[Objective] This study investigated the applicability of a 3-m zigzag walk test for the prediction of falls and examined the relationships among fall history, the 3-m zigzag walk test, 10-m walk, and age. [Subjects] A total of 50 elderly individuals (23 males and 27 females) aged 65 and over, who were able to walk independently, were studied. [Methods] Four poles made of PET bottles were placed on a 3-m walkway in a straight line to create a zigzag course, and the time needed to walk it was measured. The best results on days 1 and 2 were adopted for the fall and no-fall groups, and intra-rater reproducibility was evaluated by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient and performing the paired t-test. For comparison of the time needed to walk the zigzag between the 2 groups, the unpaired t-test was performed. The relationships between the times needed to walk the 3-m zigzag and 10 m and age were analyzed by calculating the correlation coefficient with fall history as the dependent variable, in multiple logistic regression analysis with the times needed to walk the 3-m zigzag and 10 m and age as independent variables. For the optimal classification of the fall and no-fall groups, cutoffs were calculated based on the ROC curve. [Results] The paired t-test results did not show differences between measurements, and the ICC was 0.97 in the fall, and 0.94 in the no-fall groups. The fall group needed significantly more time than the no-fall group to walk the 3-m zigzag. Further, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient revealed a significant correlation between the times needed to walk the 3-m zigzag and 10 m, while no correlation was observed between the time needed to walk the 3-m zigzag and age (r=0.225). The time needed to walk the 3-m zigzag was extracted as a factor associated with fall history in multiple logistic regression analysis, with an odds ratio of 0.377. Its significance as a variable was p<0.01. In the Hosmer-Lemeshow test of the study model, the rate of discrimination between the predicted and actual values was 82.0%. [Conclusion] The cutoff time to walk the 3-m zigzag was estimated to be 10.5 seconds, suggesting that this model may be a valid index for the prediction of falls.
[Purpose] In earlier studies of driver distraction, researchers classified distraction into two levels (not distracted, and distracted). This study classified four levels of distraction (neutral, low, medium, high). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty Asian subjects (n=50, 43 males, 7 females), age range 20–35 years, who were free from any disease, participated in this study. Wireless EEG signals were recorded by 14 electrodes during four types of distraction stimuli (Global Position Systems (GPS), music player, short message service (SMS), and mental tasks). We derived the amplitude spectrum of three different frequency bands, theta, alpha, and beta of EEG. Then, based on fusion of discrete wavelet packet transforms and fast fourier transform yield, we extracted two features (power spectral density, spectral centroid frequency) of different wavelets (db4, db8, sym8, and coif5). Mean ± SD was calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. A fuzzy inference system classifier was applied to different wavelets using the two extracted features. [Results] The results indicate that the two features of sym8 posses highly significant discrimination across the four levels of distraction, and the best average accuracy achieved by the subtractive fuzzy classifier was 79.21% using the power spectral density feature extracted using the sym8 wavelet. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that EEG signals can be used to monitor distraction level intensity in order to alert drivers to high levels of distraction.
[Purpose] This study examined the differences in muscle activation between flat and normal feet in the one-leg standing position which delivers the greatest load to the lower extremity. [Subjects] This study was conducted with 23 adults, 12 with normal feet and 12 with flat feet, with ages ranging from 21 to 30 years old, who had no neurological history or gait problems. [Methods] The leg used for one leg standing was the dominant leg of the subjects. The experimenter instructed the subjects to raise the non-dominant leg with their eyes open, and the subjects maintained a posture with the non-dominant leg’s knee flexed at 90° and the hip joint flexed at 45° for six seconds. In the position of one-leg standing, a horizontal rod was set at the height of the waist line of the subjects who lightly placed two fingers of each hand on the rod to prevent inclination of the trunk to one side. Measurements were taken three times and the maximum value was used. A surface electromyogram (TeleMyo 2400T, Noraxon Co., USA) was used to measure muscle activities. [Results] We compared muscle activities between flat and normal foot, and the results show a significant difference between normal and flat feet in the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis muscle. [Conclusion] The subjects with flat feet had relatively lower activation of the abductor hallucis muscle than those with normal feet during one leg standing. We infer from this that the abductor hallucis muscle of flat foot doesn’t work as well as a dynamic stabilizer, compared to a normal foot, during one leg standing.
