[Purpose] Knee joint proprioception combines sensory input from a variety of afferent receptors that encompasses the sensations of joint position and motion. Poor proprioception is one of the risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Most studies have favored testing knee joint position sense in the sagittal plane and non-weight-bearing position. One of the most common mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury is dynamic knee valgus. No study has measured joint position sense in a manner relevant to the mechanism of injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure knee joint position sense in the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position and normal condition. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male athletes participated in the study. Joint position sense was evaluated by active reproduction of the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position and normal condition. The dominant knees of subjects were tested. [Results] The results showed less accurate knee joint position sense in the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position rather than the normal condition. [Conclusion] The poorer joint position sense in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position compared with the normal condition may contribute to the increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate balance among elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve subjects with type 2 diabetes and 15 age-matched controls were examined. Balance was assessed by a computerized device while the subjects were standing. [Results] Subjects with diabetes exhibited signiﬁcantly more sway than control subjects while standing on a balance platform. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that diabetes impairs balance when compared with that in normal elderly subjects.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among vitamin D levels, balance, falls, muscular strength, and quality of life in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-six patients diagnosed with postmenopausal osteoporosis and forty-six healthy controls were included in the study. Bone mineral density was determined by DEXA, and functional balance was evaluated the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Chair Raising (CRT) test, Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The muscular strengths were evaluated manually. The lumbosacral region range of motion (ROM) was measured by goniometry. The QUALEFFO-41 questionnaire was used for evaluating the quality of life. [Results] No statistically significant differences in muscular strength, balance, and fall values were found between the two groups. Statistically significant differences were noted between the QUALEFFO C, E, F and G scores and the QUALEFFO total scores of the QUALEFFO-41. Dividing the patient group into two groups revealed that patients with 25(OH)D levels < 15 ng/ml had significantly higher TUG and CRT test scores compared with patients with levels ≥ 15 ng/ml. Also, binary logistic regression analysis revealed that QUALEFFO total scores were found to be the independent factors for osteoporosis. [Conclusion] In this study, we found that vitamin D is necessary to maintain back extensor muscle strength, lumbar ROM, and balance. Our results show that bone mineral density, vitamin D level, balance, lumbar ROM, and the specified muscular strengths are factors that affect the quality of life.
[Purpose] Patients with severe bilateral knee osteoarthritis (KOA) often suffer from low back pain (LBP). However, few studies have examined the relationship between LBP and KOA in downward reach and pick-up movements. [Subjects] Eight KOA patients with LBP (LBP group), 8 KOA patients without LBP (NLBP group), and 7 healthy participants (Control group), without osteoarthritis or low back pain, were recruited for this study. [Methods] All subjects were asked to pick up a bottle with one hand, placed at the diagonal on the opposite side of the body. A 3D motion analysis system was used to record trunk and lower limb movements. [Results] The knee flexion angle on the side ipsilateral to the bottle was significantly smaller in both KOA groups than in the controls in the downward reach and pick-up movements. KOA patients showed a significantly lower trunk flexion angle and greater pelvis anterior tilt angle than the controls. In addition, no significant differences were found between the LBP and NLBP group. [Conclusion] We suspect that severe knee pain due to OA determines the priority of movement in strategic planning for the execution of pick-up movements. The knee strategy was abandoned by our severe knee OA patients, even when they had mild LBP.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the functional differences between total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients who were treated with supervised physiotherapy or a standardized home program and perform a cost analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Patients who received total knee arthroplasty between January 2009 and June 2011 were enrolled in this study; those with mean ages of 64.25±3.86 (60–68) years (n=18) and 68.08±6.25 (61–79) years (n=16) were placed in the supervised physiotherapy and standardized home program groups, respectively. All patients were evaluated by the same researcher before and after surgery, and the therapy programs were applied by another physiotherapist. All patients were evaluated for joint range of motion (ROM), pain, functional status (WOMAC), overall quality of life (SF-36), and depressive symptoms (BECK Depression Scale). [Results] A significant clinical improvement was observed in postoperative assessments. A statistically significant difference could not be found between ROM and functional levels of the patients in both groups. [Conclusion] No difference was found between the patients performing supervised or standardized home program with respect to the effects on functional status. A home exercise program can be used in the rehabilitation of patients with TKA, and implementation of home exercise programs can also reduce health-care spending.