[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of strength training using a sliding rehabilitation machine (SRM) on the gait function of cerebral palsy children. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen children aged 6–18 years participated in the SRM training for 8 weeks (30 min/day, 2 times/week). The SRM is designed for the performance of a closed-kinetic chain exercise in which a tilt table is moved up and down using wheels on the table. Participants began in a position of flexion of the 3 lower joints (hips, knees, and ankles) on the SRM. In each exercise session, they extended and flexed the 3 joints. The level of exercise was set by changing the inclination of the tilt table. Functional gait ability was measured with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), 10-m walk test (10MWT), and timed up-and-go test (TUG) before and after the training. Muscle strength was also measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. [Results] Nine of the thirteen children completed the entire study. The peak torques of the knee extensor and flexor group muscles significantly improved after training with the SRM. The total distance of the 6 MWT significantly increased after training. The times of the 10 MWT and the TUG significantly improved after training. The changes in muscle tone were also investigated using the MAS (Modified Ashworth Scale) and Tardieu scale, but no significant changes were found in muscle tone between the pre- and post-test measurements. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate the effect of the SRM intervention which resulted in improved muscle strength and functional gait.
[Purpose] To clarify the characteristics of fluctuations in the center of gravity (CoG) of badminton players by comparing them between those with high and low performance levels. [Subjects] Eight male badminton players belonging to teams ranked among the top 3 at the All Japan Badminton Championships (high-level group) and 8 playing badminton for recreation in university clubs (low-level group) were studied. [Methods] CoG sway during two- and one (dominant and non-dominant)-leg standing with the eyes open and closed were recorded for 30 seconds, using a stabilometer. [Results] With their eyes open, the CoG was maintained near the center by the high-level group, while it was displaced in the direction of the dominant leg by the low-level group, with a significant difference between the two groups. In contrast, with the eyes closed, the trace length, sway area, and X- and Y-axis sway amplitudes were greater in the low- than in high-level group, with significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] These results support the usefulness of standing on the non-dominant leg with the eyes closed for the evaluation of badminton players’ balance ability.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise therapy on blood lipids of obese women. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 clinically obese women. [Methods] The subjects were divided into an exercise group (n=12), and a control group (n=12). The exercise group performed exercise for 10 weeks with diet restriction. We investigated how this type of exercise influenced blood lipids. Blood was taken before and after the intervention. The collected blood was centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 minutes; and plasma was preserved at −73 °C. For hemanalysis, a medical laboratory was asked to analyze total cholesterol and triglyceride. The exercise was performed 5 times per week, and an exercise was performed every two days, and exercise program was composed of warm up, main exercise and cool down. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in blood lipid levels after the intervention. The differences between the two groups in TC and TG were significant. [Conclusion] TC and TG significantly inproved in the experimental group showing that the exercise was effective at improveing blood lipid levels.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among vision problems, developmental levels, upper extremity functions, and qualities of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] The study included 32 children, aged 4–15 years, diagnosed with diplegic type CP. [Methods] Hand function was evaluated using the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) and the Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF) scale, and the severity of CP was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The developmental and mental capabilities of the children were evaluated using the Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory (ADSI) or the WISC-R test. An oculomotor examination was conducted for all patients. [Results] Positive correlations were found between GMFCS and BFMF, GMFCS and MACS, and MACS and BFMF scores (r=0.636; r=0.553; r=0.718, respectively). Significant correlations were found between upper extremity function, the severity of CP, the quality of life, and the general developmental level. There was no significant correlation between ocular disorders and clinical characteristics. [Conclusion] GMFCS, MACS, and BFMF may be useful for defining the functional status of children with CP, as they are easy, practical, and simple classification scales that conform to each other.