[Purpose] This study was performed to discover the possible onset time of diabetic neuropathy by age of diabetic patients, and to provide the knowledge necessary for preventing or managing diabetic neuropathy. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were outpatients who visited D Hospital Department of Neurology with complaints of significant neuropathic symptoms including dullness, numbness and paraesthesia. [Methods] Stimulations of 5 Hz, 250 Hz and 2,000 Hz were generated with a Neurometer CPT (Neurotron Inc., Baltimore, MD, USA) and delivered selectively to C fibers, A-delta fibers and A-beta fibers. The intensity of the stimulations of 5 Hz, 250 Hz and 2,000 Hz was incrementally increased as much as 0.01 mA. [Result] The results of this experiment show that the period of retrogression of nervous fibers was different significantly according to the age of patients with diabetes mellitus. Especially, in the case of individuals in their 50’s, Aβ, Aδ, and C fibers in both the right and left lower limbs significantly changed within a period of 2 months. In the case of individuals in their 60’s, Aβ and C fibers of the right lower limb meaningfully changed 2 months after the onset of the disease, and Aβ, Aδ, and C fibers of the left lower limb also significantly changed within a period of 2 months. [Conclusion] We discovered that patients suffering from DM especially in their 50’s or 60’s should be thoroughly followed for their condition, right from the onset of DM, in order to prevent the retrogression of nervous fibers.
[Purpose] The present study examined the effects of treatment using extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the muscle weight and function of the hind limb in sciatic nerve injury. [Subjects] Forty rats with sciatic nerve crushing injury were randomly divided into two groups: an ESWT group (n=20), and a control group (n=20). [Methods] The ESWT group received extracorporeal shock wave treatment, and the control group did not receive any treatment after injury. Experimental animals were measured for muscle weight on an electronic scale and were tested for function on a sciatic functional index (SFI). [Results] All groups showed significant increases in the weights of the left soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreases in the weights of the right soleus and gastrocnemius muscles (p<0.05). Comparison of SFI scores and muscle weights between the groups showed significant differences in SFI scores, and the right soleus and gastrocnemius muscles (p<0.05) [Conclusion] Exercise programs that use ESWT can be said to be effective at improving the function of the sciatic nerve and preventing the denervation atrophy.
[Purpose] A major issue in physical/occupational therapist education is the improvement of students’ clinical techniques. In this study, we introduced an education system using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), and made an attempt at standardization of its evaluation. [Subjects] The subjects were 227 students in the classes of 2008 to 2010 who enrolled at our university between 2004 and 2006, before the introduction of the education system using OSCE, and 221 students in the classes of 2011 to 2013 who enrolled between 2007 and 2009, after the introduction. [Methods] Performances in attitude and skills (performance in clinical training and OSCE) were compared between before and after the introduction of OSCE. OSCE results were compared between before and after clinical trainings at each OSCE Level; and the correlation of between performances in clinical training and OSCE was examined. [Results] Performances in OSCE and clinical training (attitude, skills) were improved by the introduction of the education system using OSCE, but no significant correlation was observed in the relationship between performances in OSCE and clinical training. [Conclusion] Further studies should be conducted aiming at the standardization of clinical skill evaluation in postgraduate education to establish an education system using OSCE.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of TENS applied to the skin overlying the bellies of the gastrocnemius muscles of the lower limbs on balance and plantar pressure of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy college students were the subjects of this study. Adhesive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) electrodes were attached to the medial and lateral belly of the gastrocnemius muscle. Before and after the application of the TENS, subjects’ balance ability and maximum plantar pressure were measured and compared. [Results] The scores improved in the balance tests, including the fall risk test and the stability limit test, after the application of TENS, and a statistically significant difference was noted in the stability limit test. The maximum plantar pressure after the application of TENS decreased except beneath the big toe, and statistically significant difference was found under the forefoot. [Conclusion] The results of present study suggest that TENS applied to the skin overlying gastrocnemius muscles is useful strategy that improves the balance ability of healthy adults.
