[Purpose] Accuracy in coordinating limb movements decreases with aging. The effect of aging on the variability of cyclic movements is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aging on seated stepping variability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six healthy young adults and 15 healthy elderly adults were instructed to walk at their preferred speed. Foot contact was monitored using reflective markers. Seated stepping was performed on force plates. The participants synchronized their stepping with 6 different metronome beats: 90–140 beats per minute (bpm). The time-series coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated. [Results] The cadence of young adults was 121 steps/min and that of the elderly adults was 125 steps/min in the elderly adults. The seated stepping CV decreased gradually from 90 to 120 bpm, but sharply increased at 130 and 140 bpm. Compared to young adults, the elderly adults had significantly higher CVs of seated stepping; however, the intergroup difference in the CV of seated stepping at 120 bpm was negligible. [Conclusions] Our results suggest that the stepping accuracy of the elderly is decreased; however, the rhythmic seated stepping accuracy does not decrease at the same rate as gait.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the isolation ratios of scapular retraction muscles between protracted scapular and asymptomatic groups. [Subjects] Seven males with protracted scapular and seven asymptomatic males aged 20–30 years were recruited. [Methods] We measeured the rhomboid, middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT) muscles activities, and calculated the isolation ratio. [Results] The rhomboid and MT isolation ratio of the protracted scapular group was not significantly different from that of the asymptomatic group. The LT isolation ratio of the protracted scapular group was significantly lower than that of the asymptomatic group. [Conclusion] We suggest that a proper retraction exercise, for patients with protracted scapular posture is one that includes exercises for selectively strengthening the lower trapezius muscle.
[Purpose] This study examined the contraction rates of abdominal muscles in relation to the posture of chronic lumbar pain patients and normal subjects. [Subjects] The subjects were 17 chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients and 17 normal people between the ages of 20 and 59. [Methods] Experimental postures included a supine position, a sitting position, and a standing position. Measurements were taken at rest and during abdominal contraction. The measurement at rest was taken during expiration with comfortable breathing, and the measurement during contraction was taken at maximum expiration of forced expiration. Muscle contraction rates (on contraction and at relaxation) were calculated. [Results] There were significant differences between CLBP patients and normal subjects in the transversus abdominis (TrA) in the standing position. [Conclusion] Changes in contraction rates of the abdominal muscles of normal subjects and CLBP patients were examined in different postures at maximum expiration. It was found that the contraction rate of TrA in CLBP patients in a standing position, is significantly lower than that of normal subjects.
[Purpose] To determine which of the transcranial electromagnetic stimulation or low level laser therapy is more effective in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia of multiple sclerosis patients. [Methods] Thirty multiple sclerosis patients of both sexes participated in this study. The age of the subjects ranged from 40 to 60 years and their mean age was (56.4–6.6). Participants were randomly selected from Dental and Neurology Outpatient Clinics at King Khalid Hospital, Najran University, Saudi Arabia. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 15. The Laser group received a low level laser therapy, 830 nm wavelength, 10 Hz and 15 min duration, while the Electromagnetic group received repetitive transcranial electromagnetic stimulation at a frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 50 mA and duration of 20 minutes. Patients were assessed pre and post treatment for degree of pain using a numerical rating scale, maximal oral mouth opening using a digital calibrated caliper, masseter muscle tension using a tensiometer and a compound action potentials of masseter and temporalis muscles. [Results] There were significant improvements after treatment in both groups, with a significant difference between the Electromagnetic and Laser groups, in favor of the Electromagnetic group. [Conclusion] Repetitive transcranial electromagnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 50 mA, and 20 minutes duration is more effective than low level laser therapy at reducing trigeminal pain, increasing maximum oral mouth opening, masseter and temporalis muscle tension in multiple sclerosis patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of squat exercises performed on different surfaces on the activity of the quadriceps femoris muscle in order to provide information on support surfaces for effective squat exercises. [Subjects and Method] Fourteen healthy subjects performed squat exercises for five seconds each on three different support surfaces: hard plates, foam, and rubber air discs. Their performance was measured using electromyography. As the subjects performed the squat exercises on each surface, data on the activity of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis, and the vastus medials oblique/vastus lateralis ratio, were collected. [Results] The activity of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio were found to be statistically significantly higher on rubber air discs than when the squats were performed on hard plates or foam. [Conclusion] To activate the vastus medialis obilique, and to enhance the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio, unstable surfaces that are highly unstable should be selected.