[Purpose] This study attempted to identify how genu varum or valgum affects the electromyographic activities of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris during knee isometric contraction. [Subjects] Fifty-two healthy young adults were enrolled in this study. They were enrolled and classified into three groups by knee alignment conditions: the genu varum, genu valgum, and control groups. [Methods] The electromyographic activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were calculated using the percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. The participants contracted their quadriceps during isometric contraction at 30 and 60° of knee flexion. [Results] The genu varum group had more activity in the vastus medialis than in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, whereas the genu valgum group had more activity in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris than in the vastus medialis. There was a significant difference in the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis by angle of knee flexion degree only in the genu valgum. There were no significant differences in any of the three groups in terms of the muscle activity ratio of the vastus medialis to the rectus femoris by angle of knee flexion. [Conclusion] The quadriceps femoris was used for different strategies according to knee alignment during isometric contraction at 30 and 60°. This study suggests that rehabilitation training programs used to strengthen the quadriceps should consider the knee alignment conditions of the target subjects.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of unstable surface training (UST) on walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 stroke patients who were randomly divided into experimental (n1=6) and control (n2=6) groups. [Methods] The Subjects in both groups performed treadmill training for 30 minutes. The Subjects in the experimental group also performed UST after treadmill training, with the UST being performed for 10 minutes, five times per week, for four weeks. All subjects were evaluated with a 10-meter walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 6-minute walk test. The pared t-test was performed to test the significant differences between before and after the intervention. The independent t-test was conducted to test the significant differences between groups. [Results] Following the intervention, the experimental group showed significant differences in the Timed Up and Go test and 6-minute walk test. [Conclusion] The results of the study suggest that UST is an effective method for improvement of walking ability in chronic stroke patients.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a task-specific exercise program based on motor learning on balance ability and strength of the lower extremity in the elderly with/without falling experiences. [Subjects and Methods] Individuals who had experiences of falling over 2 times within the past 6 months were included in the falling group. The task-specific exercise program consisted of 3 stages (weeks 1–2, 3–4, and 5–6) and was conducted according to the level of difficulty in this study. [Results] The scores of the Korean version of the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale and Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment were significantly changed in both the falling group and non-falling group after the task-specific exercise program. In comparisons between the falling group and non-falling group, there were also significant differences in the Korean version of the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale and muscle strength of the semitendinosus and gastrocnemius. [Conclusion] The task-specific exercise program has a positive effect on balance ability and muscle strength related to falls in the elderly.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of core stability exercise (CSE) on the physical and psychological functions of elderly women while negotiating general obstacles. [Subjects and Methods] After allocating 10 elderly women each to the core stability training group and the control group, we carried out Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and measured crossing velocity (CV), maximum vertical heel clearance (MVHC), and knee flexion angle for assessing physical performances. We evaluated depression and fear of falling for assessing psychological functions. [Results] Relative to the control group, the core stability training group showed statistically significant overall changes after the training session: an increase in POMA scores, faster CV, lower MVHC, and a decrease in knee flexion angle. Furthermore, depression and fear of falling decreased significantly. [Conclusion] CSE can have a positive effect on the improvement of physical and psychological performances of older women who are vulnerable to falls as they negotiate everyday obstacles.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of guidance in home exercise on physical function and the amount of activity in home care patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). [Subjects and Methods] A 2-month home exercise intervention consisting of self-administered exercise by patients (self-exercise) and home visit exercise therapy guided by a physical therapist (home visit exercise) was conducted in 10 home care patients with PD to compare changes in physical function, activities of daily living, and postural status between before and after the intervention. [Results] A decreased number of chief complaints and alleviation of fear of falling were observed after the intervention. In terms of physical function, a significant increase in flexibility and muscle strength were observed, although no significant changes were found in activities of daily living, gait, and balance. Although there was no significant change in the total amount of daily physical activity, the analysis of daily posture changes revealed a significant reduction in the percentage of time spent lying down and a significant increase in the percentage of time spent sitting after the intervention. [Conclusion] Guidance in home exercise in home care patients with PD can be effective in making self-exercise a habit, improving range of motion and muscle strength, and reducing the time spent in a supine position.