[Purpose] This study examined whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of both the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and primary sensoriomotor cortex (M1) alters the response time in response inhibition using the stop-signal task (SST). [Methods] Forty healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomly tested under the three: the pre-SMA tDCS, M1 tDCS, and Sham tDCS conditions. All subjects performed a SST in two consecutive phases: without or after the delivery of anodal tDCS over one of the target sites (pre-SMA or the M1) and under the Sham tDCS condition. [Results] Our findings demonstrated significant reductions in the stop processing times after the anodal tDCS over pre-SMA, and change response times were significantly greater under the pre-SMA tDCS condition compared to both the M1 tDCS condition and the Sham tDCS condition. There was no significant major effect after delivery of the tDCS for the go processing times observed among the three conditions. [Conclusion] Anodal tDCS of the pre-SMA or M1 during performance of the SST resulted in enhancement of the volitional stop movement in inhibitory control. Our results suggest that when concurrently applied with the SST, tDCS might be a useful adjuvant therapeutic modality for modulation of the response inhibition and its related dynamic behavioral changes between motor execution and suppression.
[Purpose] Our objective was to assess the effect of salat and mimicking salat movements and postures on subjects with erectile dysfunction. [Methods] Ten volunteers were recruited in this study. Subjects who were Muslims (Group I) were asked to perform their daily salat and a new intervention of an additional 12 movement cycles of salat for three sessions a week. Non-Muslim subjects (Group II) were taught to mimic salat movements, and were asked to perform a total of 12 movement cycles without reading the recitation for three sessions a week. An International Index for Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire was given to the subjects before and after the intervention of performing salat or mimicking salat movements and postures. A nocturnal electrobioimpedance volume assessment (NEVA) device was used to measure the nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) parameters over two consecutive nights. A nonparametric test was conducted to find the significant NPT parameters. [Results] The results showed that all measured parameters improved significantly, with the largest change observed in the maximum percent volumetric change over the baseline (from 138 to 222%). [Conclusion] This preliminary study suggests that the alternative approach of salat and mimicking salat movements and postures, may have beneficial effects for ED patients.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vibratory stimulation on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). [Subjects] Sixty healthy adults participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were orthopedic or neurologic disease. [Methods] The researchers induced DOMS in the musculus extensor carpi radialis longus of each participant. Subjects in the control group received no treatment. The ultrasound group received ultrasound treatment (intensity, 1.0 W/cm2; frequency 1 MHz; time, 10 minutes). The vibration group received vibration stimulation (frequency, 20 MHz; time, 10 minutes). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was recorded at baseline, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] MVIC measurements showed statistically significant differences in the vibration group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Vibratory stimulation had a positive effect on recovery of muscle function from DOMS.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of stroke patients in a sitting position on balance and activities of daily living. [Methods] FES was applied to stroke patients (six male, three female) while in a sitting and supine position. FES was applied six times for 30 minutes each for a total of six weeks. [Results] The timed up and go (TUG) values at weeks 2, 4, and 6 after FES treatment in a sitting position were noticeably decreased in a time-dependent manner, compared with controls. In the sitting, the functional reach test (FRT) values were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner. The same values in the supine position weakly showed a similar pattern to those in the sitting position. Furthermore, the functional independent measurement (FIM) values in the sitting position were markedly increased in a time-dependent manner. In the sitting position, the intensity of FES was markedly decreased in a time-dependent manner. The same values in the supine position weakly showed a similar pattern to those in the sitting position. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the conditions of stroke patients in both the sitting and supine positions after FES treatment were improved and that FES had a greater effect in the sitting position.