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show the effect of different forefoot and heel support surfaces on the activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles during the sit-to-stand task while wearing high-heel shoes. [Subjects] Fifteen female subjects were recruited. [Methods] The muscle activities of the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles were recorded using an MP150 system during the sit-to-stand task while wearing various high-heeled shoes. [Results] The activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles significantly decreased when subjects wore condition 1 shoes compared with when they wore condition 2, 3 or 4 high-heeled shoes. The activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles significantly decreased when subjects wore condition 2 high-heeled shoes compared with condition 3 or 4 high-heeled shoes. [Conclusion] The results can be interpreted as indicating that the size of the forefoot supporting surface can influence the lower extremity muscles of women wearing high-heeled shoes more than the size of the heel supporting surface.
[Purpose] The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in obtaining the cross-sectional area of the lumbar multifidus muscles in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) at rest and during contractions facilitated by PNF patterns by ultrasound imaging. [Subjects] The subjects were 15 (4 males, 11 females) who had chronic LBP on one side for more than 6 months. [Methods] Subjects were asked to lie on their sides with the painful side facing up. They then rested or received a front or backward lower pelvic pattern of PNF treatment. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle was measured twice using ultrasonography. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient of the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle measured by ultrasonography was excellent. [Conclusion] Our results show that measurement with ultrasound imaging can be used in the treatment of LBP as an objective assessment.
[Purpose] Many studies have been using cell culture models of muscle cells with exogenous cytokines or glucocorticoids to mimic atrophy in in vivo and in vitro tests. However, the changes in the phosphorylation of atrophy-related cofilin are still poorly understood in starved skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we first examined whether or not phosphorylation of cofilin is altered in L6 myoblasts after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours of serum-free starvation with low glucose. [Methods] We used Western blotting to exam protein expression and phosphorylation in atrophied L6 myoblasts. [Results] L6 cell sizes and numbers were diminished as a result of serum-free starvation in a time-dependent manner. Serum-free starvation for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours significantly decreased the phosphorylation of cofilin, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that starvation-induced atrophy may be in part related to changes in the phosphorylation of cofilin in L6 myoblasts.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the reaching velocity of the upper trunk and the center of force (COF) during a reaching task with the dominant and nondominant hands. [Subjects] Ten males between the ages of 20 and 30 years participated in this study. [Methods] This study measured the reaching velocity, upper trunk movement, and center of force movement during a reaching task using the dominant and nondominant hands. [Results] There was no significant difference in reaching velocity between the dominant and nondominant hands in the reaching task. The forward movement of the upper trunk and COF movement in reaching with nondominant hand were significantly decreased compared with those of the dominant hand. [Conclusion] Therefore, when evaluating the reaching performance of patients clinically, it is necessary to evaluate trunk movement, reaching velocity, and the subsequent movement of the body center.
[Purpose] This study was performed to determine the difference in thoracic repositioning sense in young people with and without thoracic flexion syndrome (TFS) in target positions of half extension. [Subjects] People with TFS (n = 15; 7 men and 8 women) and people without TFS (n = 15; 7 men and 8 women) were recruited from three universities. Subjects were guided into a sitting extension target posture and were asked to move from a neutral position (2 s) to an extension target position (2 s); 10 trials were performed. [Results] People with TFS showed a significantly higher thoracic repositioning error in the extension target position than people without TFS. [Conclusion] People with TFS show a higher thoracic spine repositioning error in extension than people without TFS. A rehabilitation program to treat TFS should be implemented for individuals with decreased position sense of the thoracic spine.