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine effects of the isometric contraction of an upper limb in a supine position on the muscle activity of a healthy adult in the contralateral lower limb. [Subjects] The subjects were 40 healthy adults (35 males and 5 females). [Methods] The muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris, anterior tibialis, and medial gastrocnemius (MG) of the contralateral lower limb was measured using electromyography while the subjects flexed, extended, abducted, and adducted the shoulder joint of an upper limb. [Results] The muscle activity of the RF of the contralateral lower limb was significantly high when the subject flexed the shoulder joint of an upper limb, and the muscle activity of the MG of the contralateral lower limb was significantly high when the subject adducted the shoulder joint of an upper limb. [Conclusion] The isometric contraction that results from flexion and adduction of the shoulder joint of an upper limb in a supine position is considered to selectively affect the RF and MG activity of the contralateral lower limb.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in function and mental state after thoracic mobilization and manipulation in patients with chronic lower back pain (LBP). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six subjects were randomly divided into mobilization group (group A), manipulation group (group B) and control group (group C). The Oswestry disability index (ODI) was used to measure the functional impairment of patients with LBP. A multiple spinal diagnosis was used to measure the range of motion (ROM) of vertebra segments. The Fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) was used to investigate the mental state of LBP patients. [Results] Group A and group B were significantly different from group C in terms of the ODI. Between groups, there was no difference in ROM during trunk flexion. Group A and group B were also significantly different from the control group in extension ROM. The FABQ of group B was significantly different from that of group A. [Conclusion] Application of mobilization or manipulation to thoracic lumbar vertebrae has a positive effect on function, mental state, and ROM in patients with lower back pain.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of wearing high heels while driving on lower extremity muscle activation. [Subjects] The subjects of this experimental study were 14 healthy women in their 20s who normally wear shoes with high heels. [Methods] The subjects were asked to place their shoes on an accelerator pedal with the heel touching the floor and then asked to press the pedal with as much pressure as possible for 3 seconds before removing their feet from the pedal. A total of 3 measurements were taken for each heel height (flat, 5 cm, 7 cm), and the heel height was randomly selected. [Results] The levels of muscle activity, indicated as the percentage of reference voluntary contraction, for gastrocnemius muscle in the flat, 5 cm, and 7 cm shoes were 180.8±61.8%, 285.4±122.3%, and 366.2±193.7%, respectively, and there were significant differences between groups. Those for the soleus muscle were 477.3±209.2%, 718.8±380.5%, and 882.4±509.9%, and there were significant differences between groups. [Conclusion] To summarize the results of this study, it was found that female drivers require greater lower extremity muscle activation when wearing high heels than when wearing low heels. Furthermore, instability and muscle fatigue of the ankle joint, which results from wearing high heels on a daily basis, could also occur while driving.
[Purpose] This study investigated to determine whether the Sideways Stepping Test (SST) is a useful test to detect unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects including both male and females between the ages of 25 and 55 who had been diagnosed with UVH were recruited for the study. All the subjects were tested with the SST and followed by the head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) test using video electronystagmography (VENG) to confirm the presence of UVH. The results of both tests were then compared with each other to determine the correlation, sensitivity, and specificity. [Results] The results showed that the SST is strongly correlated with the gold standard HSN test using VENG and is highly sensitive and specific. [Conclusion] The present study showed that the SST is a highly valid test that can be used as an alternative method to the gold standard HSN test using VENG in detecting UVH.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50–60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (∆ score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the reference values for the chair stand test (CST) in healthy older Japanese people. [Methods] Relevant research articles for the 5-repetition chair stand test (CS-5) and the 30-second chair stand test (CS-30) were identified by electronic database and manual searching. Research articles involving healthy Japanese people aged 60 years and older were included in a meta-analysis. Weighted means of the CS-5 and CS-30 were estimated by the random effect model as the reference values for the CST. Further, the effects of age and sex on the reference values were analyzed by a meta-regression analysis. [Results] Seven articles (21 data) and three articles (14 data) were included in the meta-analyses for the CS-5 and CS-30, respectively. The reference value for the CS-5 was estimated as 8.50 sec [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.93–9.07]; age and sex were not associated with this reference value. The reference value for the CS-30 was estimated as 17.26 times [95%CI: 15.98–18.55], and age was significantly associated with this value. [Conclusion] When the CS-5 and CS-30 are used to evaluate elderly Japanese people, the reference values for the CS-5 and CS-30 determined in this study would be useful indices.