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) after applying spontaneous wheel running exercises (SWR) after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; 20 rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact for TBI, and then, animals were randomly collected from the SWR group and subjected to wheel running exercise for 3 weeks. Ten rats were not subjected to any injury or running exercise to compare with the effect of TBI and SWR. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, skilled ladder rung walking test, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining analysis for the evaluation of NT-3 expression were used to assess brain damage and recovery. [Results] The TBI-induced decrease in NT-3 expression was recovered by wheel running exercise. Moreover, decreased ischemic volume and progressive neurobehavioral outcome were observed in the SWR group. [Conclusion] Spontaneous running exercise promotes brain recovery and motor function through an increase in expression of NT-3.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the sagittal angles and moments of lower extremity joints during single-leg jump landing in various directions. [Subjects] Eighteen male athletes participated in the study. [Methods] Participants were asked to perform single-leg jump-landing tests in four directions. Angles and net joint moments of lower extremity joints in the sagittal plane were investigated during jump-landing tests from a 30-cm-high platform with a Vicon™ motion system. The data were analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA. [Results] The results showed that knee joint flexion increased and hip joint flexion decreased at foot contact. In peak angle during landing, increasing ankle dorsiflexion and decreasing hip flexion were noted. In addition, an increase in ankle plantarflexor moment occurred. [Conclusion] Adjusting the dorsiflexion angle and plantarflexor moment during landing might be the dominant strategy of athletes responding to different directions of jump landing. Decreasing hip flexion during landing is associated with a stiff landing. Sport clinicians and athletes should focus on increasing knee and hip flexion angles, a soft landing technique, in diagonal and lateral directions to reduce risk of injury.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of trumpet and marching euphonium performance posture on the trunk and lower limb musculoskeletal system. [Subjects] The subjects were 10 female university students. [Methods] Subjects maintained a resting position, a trumpet performance posture, and a marching euphonium performance posture. The angles and muscle activities of the trunk and lower limbs were then measured. [Results] The anterior tilt angle of the trunk decreased significantly in the trumpet and marching euphonium performance postures compared with the resting standing position, as well as in the marching euphonium performance posture compared with the trumpet performance posture. The muscle activity of the cervical paraspinal muscles, upper fibers of the trapezius, and lumbar paraspinal muscles increased significantly in the marching euphonium performance posture compared with the resting standing position, as well as in the marching euphonium performance posture compared with the trumpet performance posture. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the performance position for trumpet and the marching euphonium performance increases the load on the cervical and thoracic musculoskeletal system, which increases with greater instrument weight. However, the same instrument performance postures had no affect on the musculoskeletal system of the lower limbs.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of taping on the articular angle of the knee joint and on the functioning of patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 patients who were diagnosed with hemiplegia due to stroke. The subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group which received proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combination patterns and kinesio taping were applied, or a control group which received neurodevelopmental treatment. [Methods] Joint angle was measured at the hip and the ankle for both the paretic and non-paretic sides using a goniometer. Dynamic balance ability was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale. Gait velocity was measured as the 10-m walking time using a stopwatch. [Results] Comparative analysis of the experimental group’s pre-test and post-test results showed statistically significant differences in the BBS and 10-m walking test. There were significant differences between the groups in ankle dorsiflexion, BBS, and 10-m walking times. [Conclusion] We judge the application of taping on the knee joint prior to rehabilitation treatment for patients in accordance with nervous system damage positively influences their functional improvement.