[Purpose] This study examined the effect of wearing a brassiere on upper trapezius (UT) region pain and EMG activity during arm elevation by women. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy women were recruited. Surface EMG data were collected from the UT muscles during arm elevation. Pressure pain in the UT region was measured using a baseline dolorimeter. [Results] The EMG activity of the UT increased significantly when a brassiere was worn compared to without. UT region pain showed no significant difference between with and without wearing a brassiere. [Conclusion] This suggests that wearing a brassiere increases the muscle activation of the UT in women.
[Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers.
[Purpose] To compare the effects of open-chain exercise (OCE) and closed-chain exercise (CCE) for patients after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients after MPFL reconstruction were randomly divided into an OCE group and a CCE group. All the patients were evaluated at four different time points. [Results] The mean change of thigh circumference decrease in the CCE group was lower than that in the OCE group at both the 3rd and 6th month after surgery. The Lysholm score of the CCE group was higher than that of the OCE group at both the 3rd and 6th month. At the 3rd month after surgery, the visual analog scale score of the CCE group was lower than that of the OCE group. [Conclusion] CCE is better than OCE for both short and long term outcomes of patients after MPFL reconstruction.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on pain, physical function, and psychological status, and to evaluate the personality characteristics of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen women with FMS were enrolled. They were trained for a 6-week home-based aerobic exercise program. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the visual analog scale of pain and sleep quality were measured at baseline and at the end of week 6. The personality profiles were evaluated using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). [Results] After the exercise program, significant improvements were determined in pain, sleep quality, physical function, depression and FMS symptoms compared to baseline. In addition, the hysteria item (71.21±8.84) of the MMPI was significantly higher in FMS. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that home-based aerobic exercise may be a useful treatment in the management of FMS. Personality characteristics should be considered during the planning process of the treatment of FMS. Personality is a filter between life events and psychological responses. It is defined to be the integration of effective and behavioral patterns. Long-term studies involving larger clinical samples are needed to define the role of personality characteristics in FMS.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 college students who had been diagnosed with flat feet. The subjects’ step time, step length, stride time, stride length, and gait velocity were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Oxford, UK) prior to and while wearing foot orthoses. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS v. 12.0. [Results] The subject’s step time and stride time significantly decreased for both feet after they began using foot orthosis, and stride length and gait velocity significantly increased in both feet orthosis; however, step length did not significantly increase on either side. [Conclusions] College students with flat feet saw an improvement in elements of their gait while using the foot orthosis. The results of this study verified that students with flat feet might walk more efficiently if they received active gait training via long-term use of foot orthosis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercises using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) scapular and pelvic patterns might decrease the pain index and increase the lumbar flexibility of obese patients with low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty obese patients with low back pain were randomly assigned to an experimetal group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The exercise program of the experimental group consisted of scapular patterns (anterior depression − posterior elevation) and pelvic patterns (anterior elevation − posterior depression). The control group performed neutral back muscle strengthening exercises. Over the course of four weeks, the groups participated in PNF or performed strengthening exercises for 30 minutes, three times per week. Subjects were assessed a pre-test and post-test using measurements of pain and lumbar flexibility. [Results] The results show that lumbar flexion and lumbar extension significantly improved in the experimental group, had significant improvement and that the Oswestry Disability index (ODI) significantly decreased. However, there were no significant changes in the control group. The experimental group also showed significant differences in the pain index and lumbar flexibility from the control group. [Conclusion] This study showed that PNF can be used to improve pain index rating and lumbar flexibility. The findings indicate that the experimental group experienced greater improvement than the control group by participating in the PNF lumbar stabilization program.