[Purpose] To assess the effects of Tai Chi on the renal and cardiac functions of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one patients with CKD and CVD were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. The exercise group performed Tai Chi training for 30 minutes three to five times a week for 12 weeks, while the control group did not. All patients’ renal and cardiac functions and blood lipid parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. [Results] The 12 weeks Tai Chi intervention improved the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and the high density lipoprotein (HDL) level, and decreased the serum creatintine (Scr) level, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the total cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The change in eGFR correlated negatively with the changes in CH, TG and LDL, and positively with the change in HDL. In addition, the change in SBP correlated positively with the changes in CH, TG and LDL, and negatively with the change in HDL. [Conclusion] Tai Chi training might improve the renal and cardiac functions of CKD and CVD patients via improved regulation of lipid metabolism.
[Purpose] Although the Push-Up Plus is a useful exercise method for shoulder stabilization, few studies have examined its effects at different angles of shoulder rotation. Therefore, the present study investigated the most effective exercise method for shoulder stabilization by analyzing muscle activities of the rotator cuff muscles at different angles of shoulder rotation. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy university students in their 20s were the subjects of this study. [Methods] Changes in muscle EMG related to shoulder stabilization were analyzed by performing the Push-Up Plus in shoulder positions of neutral, internal and external rotation. [Results] The highest muscle activity was found in external rotation, and in internal rotation the pectoralis major and levator scapula showed significantly lower activities than the other positions. [Conclusion] Selectively changing the rotation angle of the shoulder for different purposes of the shoulder exercise would be an effective exercise method.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of forward head posture (FHP) on proprioception by determining the cervical position-reposition error. [Subjects and Methods] A sample population was divided into two groups in accordance with the craniovertebral angle: the FHP group and the control group. We measured the craniovertebral angle, which is defined as the angle between a horizontal line passing through C7 and a line extending from the tragus of the ear to C7. The error value of the cervical position sense after cervical flexion, extension, and rotation was evaluated using the head repositioning accuracy test. [Results] There were significant differences in the error value of the joint position sense (cervical flexion, extension, and rotation) between the FHP and control groups. In addition, there was an inverse correlation between the craniovertebral angle and error value of the joint position sense. [Conclusion] FHP is associated with reduced proprioception. This result implies that the change in the muscle length caused by FHP decreases the joint position sense. Also, proprioception becomes worse as FHP becomes more severe.
[Purpose] Cerebral palsy is a disorder that affects balance in the sitting position. Cerebral palsy patients need trunk muscle strengthening and balance training. In order to improve trunk control sensory-motor control training is carried out on an unstable surface. We have developed a Trunk Training System (TTS) that can provide visual feedback using a tilt sensor for balance training in the sitting position. Before using the TTS for training children with cerebral palsy experiments were conducted with healthy adult subjects and the TTS to gather basic data for its improvement. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 healthy men (n=3) and women (n=8). [Methods] Subjects trained at two levels (5°, 10°), in four different directions (anterior, posterior, left, right), three times each. TTS outcome indices (stability index, performance time) were measured. [Results] The stability index and performance time showed high correlation (−0.6<r<1). The measurements of the different task levels and directions showed high reliability (0.9<α). [Conclusion] The TTS may be used to evaluate the range of motion and execution capabilities of sitting balance. Additional experiments will be needed to investigate the validity of the TTS measurements.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify postural changes in adults who have adopted the habit of sitting with their legs crossed. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 232 adults in their 20s and 30s (84 males and 148 females). They were divided into 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-hour or more groups by observing how much time per day they sat with their legs crossed while sitting on a chair. We measured the postural alignment of all the subjects in the sagittal plane and coronal plane. In the sagittal plane, distances from the line of gravity to the external auditory meatus, the shoulder joints, the knee joints, and the calcaneocuboid joint were measured. In the coronal plane, the shoulder inclination and the pelvic tilt were measured. [Results] The shoulder joints, the knee joints, and the calcaneocuboid joint did not show any significant differences, but the head was aligned further forward in the 3-hour group compared to the other groups. In the coronal plane, the acromion processes and the anterior superior iliac spines of the 3-hour group showed statistically significant differences than those of all of the other groups. [Conclusion] The results indicate that sitting with the legs crossed for longer than three hours per day may cause shoulder inclination, lateral pelvic tilt and forward head posture.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to estimate the stability of the axillary pad in the axilla during single-crutch walking through kinematic analysis of the crutch position in the horizontal plane. [Subjects] The subjects were 19 healthy young males. [Methods] The subjects were instructed to walk 5 m in a straight line while using a single crutch. This was repeated 10 times. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s honest significance test were used to compare crutch angles across three time points during crutch stance (crutch contact, mid stance and crutch off) for each subject. [Results] A statistically significant effect of time was found in 17 of the 19 subjects. Sixteen of these 17 subjects rotated the crutch externally from crutch contact to crutch off. [Conclusion] External rotation of the crutch throughout the stance phase is important to enable the axillary pad to be held tightly against the chest wall. These results may lead to alterations of the instructions for crutch use and the prevention of falls.
