius (UT and MT), serratus anterior (SA), and clavicle portion of the pectoralis major (cPM) in the right side during shoulder abduction. [Results] The activities of the UT and cPM in the FHS group were significantly more increased when compared with the asymptomatic group. The activities of the MT and SA in the FHS group were significantly more decreased when compared with the asymptomatic group. [Conclusion] We suggest that forward shoulder posture may become a potential risk factor evoking the various shoulder disorders.
[Purpose] This study was conducted in order to investigate the importance of trunk muscle strength in stroke patients. By comparing the thicknesses of the abdominal wall muscles through ultrasonography, relative to the duration of illness, the results of the objective data were applied. [Methods] Thirty stroke patients were divided into three groups including an acute phase group participating in the study within 1 month after the onset of a stroke (n=10), a subacute phase group participating less than 6 months (n=10) after a stroke, and a chronic phase group participating more than 6 months (n=10) after suffering a stroke. The thicknesses of the transversus abdominis muscles (TrA), internal oblique muscle (IO), and the external oblique muscle (EO) were measured at rest and during abdominal draw-in maneuver (ADIM) in a supine hook-lying position, and their differences were compared. [Results] The results showed that, in comparison of the thicknesses of the paretic and nonparetic sides, the TrA of the subacute phase and chronic phase groups showed significant differences. In addition, the IO of the subacute phase group and the EO of the chronic phase groups also showed significant differences. [Conclusion] According to the duration of illness in stroke patients, the abdominal wall muscles become noticeably infirm and asymmetric. By improving their symmetry, the functions of the trunk muscles can be recovered.
[Purpose] This study aimed to provide fundamental data to be utilized in preventing and treating musculoskeletal disorders and analyzing working postures commonly used during periodontal treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were three dental hygienists with work experience in dental clinics for more than 10 years. [Methods] For the analysis of working postures, we simulated the work posture of dental hygienists during the scaling procedures and oral radiographic imaging tasks. The subjects were recorded on video to precisely observe them while they were working. The captured working postures were assessed and analyzed using ergonomic assessment methods, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment, and Strain index. [Results] No differences were exhibited in the intensities of manual scaling and ultrasonic scaling. Commonly, the shoulders and waist were found to be the most overburdened. According to the strain index, manual scaling and ultrasonic scaling working postures were identified to be most dangerous. [Conclusion] The work postures of dental hygienists during scaling are postures that are highly likely to generate work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, the development of therapeutic exercise programs easily performable in the workplace and daily life is thought to be crucial to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
[Purpose] Motor learning is accelerated most by optimized task difficulty. When task difficulty is optimized, the amount of information required to complete the task matches the learner’s information processing abilities. The practice schedule is one of the factors which changes the amount of task information. We investigated the influence of changes in practice schedule on the amount of task information using the probe reaction time technique. [Methods] Fourteen young male subjects were randomly assigned to a blocked or random practice group. They were required to perform two tasks simultaneously. The primary task consisted of treadmill walking with specific step lengths, and the secondary task consisted of a probe reaction time task. [Results] The blocked practice group was superior to the random practice group in performance during the acquisition phase. In contrast, the random practice group was superior to the blocked practice group in performance during the retention phase. Furthermore, the random practice group had a longer reaction time than the blocked practice group. [Conclusion] From the standpoint of the challenge point framework, motor learning may be accelerated by random practice because random practice probably elicits greater attentional demand than blocked practice.