[Purpose] We investigated the physical condition of middle-aged workers in Korea by job category (office job vs. production job). [Subjects] In total, 3,650 middle-aged workers (production job, n = 2,615; office job, n = 1,035) ≥50 years of age from eight geographical areas were evaluated from 2007 to 2008. [Methods] The subjects’ subjective physical condition, exercise status, smoking status, and drinking status were investigated, and precise physical measurements, cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, reflexes, and reactions were measured. [Results] Subjectively, the physical condition and exercise status of those with office jobs were superior to those of production job workers. Office workers exhibited a higher rate of drinking than production workers, and also had better cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, reflexes, and reactions. However, production workers were more flexible than office workers. [Conclusion] Middle-aged production job workers in Korea have poorer overall physical condition than middle-aged office job workers. The physical condition of middle-aged and elderly workers must be managed through various health management programs to secure a productive aging society.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults.
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of recreational exercises on the muscle strength, flexibility, and balance of old-old elderly individuals over the age of 75 years. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three old-old elderly subjects (aged 78.7 ± 2.9 years) participated in 8 weeks of recreational exercises. The exercises were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Muscle strength, flexibility, and balance were evaluated by the Senior Fitness Test before and at the end of the intervention. [Results] Significant improvements in muscle strength, flexibility, and balance were observed at the end of the intervention. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an intervention using recreational exercises effectively improves the muscle strength, flexibility, and balance of old-old elderly individuals.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of posture correctional programs using basic TaeKwonDo movements. [Subjects] The subjects were TaeKwonDo trainees attending an elementary school in B city. They were separated into experimental and control groups according to posture problems found during posture analysis. [Methods] The subjects of the training exercise program performed basic TaeKwonDo movements for 8 weeks, 3 times per week. The TaeKwonDo exercise program consisted of basic TaeKwonDo movements including Hwangso Makki, Meongye Chigi, Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki, Momtong An Makki and Apkubi. [Results] Hwangso Makki and Meongye Chigi movements had a significant positive effect on the correction of neck inclination. Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki and Momtong An Makki movements had beneficial effects on the correction of shoulder inclination. Apkubi movement had a significant beneficial effect on the correction of pelvis inclination. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an exercise program consisting of basic TaeKwonDo movements is an effective means of posture correction.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the shoulder flexion angle on the muscle activities of the upper extremities when performing the push-up plus exercise (PUPE) on an unstable surface with the forearm in the external rotation position. [Subjects] The subjects were conducted on 15 normal male adults. [Methods] A sling device was used for the unstable surface, and PUPE was performed with the forearm in the external rotation position. The shoulder flexion angles measured in the sagittal plane were 110°, 90°, and 70°. Electromyography was used for a comparitive analysis of the muscle activities of the serratus anterior (SA), the pectoralis major (PM), and the upper trapezius (UT). [Results] In the intra-group comparison, the muscle activity of SA was statistically the highest when the shoulder-flexion angle was 110°. [Conclusion] performing PUPE on an unstable surface, the muscle activity of the SA is activated the most when the shoulder flexion angle is 110° and the forearm is in the external rotation position.
[Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased. [Conclusion] When the elderly have limb muscle weakness, leg cycle ergometer distances should be adjusted.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of Lokomat versus Ergo_bike training using the Probe Reaction Time (P-RT) and 10-m maximum walking speed as the outcome measures, on incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) patients. [Subjects] Thirty male T8–L3 level spinal cord injury patients were the subjects. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: a Lokomat group and an Ergo_bike group. Each group consisted of 15 subjects. The P-RT and 10 m maximum walking speed were measured before and after the intervention for each group. [Results] The P-RT and the time taken to cover 10 m at maximum walking speed decreased significantly in the Lokomat group. [Conclusion] The Lokomat training not only decreased P-RT, but also improved the walking ability of subjects with iSCI.