[Purpose] Studies have been using cell cultures of muscle cells to mimic atrophy in in vivo and in vitro tests. However, changes in the activation of atrophy-related PKB/Akt is not fully understood in serum-free starved skeletal muscle cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine the change of PKB/Akt phosphorylation in L6 myoblasts under serum-free starvation conditions. [Methods] We used western blotting to examine PKB/Akt expression and phosphorylation in atrophied L6 myoblasts. [Results] The phosphorylation of PKB/Akt was significantly lower in L6 myoblasts under serum-free starvation than that of the control group. Serum-free starvation for 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours significantly decreased the phosphorylation of PKB/Akt. Furthermore, the decrease of PKB/Akt phosphorylation under serum-free starvation was partially restored by SP600125, an inhibitor of SAPK/JNK. [Conclusion] These results suggest that decrease of PKB/Akt phosphorylation due to serum-free starvation with low glucose is partially related to the activity of SAPK/JNK in L6 myoblasts.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the recovery process of standing postural control in hemiplegia after stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-four inpatients with hemiparesis after first-onset stroke were included in this study. We measured the center of pressure fluctuations during quiet standing using a force platform at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after admission. We assessed weight-bearing asymmetry, and velocity and amplitude of body sway. [Results] Weight-bearing asymmetry diminished in the first 2 weeks of observation. Velocity of body sway also decreased significantly in the first 2 weeks, though its amplitude only decreased significantly after 4 weeks of observation. [Conclusion] Amplitude of body sway requires a longer time for significant improvement than weight-bearing asymmetry and velocity of body sway. Although the loading function of the paretic lower limb improved at an early stage, attainment of optimum postural control, including management of the affected paretic lower limb, requires much time.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the synergistic effect of intensive mobilization techniques combined with capsular distension for patients with adhesive capsulitis (AC). [Subjects] The subjects were 53 patients with AC (mean age, 56.0 ± 7.6 years). [Methods] Patients were randomized to one of four treatment groups: intensive mobilization after one steroid injection with capsular distension (IMSID); intensive mobilization (IM); one steroid injection with capsular distension (SID); and general physical therapy only (GPT). The IMSID, IM, and SID groups also received general physical therapy for 20 minutes. All treatments were performed twice per week for 4 weeks. Patients were assessed using the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), Constant-Murley Shoulder Function Assessment Score (CS), Active Range of Motion (AROM), and Verbal Numeric Score (VNS). [Results] There were significant post-intervention differences in all the measured values in each of the groups, except for external rotation ROM in the SID group. The IMSID group showed the greatest differences among the groups. There were significant differences among the means of all the groups. [Conclusion] The most effective treatment for AC was the combination of the intensive mobilization and steroid injection with capsular distension, which helped to control inflammation, extend joint space, and recover ROM.