[Purpose] Scapular stabilizer strengthening exercise is crucial for shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to compare two types of push-up plus exercises, on a stable and unstable bases of support, using surface electromyography (EMG), to suggest an effective shoulder rehabilitation program. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy men volunteered for this study. All volunteers performed two sets of push-up plus exercise (standard push up and knee push up) on stable and unstable bases of support. The muscle activities of five important scapular stabilizer muscles (upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi) were recorded during the exercise. [Results] The upper trapezius showed greater mean electric activation amplitude in the scapular retraction posture than in the scapular protraction posture, and the serratus anterior showed greater mean electric activation amplitude in the scapular protraction posture than in the scapular retraction posture. The root-mean-square normalized EMG values of the muscles were greater during the exercise performed on the unstable support than those on the stable support. [Conclusion] The standard push-up plus exercise on an unstable base of support helps to increase muscle activity, especially those of the upper/middle trapezius and serratus anterior.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study were to identify whether painless dynamic PNF techniques can reduce lymphedema, and to provide basic reference data for use in the treatment of lymphedema patients. [Subjects] This experiment was conducted from March 2012 to July 2012 at Busan University Hospital D. The subjects were upper extremity lymphedema patients who were receiving rehabilitation treatment. Those with dual lymphedema site pain or who did not want to participate in the experiment were excluded. [Methods] A total of 40 women participated in this study, and they received PNF techniques before the application of lymph compression bandages. Group 1 of 20 subjects were adminstered PNF techniques three times a week for 30 minutes each time. Group 2 of 20 subjects only edema reducing massage for 30 minutes. [Results] The interaction between treatment method and treatment time was significant, which indicates that the change in edema at different measurement times was different according to treatment methods. In this study, Group 1 had a steeper rate of decline in edema than Group 2. [Conclusion] In conclusion, both massage and PNF techniques helped to lower edema rates. Four weeks after the beginning of treatment, a larger degree of decline in edema was exhibited in the PNF group than in the massage group.
[Purpose] This study proposed a new neck support tying (NST) method using Thera-Band for the prevention of neck and shoulder pain in workers doing overhead work. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the new NST method using Thera-Band on cervical ROM and shoulder pain after overhead work. [Subjects] Fourteen male subjects were recruited. [Methods] This study measured the cervical ROM and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper and middle trapezius (UT and MT) muscles after the control and NST groups had performed overhead work. [Results] The cervical flexion, extension, and lateral flexion angles of the NST group were significantly larger than those of the control group. The PPTs of UT and MT of the NST group were significantly higher than those of the control group [Conclusion] The NST prevented ROM reduction and pain in the cervical and shoulder regions.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of ultrasound imaging (USI) measurements of muscle thicknesses of patients with low back pain (LBP) performing the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) [Subjects] Twenty patients with LBP were the subjects. [Methods] Muscle thickness measurements of transversus abdominis (Tra), internal obliques (IO), and external obliques (EO) muscles were measured using ultrasound imaging at rest and during performance of the ADIM. [Results] The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.55 to 0.97 in the rest position, and from 0.82 to 0.95 during ADIM. The inter-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.77 to 0.98 in the rest position, and from 0.86 to 0.98 during ADIM. [Conclusion] ADIM thickness measurements of the TrA, IO, and EO muscles in patients with LBP based on the mean of 2 measures are highly reliable when taken by a single examiner and adequately reliable when taken by different examiners.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on pharyngeal transit time. [Subjects] Subjects were divided into normal old persons aged over 70 (N=18), and normal young persons aged under 30 (N=10). [Method] We measured the Pharyngeal Transit Time (PTT) to determine their swallowing characteristics. NMES was used to stimulate old group’s suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles 60 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks using four electrodes. We used SPSS version 14.0 to analyze and compare the data between the 2 groups. [Results] After NMES, PTT of the normal old group became significantly shorter. PTT was much shorter, but was still longer than that of the normal young group. [Conclusion] The PTTs of the two groups classified by age were significantly different.
[Purpose] This study investigated the muscle activity differences of three different lumbar stabilization exercises in a comparison of middle-aged and young women. [Subjects] Seventeen middle-aged women and fifteen young women were enrolled in this study. Patients with a history of any neurologic disorders, orthopedic disorders, or cardiopulmonary problems that would have affected their lumbar stabilization exercise performance were excluded. [Methods] All subjects performed 3 exercises while the surface electromographic activity was recorded of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, multifidus, and iliocostalis lumbolum. The mean electromyographic amplitudes obtained during the exercise were normalized to the amplitude of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) to produce an inter-individually comparable muscle activity index. [Results] The highest muscle activity of middle-aged women was observed in the ring bridging exercise. The middle-aged women had higher levels of all muscle activaties than the young women, particularly in the multifidus muscle and iliocostalis lumborum. No significant difference in muscle activity ratio was observed between the local muscles and global muscles in the three different exercises, though the muscle activity ratio was the highest in the ring bridging exercise. The young women group showed a higher ratio of the internal oblique/rectus abdominus than the middle aged women in the bridging exercise. [Conclusion] The ring bridging exercise should be used for stabilizing the lumbar area because the young women showed a higher ratio than the middle aged women.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the contraction ability at maximum expiration of the transversus abdominis (TrA) in patients with chronic low-back pain (CLBP) with that of healthy individuals. [Subjects] We studied 15 patients with CLBP and 15 healthy subjects. The subjects were informed of the study’s aim and methods, and the experiment was performed after obtaining the consent of the subjects. [Methods] The thickness of the abdominal muscles was measured using a LOGIQ Book XP (GE, USA). The main outcome variable was the ratio of TrA thickness at maximum expiration versus in the relaxed position (TrA activation ratio).[Results] There was a difference between the healthy subjects and the back pain subjects with regard to the thickness of the TrA at rest and the thickness of the muscle during contraction. However, there was no difference in the rate of change in the muscle activity. [Conclusion] In conclusion, CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of the TrA muscle, but voluntary TrA muscle activation was similar to that of the normal subjects.