[Purpose] To examine how stretching, plyometric, and treadmill exercises influence the dynamic balance necessary for sports activities. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in this study. The subjects conducted stretching, plyometric exercises, and treadmill walking for set times over a period of three days. The subjects’ dynamic balance was then measured. The measurements were taken prior to the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 20 minutes after the intervention. All the intervention times were set at 16 minutes, excluding resting times. The data were analyzed with using the two-way ANOVA. [Results] There was no interaction between exercises and time. There were no statistical differences among the exercises and no statistical differences in changes over time. [Conclusion] This study found that warm-up exercises such as plyometric exercises, stretching, and treadmill walking have no effect on the dynamic of balance in healthy subjects.
[Purpose] To examine the long-term effects of air pollution on the physical functioning of a group of officially acknowledged victims of pollution-related illnesses (Victims group) who were exposed to air pollution more than 50 years ago, we compared them with age-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD group). [Subjects and Methods] The Victims group comprised 34 subjects and the COPD group 24, all of whom were aged over 65 years. Respiratory function, muscle strength, exercise capacity and physical activity were measured and compared between the groups. [Results] The Victims group had significantly higher forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), proportion of predicted FEV1, proportion of predicted vital capacity (VC), and ratio of FEV1 to forced VC than the COPD group. Surprisingly, the muscle strength of the Victims group was significantly weaker, their incremental shuttle walking test distance was significantly shorter, and their physical activity was significantly less than those of the COPD group. [Conclusion] Although the pulmonary function of Victims was better than that of the COPD group, their physical functioning was worse. Exposure to air pollution 50 years ago appears to continue to adversely affect their physical function. It is particularly important to offer Victims rehabilitation to improve their exercise performance and physical activity.
[Purpose] This study investigated the influence of exercise on an unstable surface on ROM of the knee, muscle strength and the physical function of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients diagnosed with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee, they were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). [Methods] The experimental group performed exercise using an aero step XL (TOGU, Germany) 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. A control group performed the same exercise on a stable surface and without aero step XL. [Results] After the intervention, the experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in active knee flexion, knee joint manual muscle test (MMT), knee joint MMT hamstring and WOMAC score. [Conclusion] Exercise on the unstable surface improved the symptoms of patient with osteoarthritis. Exercise on an unstable surface might be helpful for improving the muscle strength and alignment of lower extremities as well as improving physical function related to the knee joint.
[Purpose] The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate chronic low back pain by determining the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the lumbar multifidus of the unaffected and affected sides at the L5 level using the ultrasound imaging. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 24 young people (10 males, 14 females) with chronic low back pain lasting for more than 6 months on one side. The visual analog scale (VAS) value of pain was assessed and the cross-sectional areas of the bilateral multifidus muscle were measured with the subjects in a supine position in a resting state using ultrasound imaging. Correlation and linear regression analysis were performed on the VAS and the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the lumbar multifidus of the unaffected and affected sides. [Results] The VAS and the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the lumbar multifidus were linearly correlated. [Conclusion] The results of this research indicate that when the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the lumbar multifidus of the unaffected and affected sides increases, the symptom of chronic low back pain deteriorates.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to propose a table height that can reduce shoulder muscle fatigue by analyzing and comparing median frequencies of shoulder muscles at different table heights when performing therapeutic ultrasounds work. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 63 healthy male adults who were equally and randomly assigned to a standard height group (SHG), a high height group (HHG), and a low height group (LHG). The standard table height was set at the level of the elbow joint when the subjects flexed their elbow while in a sitting position. High height and low height were set 10 cm higher and 10 cm lower, respectively, than the standard height. Muscle fatigue of the upper trapezius, middle deltoid, rhomboid, and infraspinatus of the subjects was measured during ultrasound treatment work at each table height. [Results] Median frequencies of the upper trapezius, middle deltoid, rhomboid, and infraspinatus muscles were significantly lower in the HHG than in to the LHG. [Conclusion] When therapeutic ultrasound is performed using a table that has a height lower than that of the elbow joint, the median frequency of the shoulder muscle increases, hence decreasing muscle fatigue. This way, musculoskeletal pain as a result of performing therapeutic ultrasound can be prevented.