[Purpose] Cerebral palsy is a sensorimotor disorder that affects the control of posture and movement. The Nintendo® Wii Fit offers an inexpensive, enjoyable, suitable alternative to more complex systems for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacacy of Wii-based balance therapy for children with ambulatory cerebral palsy. [Subjects] This pilot study design included fourteen ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy (11 males, 3 females; mean age 12.07 ± 3.36 years). [Methods] Balance functions before and after treatment were evaluated using one leg standing, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, and the 6-minute walking test. The physiotherapist prescribed the Wii Fit activities,and supervised and supported the patients during the therapy sessions. Exercises were performed in a standardized program 2 times a week for 12 weeks. [Results] Balance ability of every patient improved. Statistically significant improvements were found in all outcome measures after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the Nintendo® Wii Fit provides a safe, enjoyable, suitable and effective method that can be added to conventional treatments to improve the static balance of patients with cerebral palsy; however, further work is required.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in upper extremity muscle activities of women college students’ due to method of bag-carrying and weight. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adult females participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were orthopedic or neurologic disease, or a dominant left side. [Methods] Electromyographic activities of the supraspinatus and upper trapezius were recorded bilaterally under two conditions: crossbody bag, ipsilateral bag. [Results] There were no significant differences in the supraspinatus and upper trapezius muscles according to the weight carried; however, there was significant difference in the right supraspinatus and both upper trapezius muscles according to the method of carrying. [Conclusion] An effective backpack safety program for female college students is necessary to educate them how to prevent possible musculoskeletal pain related to the weight carried and the method of carrying from the perspective of an ergonomical approach.
[Purpose] This research investigated the effect of angular variation of flexion of the elbow joint on the muscle activation of elbow flexor muscles. [Subjects] The research subjects were 24 male college students with a dominant right hand who had no surgical or neurological disorders and gave their prior written consent to participation with full knowledge of the method and purpose of this study. [Methods] The subjects’ shoulder joints stayed in the resting position, and the elbow joint was positioned at angles of 55°, 70°, and 90°. The angle between the pulley with weights and forearm stayed at 90°. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activities. Three measurements were made at each elbow angle, and every time the angle changed, two minutes rest was given. [Result] The muscle activities of the elbow flexors showed significant changes with change in the elbow joint angle, except for the biceps brachii activities between the angles of 55° and 70° of elbow flexion. The muscle activities of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis showed angle-related changes in the order of 55°, which showed the biggest value, followed by 70° and 90°. [Conclusion] In order to improve muscle strength of the elbow flexor using a pulley system, it seems more effective to have a 90° angle between the pulley with weights and the forearm when the muscle is stretched to a length 20% greater than its resting position.
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify how treatment with the Mulligan technique of mobilization with movement (MWM) influences pain and physical function of patients with degenerative osteoarthritis. [Subjects] Thirty patients diagnosed with degenerative osteoarthritis were divided into an experimental group (n=15), and a control group (n=15). [Methods] The experimental group was treated with general physical therapy, trunk stabilization exercises, and performed the MWM using the Mulligan technique. The control group was treated with general physical therapy, and then performed trunk stabilization exercises. [Results] Statistically significant differences were found after the intervention in the experimental group in the visual analog scale and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index pain, stiffening, and physical function scores. [Conclusion] We consider the treatment of degenerative osteoarthritis patients using the MWM technique is effective for reducing pain and improving physical functions.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of external pacing with periodic auditory stimuli on the control of periodic movement. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy subjects performed self-paced, synchronization-continuation, and syncopation-continuation tapping. Inter-onset intervals were 1,000, 2,000 and 5,000 ms. The variability of inter-tap intervals was compared between the different pacing conditions and between self-paced tapping and each continuation phase. [Results] There were no significant differences in the mean and standard deviation of the inter-tap interval between pacing conditions. For the 1,000 and 5,000 ms tasks, there were significant differences in the mean inter-tap interval following auditory pacing compared with self-pacing. For the 2,000 ms syncopation condition and 5,000 ms task, there were significant differences from self-pacing in the standard deviation of the inter-tap interval following auditory pacing. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the accuracy of periodic movement with intervals of 1,000 and 5,000 ms can be improved by the use of auditory pacing. However, the consistency of periodic movement is mainly dependent on the inherent skill of the individual; thus, improvement of consistency based on pacing is unlikely.