[Purpose] To investigate effects of thoracic manipulation versus mobilization on chronic neck pain. [Methods] Thirty-nine chronic neck pain subjects were randomly assigned to single level thoracic manipulation, single level thoracic mobilization, or a control group. The cervical range of motion (CROM) and pain ratings (using a visual analog scale: VAS) were measured before, immediately after and at a 24-hour follow-up. [Results] Thoracic manipulation significantly decreased VAS pain ratings and increased CROM in all directions in immediate and 24-hour follow-ups. The thoracic mobilization group significantly increased in CROM in most directions at immediate follow-up and right and left rotational directions at the 24-hour follow-up. Comparisons between groups revealed the CROM for the manipulation group to increase significantly more than for control subjects in most directions at immediate follow-up and flexion, left lateral flexion and left rotation at the 24-hour follow-up. The CROM for the thoracic mobilization group significantly increased in comparison to the control group in flexion at immediate follow-up and in flexion and left rotation at the 24-hour follow-up. [Conclusion] The study demonstrated reductions in VAS pain ratings and increases in CROM at immediate and 24-hour follow-ups from both single level thoracic spine manipulation and thoracic mobilization in chronic neck pain.
[Purpose] This study set out to investigate the effects of leg immersion in warm water on pain, and stiffness of patients with stroke-induced chronic osteoarthritis. [Subjects] Forty-four patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to either the whirlpool group (n=24) or the control group (n=20). [Methods] Subjects in the whirlpool group immersed their legs in a whirlpool bath at 40 °C for 40 minutes 5 times a week for 8 weeks. The control group of patients was instructed to perform activities as usual without using a whirlpool bath. Pre-immersion and post-immersion measurements of the Western Ontario and McMaster University arthritis index (WOMAC)-pain and stiffness indexes were compared to determine the effects of the intervention. The paired t-test was performed to test the significance of differences before and after the experiment. The independent t-test was conducted in order to test the significance of differences between the whirlpool and control groups. Statistical significance was accepted for values of p<0.05. [Results] The WOMAC-pain score, and stiffness index were significantly lower after the intervention. [Conclusion] Immersion of the lower extremities in a whirlpool bath was beneficial for patients with chronic stroke-induced knee osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] We compared problematic behaviors of children according to the severity of their mental retardation (MR) of intellect as categorized by the Ryouiku Techou in this study, to investigate the influence of MR of intellect on children’s problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 mentally retarded children undergoing physical therapy at hospitals and other facilities. [Methods] The examiners were 13 physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists who worked at the hospital and knew the children well. The examiners individually assessed the subjects using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The subjects were divided into two groups (A and non-A) according to the Ryouiku Techou standard. [Results] No significant differences were observed between the groups except in the items of stereotypy and lethargy. [Conclusion] Problematic behaviors other than stereotypy and lethargy were not influenced by the Ryouiku Techou standard.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to propose a work environment that could reduce musculoskeletal workload. Accordingly, spinal muscle fatigue caused by ultrasound therapy at various treatment table heights was examined and compared. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five healthy subjects participated in this experiment. The table height was set to 100%, 125%, and 150% of the stool height (45 cm). The electromyographic signals of the erector spinae at the thoracic (T10, T12) and lumbar (L2, L4) levels were collected by an electromyography (EMG) system during the performance of ultrasound therapy. The median frequencies were then calculated and compared. [Results] The lower the table height was, the smaller the median frequencies of thoracic and lumbar erector spinae on both sides were. The T10 and T12 levels on both sides and the left L2 region showed significant differences among the table heights. At every spinal level, the median frequency of the left erector spinae was lower than that of the right: T10, T12, L2, and L4 at 100%, L4 at 125%, and T10, T12, L2, and L4 at 150% showed significant differences. [Conclusion] During ultrasound therapy muscle fatigue increased at higher table heights and the muscle fatigue of the left erector spinae was greater than that of the right side. To reduce muscle fatigue, we recommend the table height work is raised to an appropriate height, and that is shared between left and right arms.