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine according to gender and body mass index the number of steps taken by the sedentary workers as measured by a pedometer. [Subjects] Thirty-six sedentary workers in their twenties in Ulsan city were enrolled in for this study and their step counts were investigated. [Methods] Step counts at the workplace between 9 am and 6 pm everyday for 2 weeks were measured by a pedometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 to compare step count according to gender and BMI on different days of the week. [Results] Females showed a higher step count than males on every day of the week except Fridays and Sundays. The step count was higher among the low weight group than overweight group on every day of the week. [Conclusion] Future studies should examine ways of helping sedentary workers to increase their step count. Also, more effort should be made to find practical ways of improving the number of steps taken in the workplace to keep workers in good health, as additional benefit would accrue, such as improved work efficiency.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an aqua aerobic therapy exercise for older adults on biomechanical and physiological factors affecting gait. [Subjects] A total of 15 subjects participated in this study and they were randomly divided into the experimental and the control group. [Methods] Physiological variables, leg strength, power and flexibility, and biomechanical variables, both kinematic and kinetic, were measured before and after the aqua aerobic therapy exercise. Each subject was instructed to walk along an elevated walkway and during the trials a trapdoor opened at random to create a 10 cm falling perturbation. Full body motion and kinetics was gathered during the gait. [Results] There were significant reductions in body weight, and body fat mass, and stride time after the perturbation. Significant increases in leg strength corresponded to the maximum joint moment of the landing leg showing that the subjects’ ability for recovery of balance after the perturbation improved. [Conclusion] As the results showed significant improvements in gait pattern and recovery time after perturbed gait, we conclude that aqua aerobic therapy is an effective exercise method for training older adults to reduce their risk of falling.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term exercise training on the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of individuals suffering from myocardial infarction. [Subjects] A total of 60 participants were divided into experimental (EXP; n=30, mean age 56.7 ± 2.8 years, body mass 80.7 ± 10.7 kg, body height 171.9 ± 7.2 cm) and control (CON; n=30, mean age 56.5 ± 3.1 years, body mass 84.4 ± 12.4 kg, body height 171.5 ± 12.4 cm) groups. [Methods] The members of the EXP group took part in an organized daily physical exercise program (Monday through Sunday), for a period of 3 weeks. The exercise program consisted of 60 min daily specialized fitness exercises with an intensity ranging from 55–70% of the maximum heart rate, which was determined by test on a bicycle ergometer. The effects of the exercise were monitored by means of the following parameters: maximum oxygen uptake (VO2peak), resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. [Results] The results indicate statistically significant post-exercise improvements in heart rate, relative oxygen uptake and systolic blood pressure, among the members of the EXP group. The results indicate that at the initial measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness no statistically significant differences were found between the groups at the multivariate level (Wilk’s λ=0.83), while statistically significant differences in the cardiorespiratory fitness were found at the final measurement (Wil’s λ=0.430). [Conclusion] The obtained results indicate that the exercise program, which lasted for a period of 21 days, though shorter in duration than other programs still led to statistically significant changes in the CRF of individuals suffering from MI.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of an exercise program using aero-step exercise equipment on the balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] Twenty-one normal adults were randomized into a flat floor exercise program group (FEG, n = 7), an aero-step exercise program group (AEG, n = 7), and a control group (CG, n = 7). [Methods] the FEG and AEG performed an exercise program four times a week for 2 weeks, but CG did not receive any treatment. The overall stability index (OSI), anterioposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI) were measured and compared using a Biodex balance system. [Results] The intragroup comparison revealed significant differences in OSI and APSI of AEG and in MLSI of FEG. [Conclusion] The exercise program using aero-step equipment seems to be effective at improving the balance abilities of OSI and APSI.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify whether respiratory function differed between dementia patients using and not using thickening fluids and texture-modifying foods for swallowing dysfunction management. [Subjects] Sixty-five inpatients in the dementia treatment ward in a psychiatric facility were enrolled. [Methods] The patients underwent respiratory function testing twice with an 80-cm party horn. Moreover, information about the patients’ characteristics and use of thickening fluids and texture-modifying foods was obtained from their medical records. [Results] There was a significant difference in being able to blow the party horn to its full length between patients using and not using thickening liquids. [Conclusion] This result suggests that decreased respiratory function may reflect swallowing dysfunction in dementia patients.
[Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effects of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and calpain protein expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects and Methods] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I comprised untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II comprised untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III comprised rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV comprised rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10). At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days), limb placement test score and the levels of calpain protein in the hippocampus were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (limb placement test) were observed and hippocampal calpain protein levels were decreased. [Conclusion] These results indicated that antecedent treadmill exercise prior to focal cerebral ischemia exerted neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury by improving motor performance and decreasing the levels of calpain expression. Furthermore, these results suggest that antecedent treadmill exercise of an appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation.
[Purpose] This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of child-centered task-oriented training on balance ability in patients with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Twenty-six subjects with cerebral palsy were recruited. [Methods] This study applied a child-centered task-oriented training program to 26 subjects during a period of 15 weeks, with two 40-minute sessions per week. The Pediatric Berg Balance Scale (PBS) was used for measurement of the effect of child-centered task-oriented training. [Results] Balance ability showed a significant change after the intervention in age groups younger than nine, between 10 and 12, and older than 13. In addition, a significant difference in balance ability was observed in the spastic type, athetoid type, diplegia, and quadriplegia transport groups, including an independent walking group, a group of subjects who used walkers, and a group of subjects who used wheelchairs. [Conclusion] Although we suggest conduct of a follow-up study on child-centered task-oriented training, the results of this study showed improved balance ability in patients with cerebral palsy. Therefore, these results recommend a variety of applications in clinical trials of conservative therapeutic methods.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to carry out a 16-week treatment of lumbar stabilization exercise with a ball targeting patients with chronic low back pain and investigate its effect on alleviation of low back pain and bone mineral density. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 36 patients who were diagnosed with chronic low back pain. They were divided into a conservative treatment group (CTG, n=12), floor exercise group (FEG, n=12), and ball exercise group (BEG, n=12). The degree of recovery from pain was looked into using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and DEXXUM T (OsteoSys, Seoul, Korea) which was used to observe the changes in bone mineral density. [Result] Although the VAS score was reduced in FEG and BEG with treatment, it was not reduced in CTG. Also, the bone mineral density was increased in FEG and BEG, while it was reduced in CTG. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercises using a ball are thought to be an effective interventional therapy for the alleviation of chronic low back pain and to increase bone mineral density of patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the active knee extension (AKE) test among healthy adults. [Subjects] Fourteen healthy participants (10 men and 4 women) volunteered and gave informed consent. [Methods] Two raters conducted AKE tests independently with the aid of a simple and inexpensive stabilizing apparatus. Each knee was measured twice, and the AKE test was repeated one week later. [Results] The interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were 0.87 for the dominant knee and 0.81 for the nondominant knee. In addition, the intrarater (test-retest) reliability ICC3,1 values range between 0.78–0.97 and 0.75–0.84 for raters 1 and 2 respectively. The percentages of agreement within 10° for AKE measurements were 93% for the dominant knee and 79% for the nondominant knee. [Conclusion] The finding suggests the current AKE test showed excellent interrater and intrarater reliability for assessing hamstring flexibility in healthy adults.