[Purpose] This study compared the activities of the abdominal and hip extensor muscles between the bridging exercise (BE) and bridging exercise with hip adduction (BEHA) positions in women using electromyography (EMG). [Subjects] We recruited 14 healthy adult females with no history of low back pain. [Methods] The subjects performed bridging exercises with and without hip adduction. The EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles were recorded. [Result] The EMG activities of all muscles were significantly increased during the BEHA compared to the BE. [Conclusion] The bridging exercise with hip adduction produced greater activation of the abdominal and hip extensor muscles.
[Purpose] A prospective, randomized, single-blind study was performed in order to compare the efficacy of ultrasound treatments of various durations for patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred patients who had been diagnosed with subacromial impingement syndrome by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of fifty patients per group. The first group received 15 sessions of therapeutic ultrasound (4 minutes), superficial heat and transcutaneous electrical stimulation therapy combined with exercise. The second group received the same treatment except that each of the 15 ultrasound sessions were eight minutes in length. The patients were evaluated before and after the treatment. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Constant Scale were used to assess shoulder function and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to quantify depressive symptoms. [Results] There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in age, time since the onset of pain, sex, education and depression levels prior to the treatment. The post-treatment evaluation of patients VAS, UCLA, Constant, and BDI scores showed statistically significant within group improvements. When the two groups were compared, we found no statistically significant differences in the Constant activities of daily living, Constant external rotation, Constant force and BDI scores. However, the second group scored better than the first group in all the remaining parameters. [Conclusion] Ultrasound therapy was found to have beneficial effects on pain and functional status in the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome. Eight minutes of ultrasound treatment was shown to be more effective than 4 minutes of ultrasound treatment.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of foot placement on the latissmus dorsi and low back muscles activities during pull-down exercise. [Subjects] For this study, we recruited 10 male volunteers. [Methods] The subjects performed pull-down exercises with 4 foot placement conditions. The activities of the latissmus dorsi and L4 paraspinal muscles were measured. [Results] The activities of the latissmus dorsi muscles significantly increased in the order of conditions 1 and 2 < condition 4 < condition 3. The activities of the L4 paraspinal muscles were significantly different, with the activities of conditions 1 and 2 being greater than those of conditions 3 and 4. [Conclusion] We suggest that the selection of foot placement is an important factor for the effective strengthening of the latissmus dorsi.
[Purpose] To compare muscle activities and pain levels of females with chronic neck pain receiving different exercise programs. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred females with chronic neck pain participated in this study. They were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n = 25) on the basis of the exercises performed as follows: strength-endurance exercise, craniocervical flexion exercise, combination of strength-endurance and craniocervical flexion exercise and control groups. Pain, disability levels and changes in the muscle activities of the cervical erector spinae (CE), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), anterior scalenes (AS) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles were evaluated before and after the interventions. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise intervention, all three exercise groups showed improvements in pain and disability. The muscle activities during the typing task were significantly different from the control group in all three exercise groups for all muscles except those of the extensor muscles in the craniocervical flexion exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that exercises for the cervical muscles improve pain and disability. The exercise programs reduced the activities of almost all cervical muscles.