[Purpose] This study investigated the difference screwdriver handle size has on forearm muscle activities and wrist motion during screw-driving work. [Subjects] Fourteen males aged 20–30 years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the forearm muscle activities using a MP 150 System and wrist motion using a 3D motion system. The subjects performed screw-driving tasks with different screwdriver handle sizes. [Results] The wrist flexion and ulnar deviation angles and flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity significantly increased and wrist extension angle significantly decreased during screwdriver work with a thin handle. [Conclusion] We consider that industrial workers should perform screw-driving work using a screwdriver with a thick handle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the requirements of the introduction of a safety design and certification system for medical facilities. [Subjects] A survey was carried out of one hundred nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language therapists from May to August in 2012. [Methods] The survey was conducted after giving subjects some information about safety design. [Results] The participants were aware of the need for establishing a safety design certification system. Total responses to services, facilities and space were analyzed in order to evaluate the priorities of safety, user characteristics, functionality, convenience and aesthetics. Regarding the application of a safety design certification system to services, items were prioritized in the order of children’s items, household supplies and hospital supplies. For facilities, the priorities were, living space, social welfare and medical facilities; space, they were public and transportation-related places. The requirements for operating a safety design system were in order development of: highly skilled manpower, the legal system, educational promotion and qualifying facilities. [Conclusion] In conclusion, in order to implement safety design in medical facilities, a safety design certification system should be introduced first, and to do this a systematic and comprehensive study is needed.
[Purpose] Walking speed is related to important outcomes such as mortality and is fundamental to independent and safe ambulation in the community. The objectives of this study were to determine if the discharge gait speed of patients completing subacute rehabilitation was slow relative to normative and street crossing reference values, and whether such speed was associated with age, gender, or diagnosis. [Subjects and Methods] Consecutive patients admitted to a subacute rehabilitation facility were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Participants were 109 patients (56 women) 60 to 98 (mean=78.2) years old who were divided into 10 diagnostic categories. Gait speed was measured over a distance of 5.2 meters as patients walked at their most comfortable speed beyond a designated finish line. Timing with a digital stopwatch began after an acceleration distance of 1 meter and ceased as patients crossed the finish line. [Results] The patients’ comfortable gait speed (mean=0.58; SD=0.19; range=0.09–1.10 m/s) was significantly less than 1.0m/s (normal reference value) (1.11±0.15 m/s) but significantly greater than that required for crossing the street (0.49 m/s). Nevertheless, 27.5% of patients did not achieve a walking speed of 0.49 m/s. Speed was inversely related to age and was lower among women, but it was not affected by diagnostic category. [Conclusion] Gait speed remains limited when patients are discharged home from subacute rehabilitation and was slowest among older women patients. Further therapy may be warranted for such patients after discharge.
[Purpose] Balance is generally defined as the ability to maintain the body’s center of gravity within its base of support and may be categorized by either static or dynamic balance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of balance training on strength, and the functional balance ability of elite weightlifters. [Subjects] Thirty-two elite weightlifters were recruited for the present study. They were divided into exercise groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students) and control groups (8 high school students, 8 middle school students). [Methods] Body compositions were measured by the electrical impedance method, and a Helmas system was used to measure basic physical capacities. The muscular function test was conducted using a Cybex 770. [Results] There were no significant changes in body composition after the training. In contrast, significant changes were found in the number of push-ups, one-leg standing time with eyes closed, and upper body back extension. Interestingly, only the left arm external rotation value after the exercise training program showed a statistically significant difference from the baseline value. [Conclusion] The peak torque values of shoulder internal rotation and knee extension were significantly changed compared to the baseline values, which mean subjects showed balance of their muscular power. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that an 8-week balance-training program would positively affect elite weightlifters’ balance ability and flexibility. We think that well-balanced muscular functionality may enhance athletes’ sport performance.