[Purpose] We evaluated the effect of self-directed exercise using a task board on function and pain in the upper extremities of stroke patients [Subjects and Methods] We used the one group pre-post test design. Seven stroke patients who were selected based on the inclusion criteria participated in the program once a week for 10 weeks. The self-directed exercise comprised 5 stages that were divided according to the level of difficulty. The exercise was performed for 60 minutes using a special task board that we designed. The FMA (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment), VAS (Visual Analogue Scale), and speed of stacking were assessed to evaluate the amount of use of the affected arm at before and after intervention. [Results] The scores of the VAS and FMA, but not that of the speed of stacking cups, were improved. There was no significant correlation between the changes in VAS, FMA, and the speed of stacking cups. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that self-directed exercise with the task board could improve the levels of function and pain in the upper extremities. We suggest that self-directed exercise can be utilized as a clinical rehabilitation program and improve therapeutic effects.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide information to help maintain correct posture by identifying gait changes caused by the habits and methods of carrying bags. [Method] The subjects were 34 healthy right-handed women. Among them, 18 subjects had the habit of carrying bags on their right side, and 16 subjects had the habit of carrying bags on their left side. The subjects were instructed to walk while carrying a bag, which weighted approximately 10% of the subjects’ average weight, in four different ways; holding it in the left hand, carrying it over the left shoulder, holding it in the right hand, and carrying it over the right shoulder. The subjects’ gaits were measured using a gait analyzer. [Results] Subjects who habitually carried bags on their right exhibited changes in gait variables related to walking distance. In addition, their gait velocities were relatively faster. On the other hand, differences in temporal and spatial gait variables were not exhibited when the bag was carried using the four methods. [Conclusion] When the weight of a bag is appropriate, bag-carrying habits had significant effects on gaits. Therefore, people who carry bags should avoid the habit of carrying them on only one side.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the gait parameters of age-matched people with a normal gait (≥ 65 years), age-matched people with knee pain, and age-matched people with walker dependent gait at a self-selected gait speed. [Methods] Subjects walked on even ground in bare feet and were allowed a natural arm swing on a 6-m walkway. Walker-dependent participants walked on a walkway without a walker. [Results] The kinematic and spatiotemporal gait characteristics were used to investigate the difference among the each group. Hip flexion, knee flexion, and stride width parameters were not different. The gait speed, stride length and time, hip and knee extension, and ankle flexion and extension parameters were significantly different. [Conclusion] A comparision of kinematic and spatiotemporal gait characteristics during gait may provide an insight into the gait pattern of normal elderly people, those with knee pain, and the walker-dependent elderly.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare muscle activity of the posterior oblique sling during prone hip extension (PHE) on the floor and on a round foam roll. [Subjects] Twenty-two (11 male, 11 female) healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. [Methods] The participants performed PHE on the floor and on a round foam roll. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the contralateral latissimus dorsi (LD), contralateral erector spinae (ES), ipsilateral ES, ipsilateral gluteus maximus (GM), and ipsilateral biceps femoris (IBF). A paired t-test was used to compare muscle activity under the floor and round foam roll conditions. [Results] EMG activity of the contralateral LD, ipsilateral ES, and ipsilateral GM was significantly greater when PHE was performed on the round foam roll than on the floor. [Conclusion] Performing PHE on the round foam roll induced greater posterior oblique sling EMG activity than did exercise on the floor. These results suggest that the activation pattern of the posterior oblique sling during PHE is differs according to the type of surface (stable vs. unstable) on which it is performed.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hand position changes on electromyographic activity of shoulder stabilizers during push-up plus exercise (PUPE) performed on both stable and unstable surfaces. [Subjects] This study was performed on a cohort of 20 normal adults divided into an unstable surface group (USG) (n=10) and a stable surface group (SSG) (n=10). [Methods] A sling device was used to provide an unstable surface, and a push-up bar was used to provide a stable surface. PUPEs were performed with hands in various positions: the neutral position (NP), the internal rotation position (IRP), or the external rotation position (ERP). Electromyography was used to determine and analyze the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle (UT), the lower trapezius muscle (LT), the serratus anterior muscle (SA), and the pectoralis major muscle (PM). [Results] Comparison of the results within the USG and SSG showed significant differences depending on the hand position used during the exercise. Comparison between the USG and SSG showed that the ERP hand posture resulted in significant differences in electromyographic activity of the SA in the USG. [Conclusion] The electromyographic activity of the SA indicated that performing PUPEs using the ERP on an unstable surface provided more effective intervention for shoulder stabilization than ERP on a stable surface.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Nintendo Wii exercise program on chronic work-related LBP compared with stability exercise. [Methods] Twenty-four workers participated in this study. All of the participants were diagnosed with chronic LBP by a physician. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group (CG), lumbar stabilization exercise group (LSE), and Nintendo Wii exercise group (NWE). Participants were treated 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Each session lasted 30 minutes. [Results] The results demonstrated that exercise programs improved significantly physical functions related to LBP. In health-related QOL, the Nintendo Wii exercise program significantly improved both the mental and physical health composites, but other groups had significant improvement only in the physical health composite. [Conclusion] The Nintendo Wii exercise program could be a biopsychosocial intervention for work-related LBP in factory workers.