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week balance exercise and elastic-resistance exercise program on muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly (over the age of 75). [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five elderly persons were recruited from the community and assigned to three groups for convenience: balance exercise (intervention group 1; INT 1), resistance exercise (intervention group 2; INT 2), and control (CON) groups. The intervention was performed twice a week at a senior center and three times a week at home for 8 weeks. Muscle strength and balance were evaluated before and at the end of the trial, using a PowertrackIIand Tetrax. [Results] There were significant improvements in the strength of all seven muscle groups and balance in the INT 2 group. In the INT 1 group, there were significant improvements in the strength of all muscle groups except for the knee flexor and ankle plantar flexor muscle groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an intervention using balance exercises or elastic-resistance exercises is effective at improving the muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly. These type of exercises should be appropriate for the physical characteristics of the subjects.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the lower extremity subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment lower extremity (FMA-LE) for community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects] The participants were 140 community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. [Methods] To determine the psychometric properties of the FMA-LE, we examined construct validity, response characteristics, item discrimination, and internal consistency. [Results] Factor analysis of the FMA-LE revealed that the first factor explained 61.73% of the variance and provided evidence of unidimensionality. The FMA-LE did not show ceiling or floor effects; Cronbach’s α was 0.935 (95% CI: 0.919–0.950). [Conclusion] Because the FMA-LE seems to be both valid and reliable, we conclude that it is appropriate for the measurement of the lower extremity motor impairment of community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study aims to examined the effect of the self-myofascial release induced with a foam roller on the reduction of stress by measuring the serum concentration of cortisol. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were healthy females in their 20s. They were divided into the experimental and control groups. Both groups, each consisting of 12 subjects, were directed to walk for 30 minutes on a treadmill. The control group rested for 30 minutes of rest by lying down, whereas the experimental group was performed a 30 minutes of self-myofascial release program. [Results] Statistically significant levels of cortisol concentration reduction were observed in both the experimental group, which used the foam roller, and the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. [Conclusion] The Self-myofascial release induced with a foam roller did not affect the reduction of stress.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise on the pulmonary functions of patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects] The present study was performed with 34 patients with chronic neck pain featuring thoracic kyphosis; we divided them into a thoracic joint mobilization group (TJMG, n = 11), self-stretching exercise group (SSEG, n = 11), and thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise group (TJMSSEG, n = 12). [Methods] Treatments and exercise were conducted three times a week for six weeks in TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG; the subjects’ pulmonary functions in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured using CardioTouch equipment. [Results] Comparisons of the individuals within each of the TJMG, SSEG, and TJMSSEG showed that all of FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly; Comparisons within each of the showed that FVC, FEV1, and PEF increased significantly. Among the study groups, FVC was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG after six weeks; FEV1 was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after four and six weeks; and PEF was significantly higher in TJMSSEG than in TJMG and SSEG after six weeks. [Conclusion] The study results indicate that thoracic joint mobilization and self-stretching exercise are effective interventions for increasing FVC, FEV1, and PEF among pulmonary functions.