[Purpose] This research analyzed how seat distance and gender affect maximal torque and muscle strength when driving to present base data for the optimal driving posture. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 27 college students in their 20’s, 15 males and 12 females. After had been measured, the subjects sat in front of a steering wheel with the distance between the steering wheel and the seat set in turns. at 50, 70, and 90% their arm length, and the maximal torque and muscle strength were measured. [Results] Both the maximal torque and muscle strength were found to be greater in male subjects than female subjects whether they turned the steering wheel clockwise or counterclockwise. The difference was big enough to be statistically significant. Maximal torque was greatest when the seat distance was 50% of arm length, whether turning the steering wheel clockwise or counterclockwise. There were statistically significant differences in maximal torque between seat distances of 50 and 70% and 90% of the arm length. Muscle strength, in contrast, was found to be the greatest at a seat distance of 70% of arm length. [Conclusion] We conclude that greater torque can be obtained when the steering wheel is nearer the seat while greater muscle strength can be obtained when the seat distance from the steering wheel is 70% of the arm length.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on postural balance of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 67 stroke patients were assigned either to a horseback riding simulator exercise group (HEG, n=34) or a mat exercise group (MEG, n=33). [Methods] The subjects exercised three times per week for 8 weeks. Static balance ability was determined by eyes open balance (EOB) and eyes closed balance (ECB), which was measured using a Kinesthetic Ability Trainer Balance system. Dynamic balance was evaluated using the Berg balance scale (BBS). [Results] EOB and ECB significantly decreased and BBS had significantly increased after the intervention in the HEG and the MEG, and ECB decreased and BBS increased significantly more in the HEG than in the MEG. [Conclusion] Horseback riding simulator exercise is more effective than mat exercise for improving the ECB and BBS of stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of additional action observational training for functional electrical stimulation treatment on weight bearing, stability and gait velocity of hemiplegic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects were randomized into two groups. Subjects more than six months post-stroke participated. Balance and gait velocity were measured at the baseline, and after six weeks of treatment. Both groups received functional electrical stimulation treatment. The experimental group additionally received action observational training. The paired t-test was used to analyze differences in the outcome measures between before and after the intervention. The difference between the groups was compared using the independent t-test. [Results] The experimental group showed significant increases in weight bearing (anterior·posterior, right·left) on the affected side, stability index and gait velocity. The control group showed only a significant increase in anterior·posterior weight bearing on the affected side. Moreover, according to the comparison of training effects between in the two groups, the variables of anterior·posterior weight bearing, stability index and gait velocity revealed a statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] Additional action observational training for functional electrical stimulation treatment should be considered as a therapeutic method in physical therapy for the improvement of weight bearing, stability index and gait velocity of hemiplegic patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance exercise strengthening the hip flexor and extensor muscles on functional gait of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients were randomized into two groups. Both groups performed conventional physical therapy for six weeks. The experimental group also performed isokinetic eccentric resistance exercises for the hip flexor and extensor muscles. The hip muscle strength, stair up and down time, TUG time(timed up and go test), and 10 m gait velocity were measured at the baseline, and after 3 weeks, and 6 weeks of treatment. [Results] The experimental showed significant improvements compared to the baseline in hip muscle strength, stair up and down time, TUG time and 10 m gait velocity after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. After 3 and 6 weeks of treatment, there were gains in hip muscle strength and 10 m gait velocity. The control group showed no significant increase in hip muscle strength, stair up and down time, TUG time or 10 m gait velocity. [Conclusion] We consider that conventional physical therapy contributes to the improvement of functional gait of stroke patients. However, it is more desirable to perform isokinetic eccentric resistance exercises for hip flexor and extensor muscles combined with conventional physical therapy for the improvement of hip muscle strength, stair up and down time, TUG time and 10 m gait velocity.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of upper quadrant posture analysis using an ultrasound-based three-dimensional motion analyzer. [Subjects] Subjects were 72 healthy young adults. [Methods] Neck inclination angle formed by a line connecting C7 and the tragus with a horizontal line, angle of the shoulder formed by a line connecting C7 and the acromial angle with a horizontal line, and cranial rotation angle formed by a line connecting the tragus and corner of the eye with a horizontal line were measured using an ultrasound-based three-dimensional motion analyzer. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of two testers, standard error of measurements, minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level, and systematic bias were evaluated. [Results] Intra-class correlation coefficients (1,1) were 0.65 to 0.82. Intra-class correlation coefficients (2,1) were 0.76 to 0.82. High measurement error was found in the cranial rotation angle. Fixed bias was found for the angle of the shoulder in the inter-rater reliability. [Conclusion] Posture analysis using an ultrasound-based three-dimensional motion analyzer appears useful for assessing neck inclination angle and the angle of the shoulder in individuals, and cranial rotation angle in patient groups.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the best adjustable cushions, for the maintenance of normal sitting balance by healthy persons in wheelchairs, from a foam cushion, and a newly-developed air-adjustable cushion. [Subjects] Eighteen healthy participants (9 men, 9 women) were recruited. [Methods] Participants were evaluated using the Force Sensing Array System to assess average sitting pressure and the symmetry index of chair sitting under the following conditions: no seat cushion, a foam cushion, and a newly-developed air-adjustable cushion. [Results] The results show that there were no significant differences among the average sitting pressures which were measured on the hard surface of a chair, a foam cushion, and the newly-developed cushion. The air-adjustable cushion’s symmetry index turned out to be closer to 0 than those of the foam cushion and the hard surface of the chair. [Conclusion] We suggest that the newly-developed air-adjustable cushion contributes to a more symmetrical sitting posture than the basic foam cushion or no seat cushion.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of sensorimotor training on the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen CLBP patients were randomly assigned to Group II (ordinary physical therapy, n=7) and Group III (sensorimotor training, n=7). In addition, a normal group (Group I) consisting of seven subjects was chosen as the control group. The two CLBP groups received their own treatment five times per week, for four weeks, for 40 minutes each time. Changes in pain and functional performance evaluation were examined by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). In order to look at the change in APA, muscle onset time was examined using electromyography (EMG). [Results] Group III showed significant changes in both VAS and ODI. According to comparison of the results for muscle onset time, there were significant decreases in Group III’s transversus abdominis muscle (TrA) and external oblique muscle (EO) in the standing and sitting positions. There were significant differences between Group II and III in terms of the TrA in the sitting position. [Conclusion] Sensorimotor training makes patients capable of learning how to adjust muscles, thereby alleviating pain and improving muscle performance.
[Purpose] This study examined the relationship between the center of pressure (COP) displacement time during the stance subphases and dynamic balance ability when elderly cross obstacles 0, 10, and 40 cm in height. [Subjects] Fifteen older adults were enrolled in this study (≥65 years of age). [Methods] An F-Scan System was used to measure the COP displacement time when subjects crossed obstacles 0, 10, and 40 cm in height, and the Dynamic Gait Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Four Square Step Test were used to measure dynamic balance ability. [Results] The Dynamic Gait Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Four Square Step Test were correlated with each other. Dynamic balance tests were correlated with the COP displacement time during the stance phase. At obstacle heights of 10 and 40 cm during loading response and at all heights during pre-swing, there were correlations with dynamic balance ability. However, dynamic balance ability did not affect the COP displacement time during mid-stance and terminal stance. [Conclusion] People with a lower dynamic balance ability show a larger COP displacement time during loading response and pre-swing. Therefore, dynamic balance ability can be predicted by measuring the COP displacement time.
[Purpose] This paper provides information about the theory and technique of Yamuna Body Rolling. In order to treat physical problems, using the specialized Yamuna Body Rolling balls, people can target superficial skin, fasciae, muscle fibers, tendons, ligaments, bones, internal organs, and the nervous system by themselves. The extraordinary effect of Yamuna Body Rolling is its multidimensional elongation of muscle fibers. In addition to the regular longitudinal elongation by the conventional stretch method, Yamuna Body Rolling enables the transversal and diagonal expansion of muscle fibers in order to move the body more dynamically. Hamstring, abdominal, and sideline routines are presented as examples for techniques of Yamuna Body Rolling. Yamuna Body Rolling can be applied to functional evaluation and therapeutic uses; therefore, it could provide many benefits in the treatment of different conditions in the medical field.
[Purpose, Case, and Methods] A female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in captivity developed necrosis of the tail flukes. Although the diseased site healed after surgical resection, the loss of approximately 75% of the tail greatly affected her swimming performance. To restore swimming ability, we developed artificial tail flukes as a prosthetic swimming aid and provided physical therapy that included swimming training from postoperative day 1 to day 1427. [Results] The prosthetic enabled the dolphin to recover swimming ability almost to the level prior to disease onset, but even acquire applied movement, and reestablish social relationships, thus greatly improving the animal’s quality of life. [Conclusion] The results clearly demonstrate that, as in postoperative rehabilitation in humans, the use of prosthetic devices in physical therapy can be beneficial for marine animals such as dolphins.