[Purpose] Exercise has been recognized as a simple and economical therapeutic modality that effectively benefits patients with diabetes, for instance, increasing insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. However, thus far, no studies have examined the effect of endurance training exercises on type 2 diabetes. Therefore, this study examined the effect of endurance training exercise regimens on body weight, glucose and insulin levels, lipid profiles, and HbA1c levels in STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats on a high-fat diet. HbA1c was considered an indicator of glucose control during endurance training. [Methods] A total of 36 rats were included in this study. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ to 2 groups of 12 rats each, and, the remaining 12 rats were classified as the normal group. Biochemical parameters were measured 28 days later, and included: serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, and insulin levels. [Results] A significant decrease in serum TC and TG levels, and an increase in HDL cholesterol level were observed in the endurance training group. Moreover, blood glucose and HbA1c levels after 28 days of exercising were significantly lower in the endurance training group than in the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusion] These results indicate that endurance training affects body weight and, lipid profiles, as well as fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and insulin levels, in STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats on a high- fat diet. We suggest that endurance training exercises may exhibit therapeutic, preventative, and protective effects against diabetes mellitus through improving lipid metabolism, glycemic control, and HbA1c levels.
[Purpose] This study compared the EMG activities of the plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles during inclined walking with and without modified mobilization with movement (modified MWM) using tape in women with limited ankle dorsiflexion. [Subjects] Fifteen women with limited dorsiflexion in their feet (22 feet in total) were recruited for this study. [Methods] The subjects walked with and without modified MWM using tape on a treadmill at 6 degrees with a speed of 1.25 m/s for 5 minutes. The EMG activities of the medial gastrocnemius (GCM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were measured using a surface EMG system. [Results] During incline walking with modified MWM using tape, the mean EMG activity of the GCM significantly increased, and that of the TA decreased between heel strike and heel off. There was no difference between heel off and toe off in the two muscles. [Conclusions] Modified MWM using tape on the talus during incline walking could alter the muscle activities of the GCM and TA between heel strike and heel off in women with limited ankle dorsiflexion.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate how balance ability according to angle of the knee joint changes in young female adults wearing a knee orthosis. [Methods] This study was conducted with 11 healthy female adults. The subjects used a knee brace that could be set to angles of 0°, 15°, and 30° of knee flexion. The ability to balance was evaluated by balance assessment. A total of four postures were used for measurements: a forward-facing posture with the eyes open on a stable surface (NO), a forward-facing posture with the eyes closed on a stable surface (NC), a forward-facing posture with the eyes open on an unstable surface (PO), and a forward-facing posture with the eyes closed on an unstable surface (PC). [Results] Regarding the weight distribution index and stability index on a stable surface, there was no interaction according to whether there was visual deprivation or not or according to knee flexion angle. Furthermore, the stability index on an unstable surface showed no interaction according to whether there was visual deprivation or not or according to knee flexion angle. But the WDI on a stable surface showed no interaction according to whether there was visual deprivation or not or according to knee flexion angle. [Conclusion] There were significant differences in the knee extension range of motion of normal elderly people and knee osteoarthritis, and the quadriceps femoris played an important role in knee function in individuals with knee osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to develop and assess the applicability of an experimental ankle-foot orthosis during gait in patients with hemiparesis. [Subjects and Methods] This was a noncontrolled cross-sectional study. Ten adult patients with hemiparesis but who were capable of independent gait were included in the study. Gait assessment was performed using two platforms (EMG System do Brasil), an electromyograph (EMG System do Brasil),and a video camera. The experimental orthosis consisted of a single piece that fit over the foot and 1/3 of the distal tibia and had a steel spring. [Results] There was greater activation of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles in the stance and mid-stance phases with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis in comparison with the use of a polypropylene ankle-foot orthosis and no orthosis. Regarding spatial and temporal gait parameters, the individuals achieved an increase in stride length with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis in comparison with the use of a polypropylene ankle-foot orthosis. [Conclusion] The results of the present study demonstrate that individuals with hemiparesis achieved an improvement in the stance and mid-stance phases of gait with the use of the experimental ankle-foot orthosis.