[Purpose] We investigated the effects of shoulder flexion loaded by an elastic tubing band during squat exercises, by assessing electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. [Subjects] In total, 17 healthy males were recruited. [Methods] Participants performed squat exercises with and without shoulder flexion loaded by a tubing band. Gluteal muscle activities during the downward and upward phases of the squat exercises were recorded using a surface electromyography (EMG) system. The mean electromyographic activities of the gluteal muscles during squat exercises with and without loaded shoulder flexion were compared using the paired t-test. [Results] Electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius were greater in both the upward and downward phases of the squat with loaded shoulder flexion. [Conclusions] The combination of squat and loaded shoulder flexion can be an effective exercise for increasing gluteal muscle activity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether forced expiration is correlated with abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Twenty-three healthy male volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] The peak expiratory flow (PEF) was obtained using a peak flow meter with subjects in the sitting position. The thicknesses of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles were measured using B-mode ultrasonography at the end of a relaxed expiration in the supine position. [Results] Among the abdominal muscles, only the thickness of the external oblique muscle displayed a significant correlation with PEF. [Conclusion] It appears that the thickness of the external oblique muscle might be associated with PEF during forced expiration.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to research the association of Type D personality with CVD risk factors and psychology through comparison of the association of exercise participation with CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D. [Subjects] This study included 416 middle-aged women. All participants completed the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14) to assess Type D personality. The DS14 consists of two subscales, NA and SI, both of which comprise 7 items. The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+non-Exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were conducted in parallel for 10 months. Stretching was performed for 10 min as a warm-up, and then walking and running were performed on a treadmill at the HRmax 60–70% level for 40 min; this was done three times a week. Blood samples were processed according to standard laboratory procedures. The concentrations of TG and HDL-cholesterol were determined enzymatically on a clinical chemistry analyzer. Blood glucose was measured by the hexokinase method. [Results] Weight, percent fat, social support, and waist circumference showed a significant difference between times in the Exercise groups, and the values were significantly lower than those of the non-Exercise groups. Anxiety and depression showed a significant interaction effect between groups. The average number of CVD risk factors in subjects showed a significant difference between groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D personality.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of active head rotation on postural control in stroke patients during standing as compared with age-matched healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 46 stroke patients and 37 age-matched healthy subjects were recruited for the study. A stabilometer was used to assess postural stability in participants during standing, with or without active head rotation, and with their eyes open or closed. Subjects were asked to stand on a force plate while rotating their head in the yaw plane at a frequency of 1.0 Hz. A metronome was used to maintain the head rotation frequency, and the head rotation range was maintained at a total of 70° during the postural stability examinations. [Results] The control of postural stability during standing with active head rotation was significantly decreased in the stroke group as compared with the healthy group with both the eyes open and closed. No significant differences in relation to standing without head motion were observed between groups. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that postural instability is increased in stroke patients during active head rotation, and therefore, vestibular function in relation to head rotation might be reduced in stroke patients.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soft tissue mobilization and PNF on pain level, and shoulder ROM in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with painful and limited glenohumeral ROM activities were selected. The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=15), which received treatment consisting of soft tissues mobilization and the PNF technique. The control group received an ultrasound treatment. Pain level, glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach were measured before and after the intervention in groups. [Results] The experimental group showed a significant reduction in pain level in comparison with the control group. The values for Shoulder external rotation showed a significant improvement. The mean value for overhead reach in the experimental group significantly increased. [Conclusion] The combination of soft tissue mobilization for the subscapularis for 7 minutes and 5 repetitions of the contract-relax PNF technique for the shoulder internal rotator muscles followed by 5 repetitions of a PNF facilitated abduction and external rotation diagonal pattern was found to be effective in reducing pain and improving glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach during a single intervention session.
[Purpose] This study compared the orbicularis oculi muscle activity during computer work with single and dual monitors. [Subjects] Ten computer workers 22–27 years of age were included in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed computer work with single or dual monitors, and the activity of the right orbicularis oculi muscle was measured with a MP150 system. [Results] The muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi under condition 1 was significantly decreased compared with that under conditions 2 or 3. The muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi under condition 3 was significantly increased compared with that under condition 2. [Conclusion] The present study found that the use of dual monitors increased orbicularis oculi activity; therefore, to decrease eye fatigue in computer users, computer workstations that use either a single monitor, or identical monitors from the same manufacturer in a dual setup, are recommended.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether Nordic walking exercise can relieve low back pain and change the spine shape in elderly women. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly women with chronic low back pain from N University in Chungcheong-do, South Korea, were enrolled. [Methods] The participants were asked to walk in an upright posture, with the head upright and looking forward. The Nordic poles were held close to the body. When a foot was moved forward, the arm on the other side lifted the Nordic pole and moved it forward. The participants were using the Nordic pole when walked on the track with their arms lifted above their shoulders. The type of shoes worn during walking was not considered. [Results] One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the presence of significant differences between the measures of spine deformation and VAS. [Conclusion] Chronic low back pain, a complaint often received from elderly women, was reduced by pole-induced power walking reduction on the balance of the spine and back of this important exercise program is presented as a guideline.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation after returning to competition and psychological and behavioral variables during the rehabilitation period. [Subjects] Athletes (N =113) that had experienced an injury (mean age = 20.22 years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks after stopping sports = 7.98 weeks, SD = 11.74) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to respond to the athletic injury version of the Temporal Perspective Scale (TP-S), existing scales including the DDF-S, AIPA-S, and ARD-S, and the outcome indices for rehabilitation. [Results] The results of a cluster analysis indicated three modalities of temporal perspective (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative sequences). The results of an analysis of variance showed that the positive chain modality was adaptive for future dominance. The subjects in this group demonstrated higher levels of acceptance of injuries during the rehabilitation period than the other groups, devotion to rehabilitation, and awareness of the recovery in competitive performance and a feeling of personal growth. [Conclusion] The level of acceptance of injury during the rehabilitation period, as well as the devotion to rehabilitation, influenced adaptation after returning to competition.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to confirm whether consistent aerobic exercise has an effect on the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio or reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants included 32 obese women between the ages of 40 and 49. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n = 16 in each group): the control group and the exercise group. The exercise program in this study corresponded to an intensity of 50 to 60% of the maximum volume of minute oxygen consumption and was performed three times per week over 12 weeks. Physical measurements, measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure, and blood collection were done before and after the 12 weeks of exercise at the same time and under the same conditions. [Results] Based on the results of this study, there were significant interaction effects in both time and group weight, for body mass index, percent body fat, maximum volume of minute oxygen consumption, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio. Moreover, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and the atherogenic index decreased significantly after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise effectively improved cardiovascular risk factors and decreased the obesity index in obese women.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in function and balance after Kinesio Taping application in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group and control group. The experimental group was applied taping before therapeutic exercise, and the control group received only therapeutic exercise. Functional gait was measured using the straight line walking test, and dynamic balance ability was measured using the Berg Balance Scale. Walking velocity was measured with the 10 m walking test. [Results] There were statistically significant differences between the results of the straight line walking and 10 m walking tests in the pre-post analysis for the experimental group. There were a statistically significant difference in the Berg Balance Scale and 10 m walking test between the two groups. [Conclusion] Application of taping to the paralyzed parts of a stroke patient has a positive effect on improvement of typical asymmetric gait and walking speed.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of stair gait exercise on the static balance ability of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The thirty stroke patients who participated in this experiment were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=15) or control (n=15) group. The experimental group performed stair gait exercise for 30 minutes, while the control group performed flat surface gait exercise for 30 minutes. The programs lasted four weeks, with both groups performing the exercises three times per week for 30 minutes each time. The stability balance ability of subjects was measured and compared before and after the interventions. [Results] The results of the experimental group showed a significantly different values, but those of the control group did not. Between-group comparison of changes in the anterior/posterior length in the limit of stability revealed significant increases in the experimental group but no significant increase in the control group. Only the surface area ellipse of Romberg, the length of Romberg, and length/area of Romberg showed significant differences between the two groups after the interventions. [Conclusion] The static balance ability improved in the group that performed the stair gait exercise. This study provides important data for identifying the recovery of balance ability through rehabilitation exercises in patients with nervous system diseases.
[Purpose] Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, affecting 0.1% of the general population. To date, few studies have investigated the efficacy of physical therapy for SLE patients with CNS involvement. The aim of this study was to report whether the combined use of corticosteroids and physical therapy, consisting of reflex inhibition and functional training, was beneficial to functional recovery. [Subjects and Methods] A 22-year-old male SLE patient with CNS involvement requested physical therapy due to strong spasticity of the trunk and limbs in a bedridden state. Corticosteroid intervention and physical therapy were undertaken for 16 days. [Result] After 16 days of the interventions, the patient demonstrated stabilized and alleviated neurological symptoms and an improved functional level. [Conclusion] The present case indicates that physical therapy combined with corticosteroids might be a possible treatment and rehabilitation method to effectively recover motor function for SLE patients who have strong spasticity due to CNS involvement.