[Purpose] In the present study, we investigated femoral muscle activity during toe-gripping, and the role of the femoral muscles in toe-gripping strength. [Subjects] Fourteen healthy young women were selected. [Methods] We measured the maximum voluntary contraction of the rectus femoris and long head of the biceps femoris muscles. We then calculated the percent integrated EMG (%IEMG) during the toe-gripping action. [Results] We found that the %IEMG of the biceps femoris was significantly higher than that of the rectus femoris. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the %IEMG of the rectus femoris and that of the biceps femoris. [Conclusion] These results suggest that femoral muscles co-contract during the toe-gripping action, and thus possibly contribute to knee joint stability.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether a low intensity exercise using an eccentric contraction would result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen female Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group performed no exercise. The level group ran on a treadmill on a 0° incline. The downhill group ran on a treadmill on a −16° incline. The two exercise groups ran on a treadmill at 16 m/min for 90 minutes, once every three days for a total of twenty sessions. [Results] The muscle wet weights, the relative weight ratios, and the muscle fiber cross-section minor axes of the downhill group were significantly larger than those of the control and level groups. There were no differences in the muscle wet weights, the relative weight ratios, and the muscle fiber cross-section minor axes between the control group and the level group. [Conclusion] The stimulation from the low intensity eccentric contraction may have produced enough mechanical stress to induce muscle hypertrophy without the over-stressing that might have produced muscle fiber damage. These results indicate that this technique may be an effective method of inducing hypertrophy in skeletal muscle.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical function and postural sway during local vibratory stimulation of middle-aged subjects in an upright position. [Subjects] The subjects were 25 healthy community-dwelling middle-aged people. [Methods] We measured postural sway using a Wii board while vibratory stimulations of 30, 60, or 240 Hz were applied to the subjects’ lumbar multifidus or gastrocnemius muscles. Physical function was evaluated by 5-m usual gait speed and grip strength. [Results] Gait speed was strongly correlated to the anteroposterior body sway in the upright position during 30 Hz gastrocnemius muscles vibration (GMV). [Conclusion] Postural sway during 30 Hz GMV was strongly associated with gait speed and showed a posterior displacement. These findings show that the lower leg’s response to balance control under 30 Hz proprioceptive stimulation might be a good indicator of declining gait function.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the steady state of oxygen uptake (VO2) at several standing up frequencies to clarify whether workload in the sit-to-stand exercise (STSE) is greater than the anaerobic threshold (AT). [Subjects] Ten healthy young subjects performed the STSE. [Methods] In the STSE, subjects stood up and sat down without using their arms to push-off from the chair at standing up frequencies of 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 times per minutes. Subjects exercised for 5 minutes at each frequency with 5 minutes of rest between each consecutive frequency trial. The steady state of VO2 was evaluated by the difference in the VO2 between the 3rd and 5th min at each frequency. The correlation between the VO2 of the STSE and the standing up frequency was analyzed. [Results] At standing up frequencies greater than 24 times/min, the steady state of VO2 could not be confirmed. The relationship between the standing up frequency (at less than 24 times/min) and VO2 was strong (r=0.94). [Conclusion] The STSE may be a potentially useful test for determining AT and predicting the physical capacity of patients.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of different weight-bearing postures on the activation of the abductor hallucis muscle during foot-arch exercises. [Subjects] The study recruited 11 healthy volunteers who were pain-free, had no history of foot or ankle surgery, and were able to maintain a standing posture. [Methods] The subjects performed short-foot and toe-spreading exercises while sitting and standing. [Results] The abductor hallucis muscle activation in the toe-spreading exercise was significantly greater when standing than in sitting, while that in the short-foot exercise did not differ significantly between the two postures. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that a weight bearing posture such as standing is the most effective method of increasing the EMG activity of abductor hallucis muscle in the toe-spreading exercise.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in muscle synergy could affect gait stability or muscle activity by comparing muscle activity before and after prolonged walking. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy male subjects walked on a treadmill for 10 min as a warm-up. Data were recorded from the participants during the first and last 1 min during 90 min of walking at 4.5 km/h. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded for 7 leg muscles, and patterns of coordination were determined by principal component analysis (PCA). The patterns of activity within the anatomic muscle groups were additionally determined by repeating PCA. iEMG was calculated using the mean EMG for each cycle step during the 1 min walking periods. The largest Lyapunov exponent was calculated to quantify each subject’s inherent local dynamic stability. [Results] The patterns for each of the 7 muscles showed no change between the start and end periods. However, the end period showed a higher co-activation of the triceps surae, lower iEMG of the medial gastrocnemius, and a smaller largest Lyapunov exponent of the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions than those observed during the start period. [Conclusion] The increase in triceps surae co-activation may be associated with gait stability.