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare two-point discrimination (TPD) perception in stroke patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and without diabetes mellitus (non-DM). [Subjects] The subjects were 53 poststroke hemiparetic patients (21 stroke patients with DM; 32 stroke patients without DM). [Methods] TPD was measured on the tips of the first through fifth fingers on both the affected and unaffected sides. [Result] Comparison of TPD between fingers on the unaffected side and affected side fingers showed significantly poorer responses in all five fingers on the affected side. TPD was also significantly poorer in the DM group compared with the non-DM group in all five fingers on the affected side, but no differences were observed for the unaffected side. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that TPD was significantly poorer in the fingers on the affected side vs. the unaffected side in poststroke hemiparetic patients. DM caused a significantly poorer TPD in the fingers on the affected side in poststroke patients but had no significant effect on the fingers on the unaffected side.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of walking with talus taping on the ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF PROM) in individuals with limited ankle DF PROM. [Subjects] Fifteen ankles with limited DF PROM were examined. [Methods] After rigid strapping tape was applied to the ankles from the talus to the calcaneus, progressing posteriorly and inferiorly, the subjects walked on a walkway for 10 min. Using a goniometer, the ankle DF PROM was measured with the knee extended before and after walking with talus taping. The difference in ankle DF PROM between before and after walking with talus taping was analyzed using the paired t-test. [Results] The ankle DF PROM was significantly increased after walking with talus taping. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that walking with talus taping is effective for increasing the ankle DF PROM in individuals with limited ankle DF PROM.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of the Neurac sling exercise on postural balance adjustment and muscular response patterns in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen CLBP patients participated in this study. They were randomly and equally assigned to group I, whose members received ordinary physical therapy (40 minutes per time, four times per week), and group II, whose members performed a lumbar stabilization exercise using the Neurac sling after ordinary physical therapy (40 minutes per time, four times per week). The visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used to evaluate exercise effects. BioRescue and electromyography were utilized for the measurement of changes in postural balance adjustment and muscular response patterns, respectively. [Results] Both groups saw their VAS and ODI decrease significantly. There were significant decreases in both groups in posturography as well, but group II recorded a greater decrease. There were significant increases in the flexion–relaxation ratio in both groups, and there were significant increases in the extension–flexion ratio in the left L1–2 of group I and in all elements of group II. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercise using the Neurac sling is effective in decreasing pain, improving damaged postural balance adjustment, and normalizing muscle response patterns of CLBP patients.
[Purpose] This study investigated the changes in pressure pain threshold of the upper trapezius, levator scapular, and rhomboid muscles during continuous computer work. [Subjects] Fourteen males and females aged 26–32 years, were recruited. [Methods] A dolorimeter pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold of the upper trapezius, levator scapular, and rhomboid muscles, respectively, before computer work and after 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of computer work. [Results] The pressure pain threshold of the upper trapezius was significantly decreased after 15 min or more of computer work. The pressure pain threshold of the levator scapular was significantly decreased after computer work for 30 min and 60 min. The pressure pain threshold of the rhomboid muscle was significantly decreased after 60 min of computer work. [Conclusion] Continuous computer work could produce much more pain in the levator scapular and rhomboid muscle than the upper trapezius.
[Purpose] This study examined the correlation between the muscle activities and joint angle of the hip and knee according to the changes in stance width during a lifting task. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 15 healthy students. A three-dimensional motion analyzer (SMART-E, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the joint angles of hip and knee during lifting. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure muscle activities of the erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior during lifting. The collected data were analyzed using the Pearson-test and SPSS 18.0. [Result] The muscle activity of the tibialis anterior was significantly decreased by increasing the stance width (r= −0.285). Muscle activity of the erector spinae was significantly decreased by increasing the knee angle (r= −0.444). The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus was significantly increased by increasing the muscle activity of the tibialis anterior (r= 0.295). [Conclusion] Efficient lifting is possible when stance width and knee flexion are increased, which results in reduced muscle activity of the tibialis anterior and the erector spinae. Lifting is facilitated when the muscle activities of the gluteus maximus and tibialis anterior are correlated.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of balance training with visual biofeedback on balance, body symmetry, and function among individuals with hemiplegia following a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was performed using a randomized controlled clinical trial with a blinded evaluator. The subjects were twenty adults with hemiplegia following a stroke. The experimental group performed balance training with visual biofeedback using Wii Fit® together with conventional physical therapy. The control group underwent conventional physical therapy alone. The intervention lasted five weeks, with two sessions per week. Body symmetry (baropodometry), static balance (stabilometry), functional balance (Berg Balance Scale), functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test), and independence in activities of daily living (Functional Independence Measure) were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] No statistically significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups. In the intragroup analysis, both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in all variables studied. [Conclusion] The physical therapy program combined with balance training involving visual biofeedback (Wii Fit®) led to an improvement in body symmetry, balance, and function among stroke victims. However, the improvement was similar to that achieved with conventional physical therapy alone.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare cases with different shoulder and cervical pathologies in terms of shoulder protraction and scapular asymmetry. [Methods] A total of 216 patients, aged between 30–70 years, were included, 108 of which were in the patient group (subacromial impingement, rotator cuff problems, adhesive capsulitis, disc herniations) and 108 of which were in the control group. The control group consisted of cases with no prior neck and shoulder problems or pain. Pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS); the asymmetry of scapula was evaluated using the Lateral Scapular Slide Test (LSST) with two additional positions; and the protraction of the scapula was evaluated using the shoulder protraction test. [Results] According to the data obtained, the affected side scapular asymmetry and protraction in the patient group were significantly greater than in the control group. When the patient groups were compared in terms of different pathologies, there were no differences between scapular asymmetry and shoulder protraction. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the pathologies of the neck and shoulder were found to cause scapular asymmetry and shoulder protraction. However, patients with different pathologies had similar scapular asymmetry and shoulder protraction.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine how compound physical activity affects muscular strength of middle-aged obese women. [Subjects] The research subjects were 40–50 year-old middle-aged women with excess body fat (30%). [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to two group, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group performed two types of exercise programs for 16 weeks. Aerobic physical activity was performed 5 times per week, and anaerobic physical activity was performed every two days, and the exercise program each day was composed of a warm-up, the main exercise, and cooldown. The type of exercise focused on walking at a quick pace, and the intensity of the exercise focused on long periods of exercise at low intensity with the level of HRmax being 40–60%. The weight training, which was useful for beginners, as a type of kinetic load exercise, was applied with a composition recommended by the ACSM for muscle fitness (intensity of 40–60% of 1 RM and 10–15 repetitions). SPSS version 16.0 was used to analyze the data by ANCOVA and the t-test. [Results] The chest, leg, and abdominal strengths were significantly increased in the experimental group, and this indicates that compound physical activity is effective for improvement of muscular strength. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of muscular strength.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between results of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Static Balance Test (SBT) in hemiplegic patients with stroke. [Subjects] The subjects were 39 hemiplegic patients (25 men, 14 women; mean age, 69.4 ± 11.0 years) with stroke that had occurred within the preceding 6 months and who had good understanding of verbal instructions. [Methods] The SBT consists of five posture-holding tasks (sitting, stride standing, close standing, one-foot standing on the unparalyzed leg, and one-foot standing on the paralyzed leg). Four grades, 1–4, are used to judge the ability of patients to hold these postures. The SBT and BBS were each implemented, and the relationship between test results was analyzed using correlation coefficients. [Results] The correlation coefficient for the BBS score and SBT score was 0.87. Thus, a strong correlation was seen between the BBS and SBT. [Conclusion] The SBT is thought to be an assessment index that can predict overall balance ability.