[Purpose] The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on reducing spasticity immediately and 4 weeks after application of ESWT. [Subjects and Methods] We searched PubMed, TCL, Embase, and Scopus from their inception dates through June 2013. The key words “muscle hypertonia OR spasticity” were used for spasticity, and the key words “shock wave OR ESWT” were used for ESWT. Five studies were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. [Results] The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) grade was significantly improved immediately after ESWT compared with the baseline values (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.792; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.001 to −0.583). The MAS grade at four weeks after ESWT was also significantly improved compared with the baseline values (SMD, −0.735; 95% CI, −0.951 to −0.519). [Conclusion] ESWT has a significant effect on improving spasticity. Further standardization of treatment protocols including treatment intervals and intensities needs to be established and long-term follow up studies are needed.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide various assessment tools for metamemory of a patient with brain injury to develop accurate metamemory measurement methods which can be effectively applied in rehabilitation training programs in clinics. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, we carried out a systematic document search of the literature for articles published between January, 2001, and December, 2013, in order to review studies of measurement tools used to assess the metamemory of patients with brain injury. [Results] The initial search of the databases yielded 57 articles, 48 of which did not meet the inclusion criteria. Thus 9 studies were included in our review. The quality level of all the studies was IIA2b and PEDro scale scores were found to range from 4 to 6. [Conclusion] More studies need to be made, using various measurement tools for metamemory of more diverse patient groups. We believe studies should be made of the assessment of metamemory and interventions for it in accordance with the diagnoses and the cognitive levels of the patients with brain injury.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of neck proprioceptive training on the balance of patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects] Three patients with chronic stroke were recruited for this study. [Methods] The subjects underwent neck proprioceptive training using the red light of a laser pointer (30 min daily, five times per week for 4 weeks). Outcome measures included the stability and weight distribution indices measured with a Tetrax system and Timed Up and Go (TUG) and proprioception tests. [Results] For all subjects, the stability and weight distribution indices increased by 1.87–9.66% in the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, and the TUG and proprioception test scores improved by 2.49–15.27%. [Conclusion] Neck proprioceptive training may be a good option for improving the balance function of patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality exercise program (VREP) on physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in hemodialysis (HD) patients with end-stage renal failure. [Subjects and Methods] A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Forty-six HD patients were divided into exercise (n=23) and control groups (n=23); while waiting for their dialyses, the exercise group followed a VREP, and the control group received only their usual care. The VREP was accomplished using Nintendo’s Wii Fit Plus for 40 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks during the period of May 27 to July 19, 2013. Physical fitness (muscle strength, balance, flexibility), body composition (skeletal muscle mass, body fat rate, arm and leg muscle mass), and fatigue were measured at baseline and after the intervention. [Results] After the VREP, physical fitness and body composition significantly increased, and the level of fatigue significantly decreased in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a VREP improves physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in HD patients. Based on the findings, VREPs should be used as a health promotion programs for HD patients.